• Afiletransferredfromanothersystem,withouttranslatingrecordendings.With
thedeclineoffixed-formatrecords(onmainframeoperatingsystems)andthe
increasedintelligenceofTeXdistributionsatrecognisingothersystems’explicit
record-endingcharacters,thisisnowadaysratherararecauseoftheproblem.
• Agraphicsinputfile,whichapackageisexaminingforitsboundingbox,contains
abinarypreviewsection.Again,sufficientlycleverTeXdistributionsrecognisethis
situation,andignorethepreviews(whichareonlyofinterest,ifatall,toaTeX
previewer).
TheusualadviceistoignorewhatTeXsays(i.e.,anythingaboutenlarging),andto
puttheproblemrightinthesource.
Iftherealproblemisover-longtextlines,mostself-respectingtexteditorswillbe
pleasedtoautomaticallysplitlonglines(whilepreservingthe“word”structure)sothat
theyarenowhereanylongerthanagivenlength;sothesolutionisjusttoeditthefile.
Iftheproblemisaridiculouspreviewsection,tryusingghostscripttoreprocessthe
file,outputtinga“plain
.eps
”file.(Ghostscript’sdistributionincludesascriptps2epsi
whichwillregeneratethepreviewifnecessary.)Usersofthesharewareprogramgsview
willfindbuttonstoperformtherequiredtransformationofthefilebeingdisplayed.
435 “Fatalformatfileerror;I’mstymied”
(La)TeXapplicationsoftenfailwiththiserrorwhenyou’vebeenplayingwiththe
configuration,orhavejustinstalledanewversion.
Theformatfilecontainsthemacrosthatdefinethesystemyouwanttouse:anything
fromthesimplest(PlainTeX)allthewaytothemostcomplicated,suchasLaTeXor
ConTeXt.Fromthecommandyouissue,TeXknowswhichformatyouwant.
Theerrormessage
Fatal format file error; ; I’m stymied
meansthatTeXitselfcan’tunderstandtheformatyouwant. Obviously,thiscould
happeniftheformatfilehadgotcorrupted,butitusuallydoesn’t. Thecommonest
causeofthemessage,isthatanewbinaryhasbeeninstalledinthesystem:notwoTeX
binariesonthesamemachinecanunderstandeachother’sformats.Sothenewversion
ofTeXyouhavejustinstalled,won’tunderstandtheformatgeneratedbytheoneyou
installedlastyear.
Resolvetheproblembyregeneratingtheformat;ofcourse,thisdependsonwhich
systemyouareusing.
• OnateTeX-basedsystem,run
fmtutil --all
or
fmtutil --byfmt=<format t name>
tobuildonlytheformatthatyouareinterestedin.
• On a a MiKTeX X system, , click
Start
!
Programs
!
MiKTeX version
!
MiKTeX
Options
,andintheoptionswindow,click
Update now
.
436 Non-PDFspecialignored!
ThisisaPDFTeXerror:PDFTeXisrunninginPDFoutputmode,andithasencountered
a
\special
command(
\special
).PDFTeXisabletogenerateitsownoutput,andin
thismodeofoperationhasnoneedof
\special
commands(whichallowtheuserto
passinformationtothedriverbeingusedtogenerateoutput).
Whydoesthishappen?LaTeXusers,nowadays,hardlyeveruse
\special
com-
mandsontheirown—theyemploypackagestodothejobforthem.Somepackages
willgenerate
\special
commandshowevertheyareinvoked:pstricksisanexample
(it’sveryraisond’êtreistoemitPostScriptcodeinasequenceof
\special
com-
mands). Pstricksmaybedealtwithbyothermeans(thepdftrickspackageoffersa
usabletechnique).
Moreamenabletocorrection,butmoreconfusing,arepackages(suchascolor,
graphicsandhyperref)thatspecifya“driver”.Thesepackageshaveplug-inmodules
301
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thatdeterminewhat
\special
(orothercommands)areneededtogenerateanygiven
effect:the
pdftex
driverforsuchpackagesknowsnottogenerate
\special
commands.
