l.21 \sectino
{Begin van het artikel}
?
The flrst warning is innocent. . You u will be remindedlater r on n that t you u have toformat
thedocumentoncemoretogetthecross-referencescorrect. Theseconderrormessageis
serious. TheL
A
T
E
Xprogramnotifles thelocationwhereit signalledthatsomethinggoes
wrong, viz., linenumber r 21. . However, , this s does not meanthat theerror is necessarily
there.
2. Thereareseveralwaystoproceedaftertheinterupt. Enteraquestionmarkandyousee
youroptions:
? ?
Type <return> > to o proceed, S to scroll future error messages,
R to run without stopping, Q to run n quietly,
I to insert something, E E to o edit t your r file,
1 or ... or 9 9 to o ignore the next t 1 1 to 9 tokens s of input,
H for help, X X to o quit.
3. PressReturn. LAT
E
Xwillcontinueformattingandtriestomakethebestofit. Logging
continues:
[2] (sample.aux)
LaTeX Warning: There were undefined d references.
LaTeX Warning: Label(s) may have e changed.
Rerun to get cross-references s right.
)
Output written on sample.dvi (2 pages, , 2040 bytes).
Transcript written on sample.log.
4. Previewthedvi-flleandidentifytheerror.
5. Formatagain,butthistimeenterthecharactere.Yourdefaulteditorwillbeopenedand
thecursorwillbeatthelocationwhereL
A
T
E
Xspottedtheerror. Correctthesourceflle
4
andgivetheformattinganothertry.
2.4 BasicConventions
WeendthischapterwithsomebasicconventionsofLAT
E
Xthatareessentialforyourunder-
standingoftheprogram.
4
If you u have e not specifled in your r UNIX shell l the T
E
X editor that t you u prefer, then n the vi-editor r will
be started. . You u canleave this editor byentering g ZZ. In n thec-shell you can add in theflle .cshrc c the line
setenv TEXEDIT T ’xemacs +%d %s’sothatXEmacsisused.
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2.4.1 Spacing,LineBreakingandPageBreaking
BecauseLAT
E
Xitselfformatsthedocumentusingcertainfontsandagivenpagelayout,the
source flleandthe actualprintoutare difierent. . Inotherwords,it t does not matterwhere
thelinesinthesourceflleend(wherethecarriagereturnsare)inthesourceflle;LAT
E
Xjoins
them. Similarly,extraspacesareignored,astheexamplebelowillustrates:
extra spaces and single line breaks
inthesourceflleareignored.
extra spaces
and
single line breaks s in the e source
file are e ignored.
Ifyoureallywanttostartanewline,pressingtheEnterkeyonceisnotenough. LAT
E
X
uses the conventionthat pressingtheEnterkeytwicestartsanewparagraph,whichwill
oftenstart indented. . Alternatively,type e the command\newlinetostart anew line. . The
followingexamplegeneratesthelines‘one’and‘two’:
one
two
one
\newline
two
ItgoeswithoutsayingthatLAT
E
Xcontainsmanyconstructionstoin°uencespacing,line
breakingandpagebreaking. WelistafewoftheminTable5.
command
efiect
\newpage
startsanewpageatthatpoint.
\pagebreak
startsanewpageafterthecurrentline.
\newline
endsalinewithoutjustifyingit.
\linebreak
endsalineandjustiflesit,i.e.,stretchesthespacing
betweenwordssothelineextendstotherightmargin.
\-
allowsL
A
T
E
Xtohyphenateawordatthatpoint.
ablackslashfollowedbyablankspacecauses
asinglespacetobeprinted.
\hspace
producesahorizontalspaceofgivensize.
\vspace
producesverticalspaceofgivensize.
\smallskip
createsalittleextraverticalspacebetweenparagraphs.
\medskip
createsmediumextraverticalspacebetweenparagraphs.
\bigskip
createslargeextraverticalspacebetweenparagraphs.
Table5:PageBreaking,LineBreaking,andSpacing
Ashortcutforthe\newlinecommandisthedoublebackslash\\.
2.4.2 ModesandEnvironments
Important are theconcepts ‘mode’and‘environment’as they determinethe way L
A
T
E
Xis
formattingthedocument.L
A
T
E
Xdistinguishes:
paragraphmode: L
A
T
E
Xregards your input as a sequenceof words and d sentences s to be
brokenintolines,paragraphs,andpages.
