.net c# pdf viewer : Combine pdf online control application platform web page azure wpf web browser LaTeX_Tutorial0-part414

L
A
T
E
XTutorial
WilliamHicklin
Abstract
This tutorial will go o through the e steps s required d to start t writing g scientic
reportswithL
A
T
E
Xandgetyouonyourwaytoalifefreeoftypesettinghassles.
L
A
T
E
Xis a a scripting language e specically y designed d for mathematicians s and
scientiststowritescienticarticlesandreports. This s tutorialwillillustrate
whatis neededtostartwritingwithL
A
T
E
X,givesanoverviewofhowL
A
T
E
X
worksandsomeusefulcommandstogetyoustated.
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Contents
1 Introduction
3
2 InstallingaL
A
T
E
Xeditor
3
3 WritingyourrstL
A
T
E
Xdocument
3
4 UsefulCommands
5
4.1 Equations s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2 Figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.3 Referencing g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5 FurtherReading
8
A Pagelayout
10
B Sub-equations
10
C Sub-gures
10
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1 Introduction
T
E
XwasdevelopedbyDonaldKnuthin1978[1]tohelpscientistspublishpapers
inastandardformatwithouthavingtoworryaboutformatting,typesetting,align-
ments,references,etc.L
A
T
E
Xisascriptinglanguage,thismeansthatyouwillwrite
inascriptandthenexecuteittogeneratea.pdfle. Thishasseveraladvantages
including;lowcomputationrequirements,platformindependent,horizontalandver-
ticalalignment,smart automatic  oat (image, , table, equation, etc.) ) placements,
automaticnumbering,easycross-referencingandmore.
BeingascriptinglanguageonewillhavetoinformL
A
T
E
Xaboutanyformattingby
writing commands such as \section{name}. . This s might t seem to be more com-
plicated but it is easier than using a user interface. . By y writing g such commands
alltypesettingformatswillbeimpliedaccordingtoinitialsettings. Moreofthese
commandswillbeexplainedinsection4.
2 InstallingaL
A
T
E
Xeditor
BeforewritinginL
A
T
E
Xone has toinstalltherequired libraries for thecomputer
to understandthe scripts. . If f you arerunningon aMac or windows system this
is accomplished by installing MiKT
E
X
1
, if you’re e running a Linux system this is
probably alreadyinstalled. . AfterinstallingMiKT
E
Xyouwillnowneedto install
a suitable e L
A
T
E
X editor (a a shell l program) ) to o write the e L
A
T
E
X scripts. . The e shell
programIwillbeusingforthistutorialisTeXMaker,thisisanopen-sourcecross-
platformeditor.OtherT
E
XeditorslikeTeXmacsandTeXshop,formacintosh,exist.
TeXMakercanbefreelydownloaded
2
andinstalledforanyoperatingsystem.
3 WritingyourrstL
A
T
E
Xdocument
 AL
A
T
E
Xdocumentiswrittenina.texle,whichissimilartoa.txtle.
 InTeXMakeranew.texlecanbecreatedusingctrl+norfromtabFile>
New.
 Atthebeginning ofa L
A
T
E
Xdocumentonehas tosetcertaindocumentpa-
rameterslikefontsize,documentclass,papersize,pagelayout,etc. This s is
calledthepreamble.
 In TeXMaker r this s list of initialcommands s can n be easily createdusing the
Wizard tab. . Figure1 1 shows thewizardwindowwhereyoucanspecify the
1
http://miktex.org/2.8/setup
2
http://www.xm1math.net/texmaker/download.html
3
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documentclass,fontsize,author,title,etc. Thiswillgeneratethepreamble
andthecommands\begin{document}&\end{document}.
 Anythingbetweena\begin{}&\end{}iscalledanenvironmentandwithin
thedocumentenvironmentyoucanstartwritingyourdocument.
 Writinganewdocumentwillnormallystartbythetitlepagewhichiseasily
createdby writing \maketitle inthedocument environment. . Toviewthe
eectofthiscommandwehavetoexecutethescriptandgenerateapdfle.
Todothis,clickonthedropdownmenuaftertherstbluearrow(Figure2(a))
andchoosePDFLaTeX,clickingonthebluearrowwillnowexecutethescript
andgeneratethepdf.Toviewthepdfdocumentclickonthedropdownmenu
afterthesecondbluearrow(Figure2(b))andchooseViewPDF,clickingon
thesecondbluearrowwillopenthegeneratedpdfwiththedefaultpdfviewer.