Inmostcircumstances,youcanletthesystemitselfchoosewhichdriveryouneed;in
thiscaseeverythingwillactproperlywhenyouswitchtousingPDFLaTeX.Ifyou’ve
beenusingdvips(andspecifyingthe
dvips
driver)ordvipdfm(forwhichyouhave
tospecifythedriver),anddecidetotryPDFLaTeX,youmustremovethe
dvips
or
dvipdfm
driverspecificationfromthepackageoptions,andletthesystemrecognise
whichdriverisneeded.
pdftricks.sty
:
graphics/pdftricks
pstricks.sty
:
graphics/pstricks
437 Mismatchedmodeljfourandresolution8000
You’rerunningdvips,andyouencounterastreamoferrormessages,startingwith
Mismatched mode
”.Themodeisthedefaultusedinyourinstallation—it’ssetin
thedvipsconfigurationfile,and
ljfour
iscommonest(sinceit’sthedefaultinmost
distributions),butnotinvariable.
Theproblemisthatdvipshasencounteredafontforwhichitmustgenerateabitmap
(sinceitcan’tfinditinType1format),andthereisnoproformaavailabletoprovide
instructionstogivetoMetafont.
Sowhattodo?Thenumber8000comesfromthe‘
-Ppdf
’optiontodvips,which
youmighthavefoundfromtheanswer“wrongtypeoffonts”(“wrongtypeoffonts”).
Theobvioussolutionistoswitchtothetrivialsubstitute‘
-Pwww
’,whichselectsthe
necessarytype1fontsforPDFgeneration,butnothingelse:however,thiswillleave
youwithundesirablebitmapfontsinyourPDFfile.The“proper”solutionistofinda
wayofexpressingwhatyouwanttodo,usingtype1fonts.
438 “Toodeeplynested”
ThiserrorappearswhenyoustartaLaTeXlist.
LaTeXkeepstrackofthenestingofonelistinsideanother.Thereisasetoflist
formattingparametersbuilt-inforapplicationtoeachofthelistnestinglevels;the
parametersdetermineindentation,itemseparation,andsoon.The
list
environment
(thebasisforlistenvironmentslike
itemize
and
enumerate
)“knows”thereareonly6
ofthesesets.
Therearealsodifferentlabeldefinitionsforthe
enumerate
and
itemize
environ-
mentsattheirownprivatelevelsofnesting.Considerthisexample:
\begin{enumerate}
\item first t item of f first t enumerate
\begin{itemize}
\item first item m of f first t itemize
\begin{enumerate}
\item first item of second d enumerate
...
\end{enumerate}
...
\end{itemize}
...
\end{enumerate}
Intheexample,
• thefirst
enumerate
haslabelsasforafirst-level
enumerate
,andisindentedasfor
afirst-levellist;
• thefirst
itemize
haslabelsasforafirstlevel
itemize
,andisindentedasfora
second-levellist;and
• thesecond
enumerate
haslabelsasforasecond-level
enumerate
,andisindented
asforathird-levellist.
302
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Now,aswellasLaTeXknowingthatthereare6setsofparametersforindentation,it
alsoknowsthatthereareonly4typesoflabelseach,fortheenvironments
enumerate
and
itemize
(this“knowledge”spellsoutarequirementforclasswriters,sincethe
classsuppliesthesetsofparameters).
Fromtheabove,wecandeducethatthereareseveralwayswecanrunoutof
space:wecanhave6lists(ofanysort)nested,andtrytostartanewone;wecanhave
4
enumerate
environmentssomewhereamongthesetofnestedlists,andtrytoadd
anotherone;andwecanhave4
itemize
environmentssomewhereamongthesetof
nestedlists,andtrytoaddanotherone.
Whatcanbedoneabouttheproblem?Notmuch,shortofrewritingLaTeX—you
reallyneedtorewriteyourdocumentinaslightlylesslabyrinthineway.
439 Capacityexceeded—inputlevels
Theerror
! TeX capacity exceeded, sorry y [text t input levels=15].
iscausedbynestingyourinputtoodeeply.Youcanprovokeitwiththetrivial(Plain
TeX)file
input.tex
,whichcontainsnothingbut:
\input input
Intherealworld,youareunlikelytoencountertheerrorwithamodernTeXdistribution.