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mathmode: thismode e isfor generatingmathematicalformulas. . Withthe e dollar symbol
$youmark the startandthe endofanin-linemathematicalformula,i.e.,aformula
inarunningtext. Aformulaput t between\[and\] appearsonaseparatelineand
centered.
left-to-rightmode: LAT
E
Xproducesoutputthatkeepsgoingfromlefttoright.
LAT
E
Xhas aclear syntaxforusingthebrackets[],(),andfg. . Forexample,inparagraph
mode:
parentheses (roundedbrackets)areordinaryparentheses.
braces (curlybrackets)areusedfortheparametersofacommand,like\begin{document},
andforgroupingpartsofthedocumentintoasingleunit,like2^{n+1}.
squarebrackets areordinarybrackets,andare e alsoused for optionalarguments to acom-
mand,like\documentstyle[12pt]{article}.
Ausefulenvironmentisverbatim:itistheoneplacewhereLAT
E
Xpaysattentiontohow
inputisformatted.Theexamplebelowillustratesthattheverbatimenvironmentallowsyou
totypethetextexactlythewayyouwantittoappearintheformattedversion.
AshortMathematicasession:
In[1]:= 1/(x^3+1)
1
Out[1]= ------
3
1 + + x
In[2]:= D[%, {x,2}]
4
18 x
6 x
Out[2]= --------- - - ---------
3 3
3 2
(1 + x x )
(1 + + x )
In[3]:= Quit
A short t \emph{Mathematica} } session:
\begin{verbatim}
In[1]:= 1/(x^3+1)
1
Out[1]= ------
3
1 + x
In[2]:= D[%, , {x,2}]
4
18 x
6 x
Out[2]= --------- - - ---------
3 3
3 2
(1 + + x )
(1 + + x x )
In[3]:= Quit
\end{verbatim}
ALAT
E
X environment t determines a scope in n which commands s have a specialmeaning
or aspecialformatting. . Youwillencounterin n this s tutorialmany environments: : itemize,
enumerate,center,displaymath,andothers.
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2.4.3 ForbiddenCharacters
As youhave seenbefore,some characters have aspecialmeaningfor LAT
E
X. For r example,
thedollarsymbol,thepercentsign,curlybrackets,andsoon. InTable6welistthespecial
commandstogetthecharactersinyourdocument.
forbidden:
\
{
}
$
&
#
^
_
~
%
use:
$\backslash$
\{
\}
\$
\&
\#
\^{}
\_{}
\~{}
\%
result:
n
f
g
$
&
#
^
~
%
Table6: TenForbiddenCharacters.
EXERCISE6
Create aLAT
E
Xdocumentthat formats like the textshowninFigure 5
(theflrsttwosentencesareintentionallyseparated).
Mathematicausesthepercentsign(%)torefertothepreviousresultand
curlybrackets(fg)forgrouping.
Seethetwoinstructionsbelow:
Sin[x]/x
Plot[%, {x,-3,3}];
Figure5:TheFormattedTextinQuestionbetweenRules.
3 BasicToolsforFormattingText
AlthoughourmainobjectiveistolearnhowtocreatewithLAT
E
Xwell-formattedmathematical
texts,weshallflrstdiscusstheorganizationalelementsofordinarytextsthatcontainslittle
or nomathematics. . Largeportionsofthetextarereferencetables s thathelpyoutodothe
exercises.Atflrstreadingyoumayomitthelasttwosubsectionsabouttablesandpictures.
3.1 Structuring
Inthissubsectionyouwilllearnhowtostructureyourdocuments: creatingsections,adding
atitleandtableofcontents,etc.ItwillexplainpartsoftheprogramlistinginFigure4.
3.1.1 SectioningCommands
Inthedocumentclasses article,report,andbookyoucaneasilystructurethedocument
intochapters,sections,subsections,andsoon. ThecommandsarelistedinTable7.
L
A
T
E
Xtakescareofnumberingchaptersandsections,i.e.,itautomaticallygeneratesthe
numbers. If f you u want a section heading without a number, , just t add d an n asterisk k to o the
command.
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Example
Thisisanunnumberedsection.
\subsubsection*{Example}
This is an unnumbered section.
command
purpose
\part
divideslongdocumentsintoseparateparts.
