.net c# pdf viewer : Batch merge pdf software SDK project winforms wpf web page UWP letterfaq11-part525

Sincepsfragworksintermsof(encapsulated)PostScriptfiles,itneedsextrawork
forusewithPDFLaTeX.Twotechniquesareavailable,usingpst-pdfpackageinamode
designedtodothiswork;andusingpdfrack.
ThePst-pdfpackagecansupportthis“extrawork”usage.Infact,thepst-pdfsupport
packageauto-pst-pdfoffersaconfigurationsettingpreciselyforusewithpsfrag.
Ifyouhavethe‘right’environment(seebelow),youcouldtrythepdfrackscript
bundle.Thescriptaimstocuteachfigureoutofyoursource,usingittoproduceasmall
LaTeXfilewithnothingbutthefigureinclusioncommands.Eachofthesefigurefilesis
thenprocessedtoPostScript,compiledusingthe
\psfrag
commands,andtheresulting
outputconvertedtoPDFagain.
PdfrackiswrittentousetheUnixBourneshell(orequivalent);thusyourenvi-
ronmentneedstobeaUnix-basedsystem,orsomeequivalentsuchascygwinunder
windows.(Whatismore,pdfrack’sauthorisratherdisparagingabouthispackage;the
presentauthorhasnevertriedit.)
Thepsfragxpackagegoesonestepfurtherthanpsfrag:itprovidesameanswhereby
youcanputthepsfragcommandsintothepreambleofyourEPSfileitself. Psfrag
hassuchacommanditself,butdeprecatesit;psfragxhascleanedupthefacility,and
providesascriptlaprintforusewithMatlabtoproduceappropriatelytaggedoutput.
(Inprinciple,othergraphicsapplicationscouldprovideasimilarfacility,butapparently
nonedoes.)
EmacsusersmayfindtheembeddededitoriTeausefultoolforplacinglabels:
it’sa(La)TeX-orientedgraphicaleditorwritteninEmacsLisp.Youcreate
iteblock
environmentscontaininggraphicsandtext,andmaytheninvokeiTetoarrangethe
elementsrelativetooneanother.
Anotherusefulapproachisoverpic,whichoverlaysa
picture
environmentona
graphicincludedbyuseof
\includegraphics
.Thistreatmentlendsitselftoready
placementoftextsandthelikeontopofagraphic.Thepackagecandrawagridfor
planningyour“attack”;thedistributioncomeswithsimpleexamples.
Thelpicpackageissomewhatsimilartooverpic;itdefinesanenvironment
lpic
(whichplacesyourgraphicforyou):withintheenvironmentyoumayusethecommand
\lbl
topositionLaTeXmaterialatappropriateplacesoverthegraphic.
Pinlabelisanotherpackagewhoseauthorthoughtinthesamesortofwayasthatof
overpic;thedocumentationexplainsindetailhowtoplanyour‘labellingattack’—in
thiscasebyloadingyourfigureintoaviewerandtakingmeasurementsfromit.(The
packagediscussesdirectuseofghostscriptaswellascustomisedviewerssuchasgsview
orgv.)
Pstrickscanofcoursedoeverythingthatoverpic,lpicorpinlabelcan,withallthe
flexibilityofPostScriptprogrammingthatitoffers.Thiscapabilityisexemplifiedbythe
pst-layoutpackage,whichseemstobeasupersetofbothoverpicandlpic.
Similarly,pgf/TikZhasallthepowerneeded,butnoexplicitpackagehasbeen
released.
Thepstrickswebsitehasapagewithseveralexamplesoflabellingwhichwillget
youstarted;ifpstricksisanoptionforyou,thisrouteisworthatry.
