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files:the
README
mentionspreview-latex,LyX,andafewweb-orientedenvironments.
Notethatdvipnggiveshigh-qualityoutputeventhoughitsinternaloperationsare
optimisedforspeed.
dvi2bitmap
:
dviware/dvi2bitmap
dvipng
:
dviware/dvipng
G
SupportPackagesforTeX
93 (La)TeX-friendlydrawingpackages
(X)FigisamenudriventoolthatallowsyoutodrawobjectsonthescreenofanX
workstation;transfigisasetoftoolswhichtranslatethecodefig. Thelistofexport
formatsisverylong,andincludesMetafontandMetapost,EncapsulatedPostScriptand
PDF,aswellascombinationsthatwrapagraphicsformatinaLaTeXimportfile,which
mayincludeLaTeXcommandstoplacetext(compiledbyLaTeXitself)aslabels,etc.,
inthefigures.
There’snoexplicitportofxfigtowindows(althoughitisbelievedtoworkunder
cygwinwithitsX-windowssystem).However,theprogramjfigisthoughtbymanyto
beanacceptablesubstitute,writteninJava.
Asymptoteisawidely-praiseddevelopmentoftheMetapostlanguage,whichcan
draw 2Dor3Ddiagrams, andcan alsolabeldiagramswithLaTeXtext; copious
documentationisavailableviaasymptote’swebsite.
asymptote
:
graphics/asymptote
xfig
:
graphics/xfig
transfig
:
graphics/transfig
94 TeXCAD,adrawingpackageforLaTeX
TeXCADisaprogramforthePCwhichenablestheusertodrawdiagramsonscreen
usingamouseorarrowkeys,withanon-screenmenuofavailablepicture-elements.Its
outputiscodefortheLaTeX
picture
environment.Optionally,itcanbesettoinclude
linesatallanglesusingtheemTeXdriver-family(
\special
s).TeXCADispartofthe
emTeXdistribution.
AUnixportoftheprogram(xtexcad)hasbeenmade.
emtex
:
systems/msdos/emtex
xtexcad
:
graphics/xtexcad/xtexcad-2.4.1.tar.gz
95 SpellingcheckersforworkwithTeX
‘Traditional’approachestotheproblem(ofcheckingyourspelling)weredesignedto
workwithaplaintextfile;inourcase,wehavean(La)TeXsource.Fortheuser,this
isasimple-to-understandwaytodothejob;butforthespell-checkerprogrammer,
itrequiresheuristic(andhencefallible)analysisof(La)TeXmacrosandsoon. The
alternative,ofviewingthetextafter(La)TeXhasprocessedtheresults,iscoveredbelow.
Theuserofanshell/editorwillusuallyfinditembedsaspellingchecker. For
command-lineuse,thereareseveralchoices,dependingonthesystemyou’reusing.
ForUnix,ispellwaslongtheprogramofchoice;itiswellintegratedwithemacs,and
dealswithsomeTeXsyntax.However,ithasmore-or-lessbeenreplacedeverywhere,
byaspell,whichwasdesignedasasuccessor,andcertainlyperformsbetteronmost
metrics;thereremainssomequestionastoitsperformancewith(La)TeXsources.The
mostrecentoffering(whichiswidelyusedinotheropen-sourcesoftwareprojects)is
Hunspell.Hunspellisavailableforotherarchitectures,too;awebsearchshowsversions
availableforWindows,atleast.
FortheMacintosh,Excaliburhaslongbeenused; itsdistributioncomeswith
dictionariesforseverallanguages.Hunspell(seeabove)isactuallypartofOSXfrom
version10.6.
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TheVMSPascalprogramspellmakesspecialcasesofsomeimportantfeaturesof
LaTeXsyntax.
ForMS-DOS,thereareseveralprograms.Amspellcanbecalledfromwithinan
editor,andjspellisanextendedversionofispell.
Analternativeapproachtakes(La)TeXoutput,andchecksthat.Astraightforward
approachistoproducePDFoutput,andprocessitwithpdftotext,usinganyplaintext
checkerontheresult(thecheckerslistedaboveallworkinthisrôle).Forthistowork
reasonablywell,theusershoulddisablehyphenationbeforemakingthePDFoutput.
The(experimental)LuaTeX/LaTeXpackagespellinggoesonestepfurther:ituses
luacodetoextractwordswhiletypesettingisgoingon,butbeforehyphenationisapplied.