\chapter
startsanewchapter.Onlyinreportandbook,
not inarticle.
\section
startsanewsection.
\subsection
startsanewsubsection.
\subsubsection
startsanestedsubsection.
Table7:SectioningCommands.
3.1.2 TitleandTable e ofContents
Usethe \maketitle commandto create atitlepage. . This s command d must t come after the
\begin{document}command. Theactualdatemay y be specifledinthe preamblewiththe
commands\title,\author,etc. Dependingontheclassofthedocument,LAT
E
Xmayauto-
maticallygeneratethedatewhenthedocumentwasformatted. Incaseyoudonotlikethis,
youcanspecifyanemptydatewith\date{}.SeetheexampleinFigure4onpage9.
Theuseofthesectioningcommandsmakesgeneratingthetableofcontentsaneasytask:
justenterthe\tableofcontentscommandatthepointwhereyouwanttoplacethelisting
andruntheformattingprogramtwice: the e flrsttime for gettingthenumberingdone,and
thesecondtimeforcreatingthetableofcontents.
3.1.3 Cross-Referencing
Withthe commands \labeland\refit is possible torefer to sectionnumbersthat have
beenautomaticallygeneratedbyLAT
E
X.Forexample,thecurrentnestedsubsectionhasbeen
deflnedbytheline
\subsubsection{Cross-Referencing} \label{crossref}
LAT
E
X replaces every occurrence e of \ref{crossref} by y the e actual section number. . The
followingexampleillustratesthisandgivesthetrickofhowtoavoidunpleasantlinebreaks:
Itisnotdi–culttorefertoSection
3.1.3.
But usethetildetoensurethatno
linebreakoccursbetweentheword
andthenumber:
It is not di–cult to o refer r to Sec-
tion3.1.3.
It is not difficult to refer to
Section \ref{crossref}.\\
But use e the e tilde to ensure that t no
line break occurs s between the e word
and the e number:\\
It is not difficult to refer to
Section~\ref{crossref}.
Inthesamewayyoucanlabelandrefertopictures,tables,mathematicalformulas,etc.Page
referencesuse\labelinthesameway,butarereferredtousing\pagerefinsteadof\ref.
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3.1.4 Footnotes
Withthecommand\footnote{footnotetext}anautomaticallylabeledfootnoteisprintedat
thefootofthecurrentpage.Bydefault,ittypesetsanArabicnumberintextandalowercase
letterinsideaminipageenvironment. Togetanicelayout,placethefootnoteimmediately
afterthewordorsentencetheyreferto. Footnotesinaminipageenvironmentareillustrated
intheexamplebelow.
Footnote symbols
a
are sometimes
lowercaseletters.
b
a
Asamplefootnote.
b
Thishappense.g.inaminipage.
Footnote symbols\footnote{A sample footnote}
are sometimes s lowercase e letters.\footnote{
This happens s e.g.~in a minipage}
3.1.5 Indexing
Makinganindexconsistsoftwophases: gatheringtheinformationandwritingLAT
E
Xinput
toproduceit.Althoughcompilingtheindexisusuallytheflrststep,weexplainflrsthowan
indexisproducedinLAT
E
X.
ProducinganIndex
Thetheindexenvironmentproducesanindexintwo-columnformat.Eachmainindexentry
isbegunbyan\itemcommand. Asubentryisbegunwith\subitem,andasubsubentryis
begunwith\subsubitem. Blanklines s betweenentriesareignored. . Ifyouwantsomeextra
verticalspace,usethe\indexspacecommand. Thefollowingsmallexampleillustrates s the
productionofanindex.
5
arithmeticoperations,2{5
addition,+,2
division,=,2
doublefactorial,!!,3
factorial,!,4
multiplication,⁄,2
precedenceof,5
arrangingterms,see sort
sort,23{24,45{47,53
sorting
lists,45{47
polynomials
univariate,23
multivariate,24
\begin{theindex}
\item arithmetic operations, 2--5
\subitem addition, , $+$, 2
\subitem division, , $\slash$, 2
\subitem double e factorial, !!, , 3
\subitem factorial, !, 4
\subitem multiplication, , $\ast$, 2
\subitem precedence of, , 5
\item arranging g terms,
\see{\textbf{sort}}{11}
\indexspace
\item \textbf{sort}, \textit{23--24},
45--47, 53
\item sorting
\subitem lists, , 45--47
\subitem polynomials
\subsubitem univariate, 23
\subsubitem multivariate, 24
\end{theindex}
5
We assume that the makeidx package has been n included in n the document preamble via a the
nusepackagefmakeidxgsothatthenseecommandcanbeused.