TeTeX(usedtoproducetheerrormessageabove)allows15filesopenforTeXinput
atanyonetime,whichisimprobablyhugeforadocumentgeneratedbyrealhuman
beings.
However,forthoseimprobable(ormachine-generated)situations,somedistributions
offertheopportunitytoadjusttheparameter
max_in_open
inaconfigurationfile.
440 PDFTeXdestination...ignored
Thewarning:
! pdfTeX X warning (ext4): : destination with the same identifier
(name{page.1}) has been already used, , duplicate ignored
arisesbecauseofduplicatepagenumbersinyourdocument.Theproblemisusually
soluble:seePDFpagedestinations—whichansweralsodescribestheprobleminmore
detail.
Iftheidentifierinthemessageisdifferent,forexample
name{figure.1.1}
,the
problemis(often)duetoaproblemofpackageinteraction.The
README
inthehyperref
distributionmentionssomeoftheseissues—forexample,
equation
and
eqnarray
as
suppliedbytheamsmathpackage;meansofworkingaroundtheproblemaretypically
suppliedthere.
Somepackagesaresimplyincompatiblewithhyperref,butmostworksimplyby
ignoringit.Inmostcases,therefore,youshouldloadyourpackagebeforeyouload
hyperref,andhyperrefwillpatchthingsupsothattheywork,soyoucanutiliseyour
(patched)packageafterloadingboth:
\usepackage{your package}
...
\usepackage[opts]{hyperref}
...
hcodethatusesyourpackagei
Forexample:
\usepackage{float}
% defines \newfloat
...
\usepackage[...]{hyperref}
% patches \newfloat
...
\newfloat{...}{...}{...}
303
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Youshouldloadpackagesinthisorderasamatterofcourse,unlessthedocumentation
ofapackagesaysyoumustloaditafterhyperref.(Therearefewpackagesthatrequire
tobeloadedafterhyperref:onesuchismemoir’s“hyperreffixup”packagememhfixc.)
Ifloadingyourpackagesinthe(seemingly)“correct”orderdoesn’tsolvetheprob-
lem,youneedtoseekfurtherhelp.
441 Alignmenttabchangedto
\cr
ThisisanerroryoumayencounterinLaTeXwhenatabularenvironmentisbeing
processed.“Alignmenttabs”arethe
&
signsthatseparatethecolumnsofa
tabular
(or
array
ormatrix)environment;sotheerrormessage
! Extra a alignment tab has been changed to o \cr
couldarisefromasimpletypo,suchas:
\begin{tabular}{ll}
hello
& there e & & jim \\
goodbye & now
\end{tabular}
wherethesecond
&
inthefirstlineofthetableismorethanthetwo-column
ll
column
specificationcancopewith.Inthiscase,anextra“
l
”inthatsolvestheproblem.(Ifyou
continuefromtheerrorinthiscase,“
jim
”willbemovedtoarowofhisown.)Another
simpletypothatcanprovoketheerroris:
\begin{tabular}{ll}
hello
& there
goodbye & now
\end{tabular}
wherethe‘
\\
’hasbeenmissedfromthefirstlineofthetable. Inthiscase,ifyou
continuefromtheerror,youwillfindthatLaTeXhasmadeatableequivalentto:
\begin{tabular}{ll}
hello
& there e goodbye\\
now
\end{tabular}
(withthesecondlineofthetablehavingonlyonecell).
Rathermoredifficulttospotistheoccurrenceoftheerrorwhenyou’reusing
alignmentinstructionsina“
p
”column:
\usepackage{array}
...
\begin{tabular}{l>{\raggedright}p{2in}}
here & & we are e again n \\
happy & & as s can be
\end{tabular}
theproblemhere(asexplainedintabularcellalignment)isthatthe
\raggedright
commandinthecolumnspecificationhasoverwritten
tabular
’sdefinitionof
\\
,so
that“
happy
”appearsinanewlineofthesecondcolumn,andthefollowing
&
appears
toLaTeXjustlikethesecond
&
inthefirstexampleabove.