Eachwordislookedupinalistofknownbadspellings,andthewordhighlightedifit
appearsthere.Inparallel,atextfileiscreated,whichcanbeprocessedbya‘normal’
spellingcheckertoproducearevised“badspelling”list.(Thepackagedocumentation
showstheendresult;itincludeswordssuchas‘spellling’,whicharedulyhighlighted.)
4spell
:
support/4spell
amspell
:
support/amspell
aspell
Browse
support/aspell
—choosejustthoselanguagedictionaries
(undersubdirectory
dict/
)thatyouneed.
excalibur
:
systems/mac/support/excalibur/Excalibur-4.0.2.sit.hqx
ispell
:
support/ispell
jspell
:
support/jspell
spelling.sty
:
macros/luatex/generic/spelling
VMS
spell
:
support/vmspell
winedt
:
systems/win32/winedt
96 Howmanywordshaveyouwritten?
Oneoftenhastosubmitadocument(e.g.,apaperoradissertation)undersomesortof
constraintaboutitssize.Sensiblepeoplesetaconstraintintermsofnumbersofpages,
buttherearesomethatpersistinlimitingthenumbersofwordsyoutype.
Asimplesolutiontotherequirementcanbeachievedfollowingasimpleobservation:
thepowersthatbeareunlikelytocountallthewordsofadocumentsubmittedtothem.
Therefore,astatisticalmethodcanbeemployed:findhowmanywordsthereareona
fullpage;findhowmanyfullpagesthereareinthedocument(allowingfordisplaysof
varioussorts,thisnumberwillprobablynotbeaninteger);multiplythetwo.However,
ifthedocumenttobesubmittedistodeterminethesuccessoftherestofone’slife,it
takesabravepersontothumbtheirnoseatauthorityquitesocomprehensively...
Thesimplestmethodistostripoutthe(La)TeXmarkup,andtocountwhat’sleft.
OnaUnix-likesystem,thismaybedoneusingdetexandthebuilt-inwc:
detex <filename> > | | wc c -w
Thetechniqueisbeguilinglysimple,butit’snotterriblyaccurate
Thelatexcountscriptdoesthesamesortofjob,inone“step”;beingaperlscript,it
isinprinciplerathereasilyconfigured(seedocumentationinsidethescript).Several
editorsandshellsoffersomethingsimilar.
TeXcountgoesalongwaywithheuristicsforcounting,startingfromaLaTeXfile;
thedocumentationiscomprehensive,andyoumaytrythescripton-lineviathepackage
homepage.
However,evenquitesophisticatedstrippingof(La)TeXmarkupcanneverbeentirely
reliable:markupitselfmaycontributetypesetwords,orevenconsumewordsthatappear
inthetext.
ThewordcountpackagecontainsaBourneshell(i.e.,typicallyUnix)scriptfor
runningaLaTeXfilewithaspecialpieceofsupportingTeXcode,andthencounting
wordindicationsinthelogfile.Thisisprobablyasaccurateautomaticcountingasyou
canget,ifitworksforyou.
62
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detex
:
support/detex
latexcount.pl
:
support/latexcount/latexcount.pl
TeXcount
:
support/texcount
wordcount
:
macros/latex/contrib/wordcount
H
Literateprogramming
97 WhatisLiterateProgramming?
Literateprogrammingisthecombinationofdocumentationandsourcetogetherina
fashionsuitedforreadingbyhumanbeings. Ingeneral,literateprogramscombine
sourceanddocumentationinasinglefile.Literateprogrammingtoolsthenparsethe
filetoproduceeitherreadabledocumentationorcompilablesource.TheWEBstyleof
literateprogrammingwascreatedbyD.E.KnuthduringthedevelopmentofTeX.
The“documentedLaTeX”styleofprogrammingisregardedbysomeasaformof
literateprogramming,thoughitonlycontainsasubsetoftheconstructsKnuthused.
Discussionofliterateprogrammingisconductedinthenewsgroup
comp.programming.
literate
,whoseFAQisstoredonCTAN. Anothergoodsourceofinformationis
http://www.literateprogramming.com/
LiterateProgrammingFAQ:
help/comp.programming.literate_FAQ
98 WEBsystemsforvariouslanguages
TeXiswrittenintheprogramminglanguageWEB;WEBisatooltoimplementthe
conceptof“literateprogramming”. Knuth’soriginalimplementationwillbeinany
respectabledistributionofTeX,butthesourcesofthetwotools(tangleandweave),
togetherwithamanualoutliningtheprogrammingtechniques,maybehadfromCTAN.