Theconfidentusermay,ofcourse,dothewholejobinapictureenvironmentwhich
itselfincludesthegraphic.Iwouldrecommendoverpicorthepstricksapproach,but
suchthingsareplainlylittlemorethanaconvenienceoverwhatisachievablewiththe
do-it-yourselfapproach.
auto-pst-pdf.sty
:
macros/latex/contrib/auto-pst-pdf
gv
:
support/gv
iTe
:
support/ite
laprint
: Distributedwith
macros/latex/contrib/psfragx
lpic.sty
:
macros/latex/contrib/lpic
overpic.sty
:
macros/latex/contrib/overpic
pdfrack
:
support/pdfrack
pinlabel.sty
:
macros/latex/contrib/pinlabel
111
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pgf.sty
:
graphics/pgf/base
psfrag.sty
:
macros/latex/contrib/psfrag
psfragx.sty
:
macros/latex/contrib/psfragx
pstricks.sty
:
graphics/pstricks
pst-layout.sty
:
graphics/pstricks/contrib/pst-layout
pst-pdf.sty
:
macros/latex/contrib/pst-pdf
N Bibliographiesandcitations
N.1 Creatingbibliographies
167 CreatingaBibTeXbibliographyfile
ABibTeXbibliographyfilemayreasonablybecomparedtoasmalldatabase,theentries
inwhicharereferencestoliteraturethatmaybecalledupbycitationsinadocument.
Eachentryinthebibliographyhasatypeandauniquekey.Thebibliographyis
read,byBibTeX,usingthedetailsspecifiedinabibliographystyle.Fromthestyle,
BibTeXfindswhatentrytypesarepermissible,whatfieldseachentrytypehas,andhow
toformatthewholeentry.
Thetypespecifiesthetypeofdocumentyou’remakingreferenceto;itmayrun
allthewayfromthingslike“
Book
”and“
Proceedings
”(whichmayevencontain
othercitationsoftype“
InBook
”or“
InProceedings
”)throughdissertationstyleslike
PhdThesis
”tootherwise-uncategorisablethingssuchas“
Misc
”.Theuniquekeyis
somethingyouchooseyourself:it’swhatyouusewhenyouwanttociteanentryinthe
file.Peoplecommonlycreateakeythatcombinesthe(primary)author’snameandthe
yearofpublication,possiblywithamarkertodistinguishpublicationsinthesameyear.
So,forexample,theDyson,Eddington,Davidsonpaperaboutdeflectionofstarlight
appearsinmyexperimental
.bib
fileas
Dyson20.1
.
So,notingtherulesofthestyle,youhave‘simply’towriteabibliographydatabase.
Fortunately,thereareseveraltoolstohelpinthisendeavour:
• Mostofthebetter(La)TeX-orientededitorshave“BibTeXmodes”.
• Ifyouhaveanexisting
thebibliography
environment,thePerlscripttex2bibwill
probablyhelp.
• ThereareanumberofBibTeXbibliographymanagementsystemsavailable,some
ofwhichpermitagraphicaluserinterfacetothetask. Sadly,noneseemstobe
availablewiththeordinaryTeXdistributions.
ToolssuchasXbibfile(agraphicaluserinterface),ebib(adatabaseapplication
writtentorun‘inside’emacs)andbtOOL(asetofperltoolsforbuildingBibTeX
databasehandlers)areavailablefromCTAN.
Othersystems,suchasRefDB,BibORB,BibDesk,pybliographerandtheJava-
basedBibkeeperandJabRef (whichclaimsto supersedeBibkeeper)areonly
availablefromtheirdevelopmentsites.
• Somecommercialcitation-managementsystemswillexportinBibTeXformat;an
exampleisEndNote.
• Datafromon-linecitationdatabasesmayoftenbetranslatedtoBibTeXformat
byutilitiestobefoundonCTAN. Forexample,thePerlscriptisi2bibtexwill
translatecitationsfromISI“Webofknowledge”(asubscriptionservice,available
toUKacademicsviaBIDS).UKacademicsmaytranslateBIDSdownloadsusing
bids.to.bibtex
• GoogleScholarprovidesan“ImportintoBibTeX”tabforeachreferenceitfinds
foryou:thattabgivesyouapagecontainingaBibTeXentryforthereference.
bids.to.bibtex
:
biblio/bibtex/utils/bids/bids.to.bibtex
btOOL
:
biblio/bibtex/utils/btOOL
ebib
:
biblio/bibtex/utils/ebib
112
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isi2bibtex
:
biblio/bibtex/utils/isi2bibtex
tex2bib
:
biblio/bibtex/utils/tex2bib/tex2bib
tex2bib.readme
:
biblio/bibtex/utils/tex2bib/README
xbibfile
:
biblio/bibtex/utils/xbibfile
168 Creatingabibliographystyle
Itispossibletowriteyourown:thestandardbibliographystylesaredistributedina
formwithmanycomments,andthereisadescriptionofthelanguageintheBibTeXdis-
tribution(seeBibTeXdocumentation).However,itmustbeadmittedthatthelanguage
inwhichBibTeXstylesarewrittenisprettyobscure,andonewouldnotrecommend
anyonewho’snotaconfidentprogrammertowritetheirown,thoughminorchangesto
anexistingstylemaybewithinthegraspofmany.