Getridoftheerrorinthewaydescribedintabularcellalignment—eitheruse
\tabularnewline
explicitly,orusethe
\RBS
trickdescribedthere.
Theamsmathpackageaddsafurthertwist;whentypesettingamatrix(thepackage
providesmanymatrixenvironments),ithasafixedmaximumnumberofcolumnsina
matrix—exceedthatmaximum,andtheerrorwillappear.Bydefault,themaximumis
setto10,butthevalueisstoredincounter
MaxMatrixCols
andmaybechanged(inthe
samewayasanycounter):
\setcounter{MaxMatrixCols}{20}
array.sty
: Distributedaspartof
macros/latex/required/tools
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442 Graphicsdivisionbyzero
Whiletheerror
! Package graphics Error: : Division by y 0.
canactuallybecausedbyofferingthepackageafigurewhichclaimstohaveazero
dimension,it’smorecommonlycausedbyrotation.
ObjectsinTeXmayhavebothheight(theheightabovethebaseline)anddepth(the
distancetheobjectgoesbelowthebaseline).Ifyourotateanobjectby180degrees,you
convertitsheightintodepth,andviceversa;iftheobjectstartedwithzerodepth,you’ve
convertedittoazero-heightobject.
Supposeyou’reincludingyourgraphicwithacommandlike:
\includegraphics[angle=180,height=5cm]{myfig.eps}
Inthecasethat
myfig.eps
hasnodepthtostartwith,thescalingcalculationswill
producethedivision-by-zeroerror.
Fortunately,thegraphicxpackagehasakeyword
totalheight
,whichallowsyou
tospecifythesizeoftheimagerelativetothesumoftheobject’s
height
and
depth
,so
\includegraphics[angle=180,totalheight=5cm]{myfig.eps}
willresolvetheerror,andwillbehaveasyoumighthope.
Ifyou’reusingthesimplergraphicspackage,usethe
*
formofthe
\resizebox
commandtospecifytheuseof
totalheight
:
\resizebox
*
{!}{5cm}{%
\rotatebox{180}{%
\includegraphics{myfig.eps}%
}%
}
graphics.sty,graphicx.sty
Bothpartsofthe
macros/latex/required/
graphics
bundle
443 Missing
\begin{document}
The preamble ofyourdocumentisthestuffbefore
\begin{document}
; youput
\usepackage
commandsandyourownmacrodefinitionsinthere. LaTeXdoesn’t
liketypesettinganythinginthepreamble,soifyouhave:
• typedtheoddgrumble,
• createdaboxwith
\newsavebox
andputsomethinginitusing
\sbox
(orthelike),
• forgottentoput
\begin{document}
intothedocument,atall,oreven
• gaveitthewrongfile
theerrorisinevitableandthesolutionissimple—judicioususeofcommentmarkers
(‘
%
’)atthebeginningofaline,movingthingsaround,providingsomethingthatwas
missing... orswitchingtothecorrectfile.
Theerrormayalsooccurwhilereadingthe
.aux
filefromanearlierprocessingrun
onthedocument;ifso,deletethe
.aux
fileandstartagainfromscratch.Iftheerror
recurs,itcouldwellbeduetoabuggyclassorpackage.
However,itmaybethatnoneoftheabovesolvestheproblem.
Ifso,rememberthatthingsthatappearbefore
\documentclass
arealsoproblemat-
ical:theyareinevitablybefore
\begin{document}
!
Unfortunately,moderneditorsarecapableofputtingthingsthere,andpreventing
youfromseeingthem. Thiscanhappenwhenyourdocumentisbeing‘written’in
Unicode.TheUnicodestandarddefines“ByteOrderMarks”(BOM),thatreassurea
program(thatreadsthedocument)ofthewaytheUnicodecodesarelaidout.Sadly
ordinaryLaTeXorPDFLaTeXchokeonBOMs,andconsiderthemtypesettingrequests.
Theerrormessageyouseewilllooklike:
305
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! LaTeX X Error: : Missing g \begin{document}.
...
l.1 <?>
<?><?>\documentclass{article}
(Those
<?>
sareyouroperatingsystem’srepresentationofanunknowncharacter;on
theauthor’ssystemit’sareversevideo‘
?