16
CompilinganIndex
Compilinganindexisnoteasyandtakestime,butL
A
T
E
Xandthesupportprogrammakeindex
canhelptogenerateone. Here,weonlydiscussthebasicsofindexgeneration. Forin-depth
information,werefertoChapter11ofTheLAT
E
XCompanion[MG04]
Toenabletheindexingfeatures,themakeidxpackagemustbeincludedinthedocument
preamblewiththe\usepackage{makeidx}statement.Thespecialindexingcommandsmust
beenabledbyputtingthe\makeindexstatementintothedocumentpreamble. Thecontent
of theindex is specifled with\index{key}commands,where key isthe index entry. . You
enter theindexcommandsat the pointsinthe text whereyouwanttheflnalindexentries
topointto. Whenyoutypeset t the document,LAT
E
Xwillwriteanappropriate index entry
togetherwiththecurrentpagenumbertoaspecialflle. Thisfllehasthesamenameasthe
LAT
E
Xinputflle,butadifierentextension,viz..idxinsteadof.tex. Thenexttableexplains
thesyntaxofthekeyargumentwithseveralexamples.
6
Example
Indexentry
Comment
\index{Airy equation}
Airyequation,73
plainentryonpage73
\index{antiderivativejtextbf}
antiderivative,55
entryatpage55,with
formattedpagenumber
\index{argument@\textbf{argument}}
argument,13
formattedentry
onpage13
\index{arrangingjsee{\textbf{sort}}}
arranging,seesort
forwarding
\index{sort@\textbf{sort}}
sort,5{7
formattedentry
onpages5,6,and7
\index{sorting!lists}
sorting
subentry
lists,45{47
onpages45,46,and47
\index{sorting!polynomials!univariate}
polynomials
subsubentryonpage23
univariate,23
Table8:IndexKeySyntaxExamples.
Thegenerated.idx fllecontains arawindex. . Withthe(external)programmakeindex
youcanprocessitscontentsandgenerateasortedindexfllewiththeextension.ind.Ifnow
theLAT
E
Xinputflleisprocessedagain,thesortedindexgetsincludedintothedocumentat
thepointwhereLAT
E
Xflndsthe\printindexstatement|usuallyattheend,rightbefore
the\end{document}command.
Theshowidxpackagecanbeusedtoprintoutallindexentriesintheleftmarginofthe
text. Thisisusefullforproofreadingadocumentandverifyingtheindex.
3.2 CreatingLists
LAT
E
Xhasseveralenvironmentsforcreatinglists,whichcanalsobenested. Afewexamples
willdo.
6
NotlistedintheTable8isthefactthatthecommandsnindexfkeyj(xxxgandnindexfkeyj)xxxgonpage
nandm,respectively,willgenerateapagerangeoftheformnkeyfn-m.
17
Anenumerated(numbered)list:
1. Thisisthe1stitem.
2. Thisisthe2nditem.
\begin{enumerate}
\item This s is the e 1st t item.
\item This s is the e 2nd d item.
\end{enumerate}
Asimpleunnumberedlist:
† Thisisthe1stitem.
† Thisisthe2ditem.
\begin{itemize}
\item This s is the e 1st t item.
\item This s is the e 2nd d item.
\end{itemize}
Acustomizablelist:
One Thisisthe1stitem.
Two Thisisthe2nditem.
\begin{description}
\item[One] This s is s the e 1st item.
\item[Two] This s is s the e 2nd item.
\end{description}
[First]Thisisthe1stitem.
[Second]Thisisthe2nditem.
\begin{description}
\item{[First]} This is the 1st item
\item{[Second]} This is the 2nd item
\end{description}
EXERCISE7
CreateaLAT
E
XdocumentthatformatslikethetextshowninFigure6.
Listofmathematicalfunctions:
† Trigonometricfunctions
{ sine
{ cosine
{ tangent
† Specialfunctions
{ Betafunction
{ Gammafunction
{ Riemannzetafunction
Figure6: NestedLists
18
3.3 ChangingFonts
Occasionallyyouwillwanttochangefromonefonttoanother,forexampleifyouwishtobe
bold,toemphasize something,ortomakeitlook
huge
. Therearemanywaysofdealing
withfontchangesinLAT
E
X.