Ifyourstyleisn’ttoo‘farout’,youcanprobablyavoidprogrammingitbyusing
thefacilitiesofthecustom-bibbundle.Thebundlecontainsafile
makebst.tex
,which
runsyouthroughatextmenutoproduceafileofinstructions,whichyoucanthenuse
togenerateyourown
.bst
file. Thistechniquedoesn’tofferentirelynewstylesof
document,butthecustom-bib’s“masterBibTeXstyles”alreadyoffersignificantlymore
thantheBibTeXstandardset.
Analternative,whichisincreasinglyoftenrecommended,tousebiblatex.Biblatex
offersmanyhooksforadjustingtheformatoftheoutputofyour‘basic’BibTeXstyle,
andacollectionof‘contributed’styleshavealsostartedtoappear.Note.boweverThere
arenotasmanyofbiblatex’scontributedstylesasthereareforBibTeX,andthereisno
custom-biblatex,bothofwhichsuggestthatbeginners’rölemodelsarehardtocome
by. Asaresult,beginnersshouldprobablyresistthetemptationtowritetheirown
contributedbiblatexstyle.
biblatex.sty
:
macros/latex/contrib/biblatex
biblatex
contributedstyles:
macros/latex/contrib/biblatex-contrib
BibTeXdocumentation:
biblio/bibtex/base
makebst.tex
: Distributedwith
macros/latex/contrib/custom-bib
169 CapitalisationinBibTeX
ThestandardBibTeXbibliographystylesimposefixedideasaboutthecapitalisationof
titlesofthingsinthebibliography.WhilethisisnotunreasonablebyBibTeX’slights
(therulescomefromtheChicagoManualofStyle)itcanbetroublesome,sinceBibTeX
failstorecognisespecialuses(suchasacronyms,chemicalformulae,etc.).
Thesolutionistoenclosetheletterorletters,whosecapitalisationBibTeXshould
nottouch,inbraces,as:
title = = {The {THE} } operating system},
SometimesyoufindBibTeXchangingthecaseofasingleletterinappropriately.No
matter:thetechniquecanbeappliedtosingleletters,asin:
title = = {Te{X}niques s and tips},
Ifyourdocumentdesignspecificationrequiresadifferentstyleofcapitalisation,you
shouldacquireabibliographystylethatdoesn’tenforceBibTeX’sdefaultrules.Itis
definitelynotagoodideatoencloseanentiretitleinbraces,asin
title = = {{TeXniques s and tips}},
thoughthatdoesensurethatthecapitalisationisnotchanged.YourBibTeXdatabase
shouldbeageneral-purposething,notsomethingtunedtotherequirementsofapar-
ticulardocumentorbibliographystyle,ortothewayyouarethinkingtoday—for
example,onafutureoccasion,youmightfindyourselfusingadifferentBibTeXstyle
withdifferentcapitalisationrules.
There’smoreonthesubjectintheBibTeXdocumentation.
113
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170 Accentsinbibliographies
BibTeXnotonlyhasatendency(bydefault)tomessaboutwiththecaseoflettersin
yourbibliography,alsomakesahashofaccentcommands:“
ma\~nana
”comesout
as“manana”(!).Thesolutionissimilarthatofthelettercaseproblem:enclosethe
troublesomesequenceinbraces,as“
{\~n}
”,inthisexample.
171 ‘Stringtoolong’inBibTeX
TheBibTeXdiagnostic“Warning–you’veexceeded1000,the
global-string-size
,
forentry
foo
”usuallyarisesfromaverylargeabstractorannotationincludedin
thedatabase.Thediagnosticusuallyarisesbecauseofaninfelicityinthecodingof
abstract.bst
,orstylesderivedfromit.(Onedoesn’tordinarilyoutputannotationsin
otherstyles.)