CWEB,bySilvioLevy,isaWEBforCprograms.
FWEB,byJohnKrommes,isaversionforFortran,Ratfor,C,C++,workingwith
LaTeX;itwasderivedfromCWEB.
SpideryWEB,byNormanRamsey,supportsmanylanguagesincludingAda,
awk
,
andCand,whilenotinthepublicdomain,isusablewithoutcharge.Itisnowsuper-
sededbynoweb(alsobyNormanRamsay)whichincorporatesthelessonslearnedin
implementingspideryWEB,andwhichisasimpler,equallypowerful,tool.
SchemeWEB,byJohnRamsdell,isaUnixfilterthattranslatesSchemeWEBinto
LaTeXsourceorSchemesource.
APLWEBisaversionofWEBforAPL.
FunnelWebisaversionofWEBthatislanguageindependent.
OtherlanguageindependentversionsofWEBarenuweb(whichiswritteninANSI
C).
TwebisaWEBforPlainTeXmacrofiles,usingnoweb.
aplweb
:
web/apl/aplweb
cweb
:
web/c_cpp/cweb
funnelweb
:
web/funnelweb
fweb
:
web/fweb
noweb
:
web/noweb
nuweb
:
web/nuweb
schemeweb
:
web/schemeweb
spiderweb
:
web/spiderweb
tangle
:
systems/knuth/dist/web
tweb
:
web/tweb
weave
:
systems/knuth/dist/web
63
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I Formatconversions
99 Conversionfrom(La)TeXtoplaintext
TheaimhereistoemulatetheUnixnroff,whichformatstextasbestitcanforthe
screen,fromthesameinputastheUnixtypesettingprogramtroff.
ConvertingDVItoplaintextisthebasisofmanyofthesetechniques;sometimes
thesimpleconversionprovidesagoodenoughresponse.Optionsare:
• dvi2tty(oneoftheearliest),
• crudetypeand
• catdvi,whichiscapableofgeneratingLatin-1(ISO8859-1)orUTF-8encoded
output.Catdviwasconceivedasareplacementfordvi2tty,butdevelopmentseems
tohavestoppedbeforetheauthorswerewillingtodeclaretheworkcomplete.
AcommonproblemisthehyphenationthatTeXinsertswhentypesettingsomething:
sincetheoutputisinevitablyviewedusingfontsthatdon’tmatchtheoriginal,the
hyphenationusuallylookssilly.
RalphDromsprovidesatxtbundleofthingsinsupportofASCIIgeneration,butit
doesn’tdoagoodjobwithtablesandmathematics.
AnotherpossibilityistousetheLaTeX-to-ASCIIconversionprogram,l2a,although
thisisreallymoreofade-TeXingprogram.
Thecanonicalde-TeXingprogramisdetex,whichremovesallcommentsandcontrol
sequencesfromitsinputbeforewritingittoitsoutput. Itsoriginalpurposewasto
prepareinputforadumbspellingchecker,andit’sonlyusableforpreparinguseful
ASCIIversionsofadocumentinhighlyrestrictedcircumstances.
Tex2mailisslightlymorethanade-TeXer—it’saPerlscriptthatconvertsTeXfiles
intoplaintextfiles,expandingvariousmathematicalsymbols(sums,products,integrals,
sub/superscripts,fractions,squareroots,...)into“ASCIIart”thatspreadsovermultiple
linesifnecessary.Theresultismorereadabletohumanbeingsthantheflat-styleTeX
code.
AnothersignificantpossibilityistouseoneoftheHTML-generationsolutions,and
thentouseabrowsersuchaslynxtodumptheresultingHTMLasplaintext.
catdvi
:
dviware/catdvi
crudetype
:
dviware/crudetype
detex
:
support/detex
dvi2tty
:
dviware/dvi2tty
l2a
:
support/l2a
tex2mail
:
support/tex2mail
txt
:
support/txt
100 ConversionfromSGMLorHTMLtoTeX
SGMLisaveryimportantsystemfordocumentstorageandinterchange,butithas
noformattingfeatures;itscompanionISOstandardDSSSL(see
http://www.jclark.
com/dsssl/
)isdesignedforwritingtransformationsandformatting,butthishasnot
yetbeenwidelyimplemented.SomeSGMLauthoringsystems(e.g.,SoftQuadAuthor/
Editor)haveformattingabilities,andtherearehigh-endspecialistSGMLtypesetting
systems(e.g.,Miles33’sGenera). However,themajorityofSGMLusersprobably
transformthesourcetoanexistingtypesettingsystemwhentheywanttoprint.TeXisa
goodcandidateforthis.Therearethreeapproachestowritingatranslator:
1. Writeafree-standingtranslatorinthetraditionalway,withtoolslikeyaccandlex;
thisishard,inpractice,becauseofthecomplexityofSGML.