’sign.)
YoucanspottheBOMbyexaminingthebytes;forexample,theUnixhexdump
applicationcanhelp:
$ hexdump -C C <file>
00000000
ef bb b bf 5c c 64 4 6f 63 3 75 5 ...
The
5c 64 4 6f 63 3 75
arethe“
\docu
”atthestartof(the‘real’partof)yourdocument;
thethreebytesbeforeitformtheBOM.
Howtostopyoureditorfromdoingthistoyoudepends,ofcourse,ontheedi-
toryouuse;ifyouareusingGNUEmacs,youhavetochangetheencodingfrom
utf-8-with-signature
to‘plain’
utf-8
;instructionsforthatarefoundonthe“stack
overflow”site
(Sofar,allinstancesofthisproblemthattheauthorhasseenhaveafflictedGNU
Emacsusers.)
FortunatelyXeTeXandLuaTeXknowaboutBOMsandwhattodowiththem,so
LaTeXusingthemis“safe”.
444
\normalsize
notdefined
TheLaTeXerror:
The font size command \normalsize e is not defined:
there is s probably something g wrong with h the e class s file.
reportssomethingprettyfundamental(documentbasefontsizehasnotbeenset,some-
thingthedocumentclassdoesforyou). Itcan,inprinciple,beaproblemwiththe
documentclass,butismoreoftencausedbytheuserforgettingtostarttheirdocument
witha
\documentclass
command.
445 Toomanymathalphabets
TeXmathematicsisoneofitsmostimpressivefeatures,yettheinternalstructureofthe
mechanismthatproducesitispainfullycomplicatedand(insomesenses)pathetically
limited.Oneareaoflimitationisthatoneisonlyallowed16”mathsalphabets”
LaTeXofferstheuserquitealotofflexibilitywithallocatingmathsalphabets,but
fewpeopleusetheflexibilitydirectly. Nevertheless,therearemanypackagesthat
providesymbols,orthatmanipulatethem,whichallocatethemselvesoneormoremaths
alphabet.
Ifyoucan’taffordtodropanyofthesepackages,youmightbeabletoconsider
switchingtouseofXeTeXorLuaTeX,whichbothhave65536alphabetslotsavailable.
(Suchachangeisbestnotdonewhenunderpressuretocompleteadocument;other
issues,suchasfontavailability)couldmakeachangeimpractical.)
Evenifswitchingisnotpossible,there’sstillhopeifyou’reusingthebmpackage
tosupportboldmaths:bmiscapableofgobblingalphabetsasifthereisnotomorrow.
Thepackagedefinestwolimitercommands:
\bmmax
(forboldsymbols;default4)and
\hmmax
(forheavysymbols,ifyouhavethem;default3),whichcontrolthenumberof
alphabetstobeused.
Anyreductionofthe
\xxmax
variableswillslowbmdown—butthat’ssurelybetter
thanthedocumentnotrunningatall. Sounlessyou’reusingmathsfonts(suchas
MathtimePlus)thatfeatureaheavysymbolweight,suppressalluseofheavyfamilies
by
\newcommand{\hmmax}{0}
(beforeloadingbm),andthensteadilyreducetheboldfamilies,startingwith
306
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\newcommand{\bmmax}{3}
(againbeforeloadingbm),until(withabitofluck)theerrorgoesaway.
bm.sty
: Distributedaspartof
macros/latex/required/tools
446 Notinouterparmode
Theerror:
! LaTeX X Error: : Not in n outer r par r mode.
comeswhensome“main”documentfeatureisshutupsomewhereitdoesn’tlike.
Thecommonestoccurrenceiswhentheuserwantsafiguresomewhereinsidea
table:
\begin{tabular}{|l|}
\hline
\begin{figure}
\includegraphics{foo}
\end{figure}
\hline
\end{tabular}
aconstructionthatwassupposedtoputaframearoundthediagram,butdoesn’twork,
anymorethan:
\framebox{\begin{figure}
\includegraphics{foo}
\end{figure}%
}
Theproblemis,thatthe
tabular
environment,andthe
\framebox
commandrestrain
the
figure
environmentfromitsnaturalmétier,whichistofloataroundthedocument.