Thesolutionistomakeacopyofthestylefile(orgetacleancopyfromCTAN—
biblio/bibtex/utils/bibtools/abstract.bst
),andrenameit(e.g.,onalongfile-
namesystem,to
abstract-long.bst
).Noweditit:findfunction
output.nonnull
and
• changeitsfirstline(line60intheversiononCTAN)from
{ ’s s :=
to
{ swap$
Finally,
• deletethefunction’slastline,whichjustsays“
s
(line84intheversiononCTAN).
Finally,changeyour
\bibliographystyle
commandtorefertothenameofthenew
file.
Thistechniqueappliesequallytoanybibliographystyle:thesamechangecanbe
madetoanysimilar
output.nonnull
function.
Ifyou’rereluctanttomakethissortofchange,theonlywayforwardistotakethe
entryoutofthedatabase,sothatyoudon’tencounterBibTeX’slimit,butyoumayneed
toretaintheentrybecauseitwillbeincludedinthetypesetdocument.Insuchcases,
putthebodyoftheentryinaseparatefile:
@article{long.boring,
author =
"Fred Verbose",
...
abstract =
"{\input{abstracts/long.tex}}"
}
Inthisway,youarrangethatallBibTeXhastodealwithisthefilename,thoughitwill
tellTeX(whenappropriate)toincludeallthelongtext.
172 BibTeXdoesn’tunderstandlistsofnames
BibTeXhasastrictsyntaxforlistsofauthors’(oreditors’)namesintheBibTeXdata
file;ifyouwritethelistofnamesina“natural”-seemingway,thechancesareyouwill
confuseBibTeX,andtheoutputproducedwillbequitedifferentfromwhatyouhad
hoped.
Namesshouldbeexpressedinoneoftheforms
First Last
Last, First
Last, Suffix, , First
andlistsofnamesshouldbeseparatedwith“
and
”.Forexample:
AUTHOR = = {Fred d Q. . Bloggs, John P. . Doe \&
Another Idiot}
114
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fallsfouloftwooftheaboverules: asyntacticallysignificantcommaappearsinan
incorrectplace,and‘
\&
’isbeingusedasanameseparator.Theoutputoftheabove
mightbesomethinglike:
John P. Doe e \& Another r Idiot t Fred Q. Bloggs
because“JohnP.Doe&AnotherIdiothasbecomethe‘firstname’,while“FredQ.
Bloggs”hasbecomethe‘lastname’ofasingleperson.Theexampleshouldhavebeen
written:
AUTHOR = = {Fred d Q. . Bloggs s and John P. Doe and
Another Idiot}
Somebibliographystylesimplementcleveracrobaticswithverylongauthorlists.You
canforcetruncationbyusingthepseudo-name“
others
”,whichwillusuallytranslate
tosomethinglike“etal”inthetypesetoutput. So,ifMr.Bloggswantedtodistract
attentionfromhisco-authors,hewouldwrite:
AUTHOR = = {Fred d Q. . Bloggs s and others}
173 URLsinBibTeXbibliographies
ThereisnocitationtypeforURLs,perse,inthestandardBibTeXstyles,thoughOren
Patashnik(theauthorofBibTeX)isbelievedtobeconsideringdevelopingonesuchfor
usewiththelong-awaitedBibTeXversion1.0.
TheactualinformationthatneedbeavailableinacitationofanURLisdiscussed
atsomelengthinthepubliclyavailableon-lineextractsofISO690–2;thetechniques
belowdonotsatisfyalltherequirementsofISO690–2,buttheyofferasolutionthatis
atleastavailabletousersoftoday’stools.
UntilthenewversionofBibTeX arrives,thesimplesttechniqueistousethe
howpublished
fieldofthestandardstyles’
@misc
function.Ofcourse,thestrictures
abouttypesettingURLsstillapply,sotheentrywilllooklike:
@misc{...,
...,
howpublished = = "\url{http://...}"
}
ApossiblealternativeapproachistouseBibTeXstylesotherthanthestandardones,
thatalreadyhaveURLentrytypes.Candidatesare:
• Thenatbibstyles(plainnat,unsrtnatandabbrevnat),whichareextensionsofthe
standardstyles,principallyforusewithnatbibitself.However,they’veacquired
URLsandother“modern”entriesalongtheway.Thesameauthor’scustom-bibis
alsocapableofgeneratingstylesthathonourURLentries.