2. UseaspecialistlanguagedesignedforSGMLtransformations;thebestknownare
probablyOmnimarkandBalise.Theyareexpensive,butpowerful,incorporating
SGMLqueryandtransformationabilitiesaswellassimpletranslation.
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3. BuildatranslatorontopofanexistingSGMLparser.Byfarthebest-known(and
free!)parserisJamesClark’snsgmls,andthisproducesamuchsimpleroutput
format,calledESIS,whichcanbeparsedquitestraightforwardly(onealsohasthe
benefitofanSGMLparseagainsttheDTD).Twogoodpublicdomainpackages
usethismethod:
• DavidMegginson’ssgmlspm,writteninPerl5.
• JoachimSchrodandChristineDetig’sSTIL,(‘SGMLTransformationsinLisp’).
Bothoftheseallowtheusertowrite‘handlers’foreverySGMLelement,with
plentyofaccesstoattributes,entities,andinformationaboutthecontextwithinthe
documenttree.
Ifthesepackagesdon’tmeetyourneedsforanaverageSGMLtypesettingjob,you
needthebigcommercialstuff.
SinceHTMLissimplyanexampleofSGML,wedonotneedaspecificsystemfor
HTML.However,NathanTorkingtondevelopedhtml2latexfromtheHTMLparserin
NCSA’sXmosaicpackage.TheprogramtakesanHTMLfileandgeneratesaLaTeX
filefromit.TheconversioncodeissubjecttoNCSArestrictions,butthewholesource
isavailableonCTAN.
MichelGoossensandJanneSaarelapublishedaveryusefulsummaryofSGML,
andofpublicdomaintoolsforwritingandmanipulatingit,inTUGboat16(2).
html2latex
source:
support/html2latex
101 Conversionfrom(La)TeXtoHTML
TeXandLaTeXarewellsuitedtoproducingelectronicallypublishabledocuments.
However,itisimportanttorealizethedifferencebetweenpagelayoutandfunctional
markup. TeXiscapableofextremelydetailedpagelayout;HTMLisnot,because
HTMLisafunctionalmarkuplanguagenotapagelayoutlanguage.HTML’sexact
renderingisnotspecifiedbythedocumentthatispublishedbutis,tosomedegree,left
tothediscretionofthebrowser.Ifyourequireyourreaderstoseeanexactreplication
ofwhatyourdocumentlooksliketoyou,thenyoucannotuseHTMLandyoumustuse
someotherpublishingformatsuchasPDF.ThatistrueforanyHTMLauthoringtool.
TeX’sexcellentmathematicalcapabilitiesremainachallengeinthebusinessof
conversiontoHTML.Thereareonlytwogenerallyreliabletechniquesforgenerating
mathematicsontheweb:creatingbitmapsofbitsoftypesettingthatcan’tbetranslated,
andusingsymbolsandtableconstructs. Neithertechniqueisentirelysatisfactory.
Bitmapsleadtoaprofusionoftinyfiles,areslowtoload,andareinaccessibletothose
withvisualdisabilities.Thesymbolfontsofferpoorcoverageofmathematics,andtheir
userequiresconfigurationofthebrowser.Thefutureofmathematicalbrowsingmaybe
brighter—seefutureWebtechnologies.
Fortoday,possiblepackagesare:
LaTeX2HTML aPerlscriptpackagethatsupportsLaTeXonly,andgeneratesmathe-
matics(andother“difficult”things)usingbitmaps.Theoriginalversionwaswritten
byNikosDrakosforUnixsystems,butthepackagenowsportsanillustriouslistof
co-authorsandisalsoavailableforWindowssystems.MichelGoossensandJanne
SaarelapublishedadetaileddiscussionofLaTeX2HTML,andhowtotailorit,in
TUGboat16(2).