 If you continue to writeinyour .tex le you can view w the e changes in the
pdfbyclickingontherstarrow(orpressingF6)andviewingthepdfagain.
RunningPDFLaTeXwilloverwritethelastpdf.
Figure1: Thisgureshowsthewindowgeneratedwhenclickingthewizardtab
(a) Firstbluearrow
(b)Secondarrow
Figure2: Settingsforthebluearrows
 Whilewritingyourdocumentyouwillneedtocreatesectionsandsubsections
whichhaveadierenttypesettingthentherestofthetext. Thisisdoneby
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simply writing \section{SectionName}. . This s commandwillautomatically
numberandwritethesectiontitleintheappropriateformataccordingtothe
documentclassandfontsizespeciedinthepreamble.
 Similarlyonecanalsocreatesubsections(\subsection{})andsubsubsections
(\subsubsection{}).
 Whenwritingadocument,paragraphsmaybeeitherseparatedbyaline,and
noindentation,orjustbyindentation. Tospecifythepreferredmethod,one
mustaddthecommands\parindent 0pt&\parskip p 2exinthepreamble,
thereforebeforethe\begin{document}. Theseparticularsettingswillcreate
alineseparateddocument.
Thecommandsdiscusseduntilnowwillhelpyoucreateaneatlystructureddocu-
ment.Thenextsectionwillshowsomeotherusefulcommandforinsertingequations,
gures,tables,referencesandcross-references.
4 UsefulCommands
L
A
T
E
Xhas beenaround for quitesome timeanda lot ofpeople haverealisedits
potentialtomakereportwritingmucheasier. Sincethelanguageisopen-source,a
lotofpeoplehavewrittendierent packages tosolve dierentproblems. . Mostof
thesepackageswhereinstalledduringtheMikT
E
Xinstallation. Toavoidcon icts
onehastospecify whichpackages aregoingto beusedinthe document. . This s is
doneby addingthe command\usepackage{Name} withthepackage nameinthe
preamble.
4.1 Equations
TowriteequationsanduseGreeklettersnopackagesarerequiredsincethisisthe
mainpurposeofL
A
T
E
X. However,Greeklettersmustbewritteninsideanequation
environment.BelowareexamplesofthedierentequationenvironmentsinL
A
T
E
X.
1. Newline+numbered[2]
\begin{equation}
\int_0^{\infty} e^{-\rho} } \rho^{2l}\left[ L_{n+l}^{2l+1} } \left(\rho
\right) \right]^2 \rho^2 d\rho = \frac{2n \left[\left(n+l\right)!
\right]^3}{(n-l-1)!}
\end{equation}
Z
1
0
e
2l
L
2l+1
n+l
()
2
2
d=
2n[(n+l)!]
3
(n l 1)!
(1)
5
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2. Newline[3]
\[
\bar{N}_j^g = \frac{\sum\limits_{k} N_{jk} } W_k}{\sum\limits_{K} } W_k}
\]
N
g
j
=
P
k
N
jk
W
k
P
K
W
k
3. In-line
Velocity ($\vec{v} = = \dot{x} } = \frac{\partial l x}{\partial l t}$) is ...
Velocity(~v=x_=
@x
@t
)is...
Therstenvironmentwritestheequationonanewlineandnumeratesit,thesecond
environmentwritestheequationonanewlineandthethirdenvironmentwritesthe
equationin-line. So o towriteGreek letters in-line one has towrite$\psi$ which
gives .
4.2 Figures
Toincludeguresinadocumentthepackagegraphicx isrequired,sothecommand
\usepackage{graphicx}mustbewritteninthepreamble.Toaddagureonecan
writethefollowingcommands.
\begin{figure}[h!] % between [] ] you u put options s e.g. ht t = = here top
\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{directory/to/file.png}
\caption{This figure shows s a a plot of f $\psi^2$ $ vs. $x$}
\label{Cross-reference_key}
\end{figure}
The gure e environment t informs L
A
T
E
X that the  oat t is s a gure and is therefore
numberedaccordingly. Onecanalsouseatableenvironment(\begin{table})for
insertingtablesaspictures. \includegraphics[]{} } isthecommandthatresizes,
transformsandpositions theimage. . Thereareseveralways s ofresizinganimage
(width,heightorscale),theparticularcommandwidth=0.5\textwidthresizesthe
imageto50%ofthetextwidth. Thecommand\label{Cross-reference_key}
labels the gure usingthekey writtenbetween {}. . This s can beusedtoreferto
thegurenumberbysimplywriting\ref{Cross-reference_key}anywhereinthe
document. It t makes it t easier r to refer to the gure and the number will l change
automaticallyasthegurenumberchanges.