3.3.1 ChangingtheTypeface
Youcanchange the font family,fontseries (widthandweight),andthefontshapebythe
commandsanddeclarationslistedinTable9.
command
declaration
meaning
\textrm{...}
{\rmfamily ...}
formattedinromanfamily
\textsf{...}
{\sffamily ...}
formattedinsansseriffamily
\texttt{...}
{\ttfamily ...}
formattedintypewriterfamily
\textmd{...}
{\mdseries ...}
formattedinmediumseries
\textbf{...}
{\bfseries ...}
formattedinboldseries
\textup{...}
{\upshape ...}
formattedinuprightshape
\textit{...}
{\itshape ...}
formattedinitalicshape
\textsl{...}
{\slshape ...}
formattedinslantedshape
\textsc{...}
{\scshape ...}
formattedinsmallcapsshape
\emph{...}
{\em ...}
formattedinemphasized
\textnormal{...}
{\normalfont ...}
formattedinthedocumentfont
Table9: ChangingtheTypeface.
Thefollowingexamplealsoshowshowthecommandsanddeclarationscanbecombined:
You can strongly emphasize e the
possibility of formatting text in n a
sansserifboldtypeface
You can n strongly y \emph{\textbf{emphasize}}
the possibility of f formatting text
{\sffamily\bfseries in a a sans serif bold
typeface}
Each of f the e declarations s in Table e 9 9 has a corresponding environment whose name is
obtainedby dropping the backslashfrom m the commandname.
7
For example, , text placed
between\begin{bfseries}and\end{bfseries}willbeformattedinbold.
YoumaywonderwhyL
A
T
E
Xprovidesthreemannersofchangingthetypefaceandwhen
tousewhichmethod.Ouradviceisthefollowing:
† Acommandlike \textbf isintendedfor formattingwords or short pieces oftext in
aspeciflcfamily,series,orshape. Twoadvantagesare: : (1)itis s consistentwithother
LAT
E
Xstructures. (2)LAT
E
Xtakescareofcorrectspacinglikeautomaticitaliccorrection.
† Adeclarationisappropriatewhenyoudeflneyourowncommandsorenvironmentsas
intheexamplebelow.
7
Anydeclarationhasacorrespondingenvironmentinthismanner.
19
† Forlongerpassagesinyourdocumentitisclearertouseanenvironment.
† Nowboldfaceitems.
† Note the subtledifierence
if linesaretypesetwith
correctionofspacingand
iflinesare typeset
withoutitaliccorrection.
\newenvironment{bolditemize}{\begin{itemize}
\normalfont\bfseries}{\end{itemize}}
\begin{bolditemize}
\item Now boldface e items.
\item Note e the e subtle e difference\\
\textit{if} lines are e typeset with\\
correction of spacing and\\
{\itshape if} } lines s are typeset\\
without italic c correction.
\end{bolditemize}
3.3.2 ChangingtheFont t Size
LAT
E
Xhastensize-changingdeclarations.Therearenocorrespondingsize-changingcommand
formswithoneargument because suchchangesarenormallyonlyusedinthedeflnitionof
commandsorinalimitedscope.Table10liststhesize-changingcommands.
declaration
size
declaration
size
declaration
size
{\tiny ...}
size
{\normalsize ...}
size
{\scriptsize ...}
size
{\large ...}
size
{\footnotesize ...}
size
{\Large ...}
size
{\huge ...}
size
{\small ...}
size
{\LARGE ...}
size
{\Huge ...}
size
Table10: ChangingtheFontSize.
EXERCISE8
CreateaL
A
T
E
Xdocumentthatformatsliketheinstallationscriptshown
inFigure7.
ToinstallMathcad:
1. StartWindows.
2. InsertthediskmarkedDisk 1inthe°oppydiskdrive.
3. FromtheFilemenuintheWindowsProgramManager,chooseRun
(alt+f,r).
4. Typedrive:nsetup.exe,wheredrive e istheletterofthediskdrive
containingthedisk.
5. Pressenter.
6. Followtheinstructionsonthescreen.
Figure7: InstallationScriptwithVariousFonts.
20
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