• Thebabelbibbundle,whichoffersmultilingualbibliographies,similarlyprovidesa
setofstandard-styleequivalentsthathaveURLentries.
• Moremodernstylessuchastheharvardpackage(ifthecitationstylesareotherwise
satisfactoryforyou).Harvardbibliographystylesallincludea“
url
”fieldintheir
specification;however,thetypesettingofferedissomewhatfeeble(thoughitdoes
recogniseanduseLaTeX2HTMLmacrosiftheyareavailable,tocreatehyperlinks).
YoucanalsoacquirenewBibTeXstylesbyuseofNormanGray’surlbstsystem,which
isbasedonaPerlscriptthateditsanexistingBibTeXstylefiletoproduceanewstyle.
Thenewstylethusgeneratedhasa
webpage
entrytype,andalsoofferssupportfor
url
and
lastchecked
fieldsintheotherentrytypes.ThePerlscriptcomeswithasetof
convertedversionsofthestandardbibliographystyles.
Anotherpossibilityisthatsomeconventionally-publishedpaper,technicalreport(or
evenbook)isalsoavailableontheWeb.Insuchcases,ausefultechniqueissomething
like:
115
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@techreport{...,
...,
note = = "Also o available as \url{http://...}"
}
Thereisgoodreasontousetheurlorhyperrefpackagesinthiscontext:BibTeXhasa
habitofsplittinglinesitconsidersexcessivelylong,andiftherearenospacecharacters
forittouseas‘natural’breakpoints,BibTeXwillinsertacomment(‘
%
’)character...
whichisanacceptablecharacterinanURL.Anycurrentversionofeitheroftheurlor
hyperrefpackagesdetectsthis“
%
–end-of-line”structureinitsargument,andremovesit.
babelbib
bundle:
biblio/bibtex/contrib/babelbib
custom-bib
bundle:
macros/latex/contrib/custom-bib
harvard.sty
:
macros/latex/contrib/harvard
hyperref.sty
:
macros/latex/contrib/hyperref
natbib
styles:
macros/latex/contrib/natbib
url.sty
:
macros/latex/contrib/url
urlbst
:
biblio/bibtex/contrib/urlbst
174 UsingBibTeXwithPlainTeX
Thefile
btxmac.tex
(whichispartoftheEplainsystem)containsmacrosanddocu-
mentationforusingBibTeXwithPlainTeX,eitherdirectlyorwithEplain.Seetheuse
ofBibTeXformoreinformationaboutBibTeXitself.
btxmac.tex
:
macros/eplain/tex/btxmac.tex
eplain
system:
macros/eplain
175 Reconstructing
.bib
files
Perhapsyou’velostthe
.bib
fileyougeneratedyourdocumentfrom,orhavebeensent
adocumentwithoutone.Oreven,you’verealisedtheerrorofbuildingasubstantial
documentwithoutthebenefitofBibTeX...
ThePerlscript,tex2bibmakesareasonablejobofregenerating
.bib
filesfrom
thebibliography
environments,providedthattheoriginal(whetherautomaticallyor
manuallygenerated)doesn’tdeviatetoofarfromthe“standard”styles.
Youarewell-advisedtochecktheoutputofthescript. Whileitwillnotusually
destroyinformation,itcanquitereasonablymislabelit.
Documentationofthescriptistobefoundinthefile
tex2bib.readme
tex2bib
:
biblio/bibtex/utils/tex2bib/tex2bib
tex2bib.readme
:
biblio/bibtex/utils/tex2bib/README
176 BibTeXsortingandnameprefixes
BibTeXrecognisesabewilderingarrayofnameprefixes(mostlythosederivingfrom
Europeanlanguagenames);itignorestheprefixeswhensortingthebibliography—you
want“LudwigvanBeethoven”sortedunder“Beethoven”,notunder“van”.(Lamport
madeawittydeliberatemistakewithBeethoven’sname,inthefirsteditionofhisLaTeX
manual.)