Amailinglistforusersmaybefoundvia
http://tug.org/mailman/listinfo/
latex2html
TtH a compiledprogram thatsupportseitherLaTeX orPlain TeX,andusesthe
font/tabletechniqueforrepresentingmathematics.ItiswrittenbyIanHutchinson,
usingflex.ThedistributionconsistsofasingleCsource(oracompiledexecutable),
whichiseasytoinstallandveryfast-running.
TeX4ht acompiledprogramthatsupportseitherLaTeXorPlainTeX,byprocessinga
DVIfile;itusesbitmapsformathematics,butcanalsouseothertechnologieswhere
appropriate.WrittenbyEitanGurari,itparsestheDVIfilegeneratedwhenyourun
(La)TeXoveryourfilewithtex4ht’smacrosincluded.Asaresult,it’sprettyrobust
againstthemacrosyouincludeinyourdocument,andit’salsoprettyfast.
65
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plasTeX aPython-basedLaTeXdocumentprocessingframework.ItgivesDOM-like
accesstoaLaTeXdocument,aswellastheabilitytogeneratemulitpleoutput
formats(e.g.HTML,DocBook,tBook,etc.).
TeXpider acommercialprogramfromMicropress,whichisdescribedon
http://www.
micropress-inc.com/webb/wbstart.htm
;itusesbitmapsforequations.
Hevea acompiledprogramthatsupportsLaTeXonly,andusesthefont/tabletechnique
forequations(indeeditsentireapproachisverysimilartoTtH).Itiswrittenin
ObjectiveCAMLbyLucMaranget.Heveaisn’tarchivedonCTAN;details(includ-
ingdownloadpoints)areavailablevia
http://pauillac.inria.fr/~maranget/
hevea/
Aninterestingsetofsamples,includingconversionofthesametextbythefourfreepro-
gramslistedabove,isavailableat
http://www.mayer.dial.pipex.com/samples/
example.htm
;alinkedpagegiveslistsofprosandcons,bywayofcomparison.
TheWorldWideWebConsortiummaintainsalistof“filters”toHTML,with
sectionson(La)TeXandBibTeX—see
http://www.w3.org/Tools/Word_proc_
filters.html
latex2html
: Browse
support/latex2html
plasTeX
: Browse
support/plastex
tex4ht
:
obsolete/support/TeX4ht/tex4ht-all.zip
(butsee
http:
//tug.org/tex4ht/
)
tth
:
support/tth/dist
102 Otherconversionstoandfrom(La)TeX
troff Tr2latex,assistsinthetranslationofatroffdocumentintoLaTeX2.09format.It
recognisesmost
-ms
and
-man
macros,plusmosteqnandsometblpreprocessor
commands.Anythingfancierneedstobedonebyhand.Twostylefilesareprovided.
Thereisalsoamanpage(whichconvertsverywelltoLaTeX...).Tr2latexisan
enhancedversionoftheearliertroff-to-latex(whichisnolongeravailable).
WordPerfect wp2latexisactivelymaintained,andisavailableeitherforMS-DOSor
forUnixsystems.
RTF Rtf2tex,byRobertLupton,isforconvertingMicrosoft’sRichTextFormattoTeX.
ThereisalsoaconvertertoLaTeXbyErwinWechtl,calledrtf2latex.Thelatest
converter,byUjwalSathyamandScottPrahl,isrtf2latex2ewhichseemsrather
good,thoughdevelopmentofitseemstohavestalled.
TranslationtoRTFmaybedone(forasomewhatconstrainedsetofLaTeXdoc-
uments)byTeX2RTF,whichcanproduceordinaryRTF,WindowsHelpRTF(as
wellasHTML,conversiontoHTML).TeX2RTFissupportedonvariousUnix
platformsandunderWindows3.1
MicrosoftWord Arudimentary(free)programforconvertingMS-WordtoLaTeXis
wd2latex,whichrunsonMS-DOS;itprobablyprocessestheoutputofanarchaic
versionofMS-Word(theprogramitselfwasarchivedin1991).
Forconversionintheotherdirection,thecurrentpreferredfree-softwaremethodis
atwo-stageprocess:
• ConvertLaTeXtoOpenOfficeformat,usingthetex4htcommandoolatex;
• opentheresultinOpenOfficeand‘saveas’aMS-Worddocument.
(NotethatOpenOfficeitselfisnotonCTAN;see
http://www.openoffice.org/
,
thoughmostlinuxsystemsofferitasaready-to-installbundle.)
tex4htcanalsogenerateOpenOfficeODTformat,whichmaybeusedasaninter-
mediatetoproducingWordformatfiles.