[h!]isanoptionofthegureenvironment. ThistellsL
A
T
E
Xtoputthisimagein
thenextavailablespace.Thereforeiftheimagedoesnottwhereitwaswrittenin
the.tex,L
A
T
E
Xwillmovethe oattothenextpageandshiftsometextontopof
ittominimiseemptyspaces.
6
4.3 Referencing
Referencingisusuallyaverystrenuousandtimeconsumingprocedurewhichismade
mucheasierinL
A
T
E
X.Citationsarecreatedfroma.biblecontaininginformation
regardingthecitationmateriale.x. title,journal,volume,issue,pages,etc. This
information must be written inside e the e .bib b le e in a particular r format so that
L
A
T
E
Xcandrawinformationasrequiredfromtheparticularcitationstyle.Belowis
anexampleofhowtoaddinformationaboutapaperinajournal. InTeXMaker
thesecommandscanbegeneratedfromtheBibliographytab.
@Article{CiteKey,
author = = {},
title = = {},
journal = {},
year = = {},
volume = = {},
number = = {},
pages = = {},
month = = {}
}
After entering the required d information, , the e material l can be cited by using the
customcitationkey(CiteKey)inthecommand\cite{CiteKey}. Togeneratethe
referencesonemustrstaddthefollowingcommandswherethereferencesectionis
goingtobeplaced.
\bibliographystyle{}% Select t the e citation style e.g. ieeetr
\bibliography{}% write the directory to o the .bib file
Nowtogeneratethecitationrstclickonthedropdownmenuinfrontoftherst
bluearrowandchooseBibtex (orjustpressF11),runittwicethenrunPDFLaTeX
twice. This s will print a a references s section n with the e citations s referred to o in n the
document,numberedaccordingtooccurrence.
Thisprocedurecanbemadeevensimplerbyeitherusingthejournalwebsiteobtain
the.bib code orby usingpaper managingprograms,suchasMendely
3
. These
programswillautomaticallyreadoinformationfromproperpdfformattedpapers,
reducingthe needformanualinput ofdata,andcanoutput theinformationina
.bibledirectly.
3http://www.mendeley.com/
7
5 FurtherReading
Inthistutorial,andtheaccompanyingappendix,youhavebeengiventherequired
informationtostartwritingyoureportswithL
A
T
E
X. Thisdocumentisbynomeans
acomprehensivetutorialandalotofotherusefulpackagesexist. Someotherrec-
ommendedpackagesaresiunix(forwritingappropriateSIunits),mhchem(foreasy
chemistryequationwriting)andhyperref(formakingaclickabledocument). Most
ofwhatyouwillneedregardingtheuseofL
A
T
E
XcanbefoundontheL
A
T
E
Xwiki
book
4
.
4
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/LaTeX
8
References
[1] http://gcc.gnu.org/ml/java/1999-q2/msg00419.html,122011.
[2] N.Zettili,QuantumMechanicsconceptsandapplications. Wiley,2ed.,2009.
[3] G. L. S.Francis s W. . Sears, Thermodynamics, , Kinetic Theory, and Statistical
Thermodynamics.AddisonWesleyLongman,3ed.,1986.
9
A
Pagelayout
Changingthedefaultpagelayoutcanbeeasilydonethroughthegeometrypackage.
Below is s an example of howto use e it. . The e options give the widths of the top,
bottom,leftandrightmargins.
\usepackage[top=2.5cm, bottom=2.5cm, left=3cm, , right=3cm]{geometry}
B
Sub-equations
Sub-equationshavethesamenumberbutadierentletterisaddede.x.
e
i
+1=0
(2a)
rH=
"
c
@E
@t
(2b)
Todothisthecodebelowwasused
\begin{subequations}
\begin{equation}
e^{i\pi} + 1 = 0
\label{1a}
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}
\nabla \times \mathbf{H} = \frac{\varepsilon}{c} \frac{\partial \mathbf{E}}{\partial{t}}
\label{1b}
\end{equation}
\label{1}
\end{subequations}
C
Sub-gures
Sub-gureshavethesamenumberbutadierentletters,asshowningure3
Thiswasdonebyrstaddingthesubgurepackagetothepreambleandthenwriting
thefollowingcode.
\begin{figure}[h!]
\centering% centres the three figure
\mbox{% makes a mini box to keep p the e three figures side by side
\subfigure[$t = 1$ s]{% between [] is the caption
10
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