However,arecurringissueisthedesiretoquoteLordRayleigh’spublications
(“Lord”isn’tanacceptableprefix),ornamesfromlanguagesthatweren’tconsidered
whenBibTeXwasdesignedsuchas“al-Wakil”(transcribedfromtheArabic).What’s
neededisaseparate“sortkey”,butBibTeXonlyallowssuchathingincitationsof
itemsthathavenoauthororeditor.
Thesolutionistoembedthesortkeyintheauthor’sname,buttopreventitfrom
beingtypeset. Patashnikrecommendsacommand
\noopsort
(no-output-sortkey),
whichisdefinedandusedasfollows:
116
@PREAMBLE{ {\providecommand{\noopsort}[1]{}} } }
...
@ARTICLE{Rayleigh1,
AUTHOR = = "{\noopsort{Rayleigh}}{Lord Rayleigh}",
...
}
Notethatthis
\noopsort
appliestothelastnameinthiskindofconstruct,soanauthor
withanArabicnamemightberendered:
...
AUTHOR = = "Ali {\noopsort{Hadiidii}}{al-Hadiidii}",
...
Afurtherusemightdealwithwordordergames,asinthefamousVietnamesename:
...
AUTHOR = = "\noopsort{Thanh h Han The}{Han The Thanh}",
...
thoughthatauthorseemswell-acquaintedwithWesternconfusionaboutthesignificance
ofthepartsofhisname(eventotheextentofmissingouttheaccentuation,asabove...).
177 ‘Multi-letter’initialsinBibTeX
Ifyourbibliographicstyleusesinitials+surname,youmayencounteraproblemwith
sometranscribednames(forexample,Russianones).Considerthefollowingexample
fromtherealworld:
@article{epifanov1997,
author = {Epifanov, , S. Yu. . and Vigasin, A. A.},
title
= ...
}
Notethatthe“Yu”istheinitial,notacompletename.However,BibTeX’salgorithms
willleaveyouwithacitation—slightlydependingonthebibliographicstyle—that
reads:“S.Y.EpifanovandA.A.Vigasin,...”.insteadoftheintended“S.Yu.Epifanov
andA.A.Vigasin,...”.
Onesolutionistoreplaceeachaffectedinitialbyacommandthatprintsthecorrect
combination.Tokeepyourbibliographyportable,youneedtoaddthatcommandto
yourbibliographywiththe
@preamble
directive:
@preamble{ {\providecommand{\BIBYu}{Yu} } } } }
@article{epifanov1997,
author
= {Epifanov, , S. {\BIBYu}. and Vigasin, A. . A.},
title
= ...
}
Ifyouhavemanysuchcommands,youmaywanttoputtheminaseparatefileand
\input
thatLaTeXfileina
@preamble
directive.
Analternativeistomakethetranscriptionlooklikeanaccent,fromBibTeX’spoint
ofview.Forthisweneedacontrolsequencethatdoesnothing:
@article{epifanov1997,
author
= {Epifanov, , S. {\relax x Yu}. . and d Vigasin, A. A.},
title
= ...
}
Likethesolutionbygeneratingextracommands,thisinvolvestediousextratyping;
whichofthetwotechniquesispreferableforagivenbibliographywillbedeterminedby
thenamesinit.Itshouldbenotedthatapreamblethatintroduceslotsofoddcommands
isusuallyundesirableifthebibliographyisasharedone.
“Compound”initials(forsinglenamesmadeupoftwoormorewords)maybe
treatedinthesameway,soonecanenterForster’srathercomplicatednameas:
117
@article{forster2006,
author
= {Forster, P.M. . {\relax x de F.} } and Collins, M.},
title
= ...
Thesametrickcanbeplayedifyou’reenteringwholenames:
...
author
= {Epifanov, , Sasha {\relax Yu}ri i and
...
(thoughnoguarantee,thateitherofthosenamesisright,isoffered!)However,ifyou’re
typingthenamesinthe“natural”(Western)way,withgivennamesfirst,thetrick:
...
author
= {P.M. . {\relax x de e F.} Forster and
...
doesn’twork—“deF.Forster”istreatedasacompoundfamilynames.
N.2 Creatingcitations
178 “Normal”useofBibTeXfromLaTeX
Tocreateabibliographyforyourdocument,youneedtoperformasequenceofsteps,
someofwhichseemabitodd.IfyouchoosetouseBibTeX,thesequenceis:
First:youneedaBibTeXbibliographyfile(a
.bib
file)—see“creatingaBibTeX
file”.