Word2TeXandTeX2WordaresharewaretranslatorsfromChikriiSoftlab;positive
users’reportshavebeennoted(butnotrecently).
Ifcostisaconstraint,thebestbetisprobablytouseanintermediateformatsuch
asRTForHTML.Wordoutputsandreadsboth,soinprinciplethisroutemaybe
useful.
66
YoucanalsousePDFasanintermediateformat:AcrobatReaderforWindows
(version5.0andlater)willoutputratherfeebleRTFthatWordcanread.
Excel Excel2LatexconvertsanExcelfileintoaLaTeX
tabular
environment;itcomes
asa
.xls
filewhichdefinessomeExcelmacrostoproduceoutputinanewformat.
runoff PeterVanroose’srnototexconversionprogramiswritteninVMSPascal.The
sourcesaredistributedwithaVAXexecutable.
refer/tib ThereareafewprogramsforconvertingbibliographicdatabetweenBibTeX
andrefer/tibformats.ThecollectionincludesashellscriptconverterfromBibTeX
toreferformataswell.Thecollectionisnotmaintained.
PC-Write pcwritex.arcisaprintdriverforPC-Writethat“prints”aPC-WriteV2.71
documenttoaTeX-compatiblediskfile.ItwaswrittenbyPeterFlynnatUniversity
College,Cork,RepublicofIreland.
WilfriedHennings’FAQ,whichdealsspecificallywithconversionsbetweenTeX-
basedformatsandwordprocessorformats,offersmuchdetailaswellastablesthat
allowquickcomparisonoffeatures.
AgroupatOhioStateUniversity(USA)isworkingonacommondocumentformat
basedonSGML,withtheambitionthatanyformatcouldbetranslatedtoorfrom
thisone.FrameMakerprovides“importfilters”toaidtranslationfromalienformats
(presumablyincludingTeX)toFrameMaker’sown.
excel2latex
:
support/excel2latex
pcwritex.arc
:
support/pcwritex
refer andtibtools
:
biblio/bibtex/utils/refer-tools
rnototex
:
support/rnototex
rtf2latex
:
support/rtf2latex
rtf2latex2e
:
support/rtf2latex2e
rtf2tex
:
support/rtf2tex
tex2rtf
:
support/tex2rtf
tex4ht
:
obsolete/support/TeX4ht/tex4ht-all.zip
(butsee
http:
//tug.org/tex4ht/
)
tr2latex
:
support/tr2latex
wd2latex
:
support/wd2latex
wp2latex
:
support/wp2latex
WordprocessorFAQ(source):
help/wp-conv
103 UsingTeXtoreadSGMLorXMLdirectly
ConTeXt(markIV)canprocesssome*ML,toproducetypesetoutputdirectly.Details
ofwhatcan(andcannot)bedone,arediscussedinTheConTeXtWIKI. ConTeXt
isprobablythesystemofchoicefor(La)TeXuserswhoalsoneedtoworkinXML
(andfriends).(NotethatConTeXtmarkIVrequiresLuaTeX,andshouldthereforebe
regardedasexperimental,thoughmanypeopledouseitsuccessfully).
Oldersystemsalsomanage,usingnomorethan(La)TeXmacroprogramming,to
processXMLandthelike.DavidCarlisle’sxmltexistheprimeexample;itoffersa
solutionfortypesettingXMLfiles,andisstillinactive(thoughnotverywidespread)
use.
OneuseofaTeXthatcantypesetXMLfilesisasabackendprocessorforXSL
formattingobjects,serializedasXML.SebastianRahtz’sPassiveTeXusesxmltexto
achievethisend.
However,modernusagewouldproceedviaXSLorXSLT2toproduceaformattable
version.
Context
:
macros/context/current
xmltex
:
macros/xmltex/base
passivetex
:
macros/xmltex/contrib/passivetex
67
104 Retrieving(La)TeXfromDVI,etc.
Thejobjustcan’tbedoneautomatically:DVI,PostScriptandPDFare“final”formats,
supposedlynotsusceptibletofurtherediting—informationaboutwherethingscame
fromhasbeendiscarded.Soifyou’velostyour(La)TeXsource(orneverhadthesource
ofadocumentyouneedtoworkon)you’veaseriousjobonyourhands. Inmany
circumstances,thebeststrategyistoretypethewholedocument,butthisstrategyis
tobetemperedbyconsiderationofthesizeofthedocumentandthepotentialtypists’
skills.