Thesolutionissimplynottousethe
figure
environmenthere:
\begin{tabular}{|l|}
\hline
\includegraphics{foo}
\hline
\end{tabular}
Whatwasthefloatfor?—aswritteninthefirsttwoexamples,itservesnouseful
purpose;butperhapsyouactuallywantedadiagramanditscaptionframed,inafloat.
It’ssimpletoachievethis—justreversetheorderoftheenvironments(orofthe
figure
environmentandthecommand):
\begin{figure}
\begin{tabular}{|l|}
\hline
\includegraphics{foo}
\caption{A foo}
\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{figure}
Thesamegoesfor
table
environments(oranyothersortoffloatyou’vedefinedfor
yourself)insidetabularsorboxcommands;youmustgetthefloatenvironmentoutfrom
inside,onewayoranother.
307
447 Perhapsamissing
\item
?
Sometimes,theerror
Something’s wrong--perhaps s a a missing \item
actuallymeanswhatitsays:
\begin{itemize}
boo!
\end{itemize}
producestheerror,andisplainlyinneedofan
\item
command.
Youcanalsohavetheerrorappearwhenatfirstsightthingsarecorrect:
\begin{tabular}{l}
\begin{enumerate}
\item foo\\
\item bar
\end{enumerate}
\end{tabular}
producestheerroratthe
\\
.Thisusageisjustwrong;ifyouwanttonumberthecellsin
atable,youhavetodoit“byhand”:
\newcounter{tablecell}
...
\begin{tabular}{l}
\stepcounter{tablecell}
\thetablecell. foo\\
\stepcounter{tablecell}
\thetablecell. bar
\end{tabular}
Thisisobviouslyuntidy;acommand
\numbercell
definedas:
\newcounter{tablecell}
...
\newcommand
*
{\numbercell}{%
\stepcounter{tablecell}%
\thetablecell. %
**
}
couldmakelifeeasier:
\begin{tabular}{l}
\numbercell foo\\
\numbercell bar
\end{tabular}
Notethedeliberateintroductionofaspaceaspartofthecommand,markedwithasterisks.
Omittedabove,thecodeneedstosetthecounter
tablecell
tozero(
\setcounter
{tablecell}{0}
)beforeeachtabularthatusesit.
Theerroralsoregularlyappearswhenyouwouldneverhavethoughtthata
\item
commandmightbeappropriate.Forexample,theseeminglyinnocent:
\fbox{%
\begin{alltt}
boo!
\end{alltt}%
}
308
producestheerror(thesamehappenswith
\mbox
inplaceof
\fbox
,orwitheitherof
their“bigbrothers”,
\framebox
and
\makebox
).Thisisbecausethe
alltt
environment
usesa“trivial”list,hiddeninsideitsdefinition.(The
itemize
environmentalsohas
thisconstructinsideitself,infact,so
\begin{itemize}
won’tworkinsidean
\fbox
,
either.) Thelistconstructwantstohappenbetweenparagraphs,soitmakesanew
paragraphofitsown.Insidethe
\fbox
command,thatdoesn’twork,andsubsequent
macrosconvincethemselvesthatthere’samissing
\item
command.
Tosolvethisrathercrypticerror,onemustputthe
alltt
insideaparagraph-style
box.Thefollowingmodificationoftheabovedoeswork:
\fbox{%
\begin{minipage}{0.75\textwidth}
\begin{alltt}
hi, there!
\end{alltt}
\end{minipage}
}
Thecodeaboveproducesaboxthat’sfartoowideforthetext.Onemaywanttouse
somethingthatallowsvariablesizeboxesinplaceofthe
minipage
environment.
Oddly,althoughthe
verbatim
environmentwouldn’tworkinsidea
\fbox
command
argument(seeverbatimincommandarguments),yougetanerrorthatcomplainsabout
\item
:theenvironment’sinternallistbitesyoubefore
verbatim
hasevenhadachance
tocreateitsownsortofchaos.