Second:youmustwriteyourLaTeXdocumenttoincludeadeclarationofthe‘style’
ofbibliography,citations,andareferencetothebibliographyfilementionedabove.So
wemayhaveaLaTeXfilecontaining:
\bibliographystyle{plain}
...
Pooh is heroic~\cite{Milne:1926}.
...
Alice struggles~\cite{Carroll:1865}.
...
\bibliography{mybooks}
Note:wehavebibliographystyleplain,above,whichisnearlythesimplestofthelot:a
sampletext,showingthesortsofstylechoicesavailable,canbefoundonKenTurner’s
website:
http://www.cs.stir.ac.uk/~kjt/software/latex/showbst.html
Third:youmustprocessthefile.
latex myfile
AsLaTeXprocessesthefile,the
\bibliographystyle
commandwritesanoteofthe
styletothe
.aux
file;each
\cite
commandwritesanoteofthecitationtothe
.aux
file,
andthe
\bibliography
commandwritesanoteofwhich
.bib
fileistobeused,tothe
.aux
file.
Notethat,atthisstage,LaTeXisn’t“resolving”anyofthecitations:atevery
\cite
command,LaTeXwillwarnyouoftheundefinedcitation,andwhenthedocument
finishes,therewillbeafurtherwarningofundefinedreferences.
Fourth:youmustrunBibTeX:
bibtex myfile
Don’ttrytotellBibTeXanythingbutthefilename:say
bibtex myfile.aux
(because
youknowit’sgoingtoreadthe
.aux
file)andBibTeXwillblindlyattempttoprocess
myfile.aux.aux
.
BibTeXwillscanthe
.aux
file;itwillfindwhichbibliographystyleitneedstouse,
andwill“compile”thatstyle;itwillnotethecitations;itwillfindwhichbibliography
filesitneeds,andwillrunthroughthemmatchingcitationstoentriesinthebibliography;
118
andfinallyitwillsorttheentriesthathavebeencited(ifthebibliographystylespecifies
thattheyshouldbesorted),andoutputstheresultingdetailstoa
.bbl
file.
Fifth:yourunLaTeXagain.Itwarns,again,thateachcitationis(still)undefined,
butwhenitgetstothe
\bibliography
command,itfindsa
.bbl
file,andreadsit.As
itencounterseach
\bibitem
commandinthefile,itnotesadefinitionofthecitation.
Sixth:yourunLaTeXyetagain.Thistime,itfindsvaluesforallthecitations,inits
.aux
file.Otherthingsbeingequal,you’redone... untilyouchangethefile.
If,whileediting,youchangeanyofthecitations,oraddnewones,youneedto
gothroughtheprocessabovefromsteps3(firstrunofLaTeX)to6,again,beforethe
documentisonceagainstable.ThesefourmandatoryrunsofLaTeXmakeprocessinga
documentwithabibliographyevenmoretiresomethanthenormaltworunsrequiredto
resolvelabels.
Tosummarise:processingtoresolvecitationsrequires:LaTeX;BibTeX;LaTeX;
LaTeX.
179 Choosingabibliographystyle
AlargeproportionofpeoplearesatisfiedwithoneofPatashnik’soriginal“standard”
styles,plain,unsrt,abbrvandalpha.However,nostyleinthatsetsupportsthe“author-
date”citationstylethatispopularinmanyfields;butthereareaverylargenumberof
contributedstylesavailable,thatdosupporttheformat.
(Notethatauthor-datestylesarosebecausethesimpleandclearcitationstylethat
plainproducesissoawkwardinatraditionalmanuscriptpreparationscenario.However,
TeX-baseddocumentproductiondoesawaywithallthosedifficulties,leavingusfree
onceagaintousethesimpleoption.)
Fortunately,helpisathand,ontheWeb,withthisproblem:
• asampletext,showingthesortsofstylechoicesavailable,canbefoundonKen
Turner’swebsite;
• anexcellentsurvey,thatlistsahugevarietyofstyles,sortedintotheirnominaltopics
aswellasprovidingagoodrangeofexamples,istheReedCollege“Choosinga
BibTeXstyle”.