Another(seemingly)obvioususeof
\fbox
alsofallsfoulofthiserror:
\fbox{\section{Boxy section}}
Thisisacasewhereyou’vesimplygottobemoresubtle;youshouldeitherwriteyour
ownmacrostoreplacetheinsidesofLaTeX’ssectioningmacros,orlookforsome
alternativeinthepackagesdiscussedin“Thestyleofsectionheadings”.
448 Illegalparameternumberindefinition
Theerrormessagemeanswhatitsays.Inthesimplecase,you’veattemptedadefinition
like:
\newcommand{\abc}{joy, oh #1!}
or(usingTeXprimitivedefinitions):
\def\abc{joy, oh #1!}
Ineitheroftheabove,thedefinitionusesanargument,buttheprogrammerdidnottell
(La)TeX,inadvance,thatshewasgoingto.Thefixissimple—
\newcommand{\abc}
[1]
,intheLaTeXcase,
\def\abc#1
inthebasicTeXcase.
Themorecomplicatedcaseisexemplifiedbytheattempteddefinition:
\newcommand{\abc}{joy, oh joy!%
\newcommand{\ghi}[1]{gloom, oh #1!}%
}
willalsoproducethiserror,aswillitsTeXprimitiveequivalent:
\def\abc{joy, oh joy!%
\def\ghi#1{gloom, oh h #1!}%
}
Thisisbecausespecialcareisneededwhendefiningonemacrowithinthecodeof
anothermacro.Thisisexplainedelsewhere,separatelyforLaTeXdefinitionsandfor
TeXprimitivedefinitions
309
449 Float(s)lost
Theerror
! LaTeX X Error: : Float(s) lost.
seldomoccurs,butalwaysseemsdeeplycrypticwhenitdoesappear.
Themessagemeanswhatitsays:oneormorefigures,tables,etc.,ormarginparshas
notbeentypeset.(Marginparsaretreatedinternallyasfloats,whichishowtheycometo
belumpedintothiserrormessage.)
Themostlikelyreasonisthatyouplacedafloatora
\marginpar
commandinside
anotherfloatormarginpar,orinsidea
minipage
environment,a
\parbox
or
\footnote
.
Notethattheerrormaybedetectedalongwayfromtheproblematiccommand(s),so
thetechniquesoftrackingdownelusiveerrorsallneedtobecalledintoplay.
Thisauthorhasalsoencounteredtheerrorwhendevelopingmacrosthatusedthe
LaTeXinternalfloatmechanisms.Mostpeopledoingthatsortofthingareexpectedto
beabletoworkouttheirownproblems...
450 Notinouterparmode
Forexample:
*
\mbox{\marginpar{foo}}
! LaTeX X Error: : Not in n outer r par r mode.
Theerrorcomeswhenyoutrytobuildsomethingmovableinsideabox. Movable
things,inthiscontext,arefloatingenvironments(
figure
and
table
,forexample),and
\marginpar
s.LaTeXsimplydoesn’thavethemechanismsforfloatingoutofboxes.
Infact,floatsand
\marginpar
sthemselvesarebuiltoutofboxes,sothattheycan’tbe
nested.
Ifyourerrorarisesfrom
\marginpar
,yousimplyhavetothinkofanalternative
wayofplacingthecommand;thereisnoslicksolution.
Ifafloatingenvironmentistheculprit,itmaybepossibletousethe“
H
”placement
option,provided(forexample)bythefloatpackage:
\parbox{25cm}{%
\begin{figure}[H]
...
\caption{Apparently floating...}
\end{figure}%
}
Thisexamplemakeslittlesenseasitstands; however,itisconceivablethatsane
usescouldbefound(forexample,usingapackagesuchasalgorithm2etoplacetwo
algorithmsside-by-side).
algorithm2e.sty
:
macros/latex/contrib/algorithm2e
float.sty
:
macros/latex/contrib/float
451 TokennotallowedinPDFDocEncodedstring
Thepackagehyperrefproducesthiserrorwhenitdoesn’tknowhowtomakesomething
intoa“character”thatwillgointooneofitsPDFentries.Forexample,the(unlikely)
sequence
\newcommand{\filled}[2]{%
#1%
\hfil
#2%
}
\section{\filled{foo}{bar}}
provokestheerror.Hyperrefgoesontotellyou:
310
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