Ofcourse,thesepagesdon’tcovereverything;theproblemtheinquisitiveuserfaces,
infact,istofindwhatthevariousavailablestylesactuallydo.Thisisbestachieved
(ifthelinksabovedon’thelp)byusingxampl.bibfromtheBibTeXdocumentation
distribution:onecangetaprettygoodfeelforanystyleonehastohandusingthis
“standard”bibliography.Forstylemy-style.bst,thesimpleLaTeXdocument:
\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
\bibliographystyle{my-style}
\nocite{
*
}
\bibliography{xampl}
\end{document}
willproducearepresentativesampleofthecitationsthestylewillproduce.(Because
xampl.bibissoextremeinsomeofits“examples”,theBibTeXrunwillalsogiveyou
aninterestingselectionofBibTeX’serrormessages...)
xampl.bib
:
biblio/bibtex/base/xampl.bib
180 Separatebibliographiesperchapter?
Aseparatebibliographyforeach‘chapter’ofadocumentcanbeprovidedwiththe
packagechapterbib(whichcomeswithabunchofothergoodbibliographicthings).
Thepackageallowsyouadifferentbibliographyforeach
\include
dfile(i.e.,despite
thepackage’sname,theavailabilityofbibliographiesisrelatedtothecomponentsource
filesofthedocumentratherthantothechaptersthatlogicallystructurethedocument).
Thepackagebibunitstiesbibliographiestologicalunitswithinthedocument:the
packagewilldealwithchaptersandsections(asdefinedbyLaTeXitself)andalso
definesa
bibunit
environmentsothatuserscanselecttheirownstructuring.
119
The biblatexpackage,withbiber,providesasimilarfacility; enclose the text
forwhichyouwantalocalbibliographyina
refsection
environment,andplacea
\printbibliography
commandasthelastthinginthatenvironment:
\begin{refsection}
\chapter{First chapter}
\section{Foo}
Some text t \cite{this}
with citations \cite{that}.
\printbibliography
\end{refsection}
ThenprocesswithLaTeX(ofwhateverflavour)andusebibertoprocessthebibliography
output.Notethat
\printbibliography
cantakeanoptionalargument
heading=bib
title
toprovidethebibliographywitha(sub)sectiontitle.
biber
:
biblio/biber
biblatex
:
macros/latex/contrib/biblatex
bibunits.sty
:
macros/latex/contrib/bibunits
chapterbib.sty
: distributedaspartof
macros/latex/contrib/cite
181 Multiplebibliographies?
Ifyou’rethinkingofmultiplebibliographiestiedtosomepartofyourdocument(such
asthechapterswithinthedocument),pleaseseebibliographiesperchapter.
Formorethanonebibliography,therearethreeoptions.
The multibbl package offers a very simple interface: : you u use a command
\newbibliography
todefineabibliography“tag”.Thepackageredefinestheother
bibliographycommandssothateachtimeyouuseanyoneofthem,yougiveitthe
tagforthebibliographywhereyouwantthecitationstoappear.The
\bibliography
commanditselfalsotakesafurtherextraargumentthatsayswhattitletouseforthe
resultingsectionorchapter(i.e.,itpatches
\refname
and
\bibname
\refname
and
\bibname
—inababel-safeway).Soonemightwrite:
\usepackage{multibbl}
\newbibliography{bk}
\bibliographystyle{bk}{alpha}
\newbibliography{art}
\bibliographystyle{art}{plain}
...
\cite[pp.~23--25]{bk}{milne:pooh-corner}
...
\cite{art}{einstein:1905}
...
\bibliography{bk}{book-bib}{References to o books}
\bibliography{art}{art-bib}{References to o articles}
(Notethattheoptionalargumentof
\cite
appearsbeforethenewtagargument,and
thatthe
\bibliography
commandsmaylistmorethanone
.bib
file—indeedall
\bibliography
commandsmaylistthesamesetoffiles.)
The
\bibliography
datagoesintofileswhosenamesarehtag-namei.aux,soyou
willneedtorun
bibtex bk
bibtex art
afterthefirstrunofLaTeX,togetthecitationsinthecorrectplace.
Themultibibpackageallowsyoutodefineaseriesof“additionaltopics”,eachof
whichcomeswithitsownseriesofbibliographycommands.Soonemightwrite:
120
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