Ifautomaticassistanceisnecessary,it’sunlikelythatanymorethantextretrieval
isgoingtobepossible;the(La)TeXmarkupthatcreatesthetypographiceffectsofthe
documentneedstoberecreatedbyediting.
IfthefileyouhaveisinDVIformat,manyofthetechniquesforconverting(La)TeX
toASCIIareapplicable.Considerdvi2tty,crudetypeandcatdvi.Rememberthatthere
arelikelytobeproblemsfindingincludedmaterial(suchasincludedPostScriptfigures,
thatdon’tappearintheDVIfileitself),andmathematicsisunlikelytoconverteasily.
ToretrievetextfromPostScriptfiles,theps2asciitool(partoftheghostscript
distribution)isavailable.OnecouldtryapplyingthistooltoPostScriptderivedfroman
PDFfileusingpdf2ps(alsofromtheghostscriptdistribution),orAcrobatReaderitself;
analternativeispdftotext,whichisdistributedwithxpdf.
AnotheravenueavailabletothosewithaPDFfiletheywanttoprocessisoffered
byAdobeAcrobat(version5orlater): youcantagthePDFfileintoanestructured
document,outputthencetowell-formedXHTML,andimporttheresultsintoMicrosoft
Word(2000orlater). Fromthere,one e mayconvertto(La)TeXusingone ofthe
techniquesdiscussedin“convertingtoandfrom(La)TeX”.
Theresultwilltypically(atbest)bepoorlymarked-up.Problemsmayalsoarise
fromtheoddityoftypicalTeXfontencodings(notablythoseofthemathsfonts),which
Acrobatdoesn’tknowhowtomaptoitsstandardUnicoderepresentation.
catdvi
:
dviware/catdvi
crudetype
:
dviware/crudetype
dvi2tty
:
dviware/dvi2tty
xpdf
: Browse
support/xpdf
105 TranslatingLaTeXtoPlainTeX
Unfortunately,no“general”,simple,automaticprocessislikelytosucceedatthistask.
See“HowdoesLaTeXrelatetoPlainTeX”forfurtherdetails.
Obviously,trivialdocumentswilltranslateinatrivialway.Documentsthatuseeven
relativelysimplethings,suchaslabelsandreferences,arelikelytocausetrouble(Plain
TeXdoesn’tsupportlabels).Whilegraphicsareinprinciplecovered,bythePlainTeX
TranslatingadocumentdesignedtoworkwithLaTeXintoonethatwillworkwith
PlainTeXislikelytoamounttocarefullyincluding(orotherwisere-implementing)all
thosepartsofLaTeX,beyondtheprovisionsofPlainTeX,whichthedocumentuses.
Someofthisworkhas(inasense)beendone,intheportoftheLaTeXgraphics
packagetoPlainTeX.However,whilegraphicsisavailable,othercomplicatedpackages
(notablyhyperref)arenot.TheaspiringtranslatormayfindtheEplainsystemauseful
sourceofcode. (Infact,alight-weightsystemsuchasEplainmightreasonablybe
adoptedasanalternativetargetoftranslation,thoughitundoubtedlygivestheusermore
thanthe“bareminimum”thatPlainTeXisdesignedtooffer.)
The
eplain
system:
macros/eplain
’PlainTeX’
graphics
:
macros/plain/graphics
68
J Installing(La)TeXfiles
106 Installingthingsona(La)TeXsystem
Installing(orreplacing)thingsonyour(La)TeXsystemhasthepotentialtoberather
complicated;thefollowingquestionsattempttoprovideastep-by-stepapproach,starting
fromthepointwhereyou’vedecidedwhatitisthatyouwanttoinstall:
• Youmustfindthefileyouneed;
• IfyouaregoingtoinstallaLaTeXpackage,youmayneedtounpackthedistributed
files;
• Itmaybenecessarytogeneratesomedocumentationtoread;
• Youneedtodecidewheretoinstallthefiles;
• Youmustnowinstallthefiles;andfinally
• Youmayneedtotidyupaftertheinstallation.
107 Findingpackagestoinstall
Howdidyoulearnaboutthepackage?
IftheinformationcamefromtheseFAQs,youshouldalreadyhavealinktothe
file(therearelistsofpackagesattheendofeachanswer).Clickononeofthelinks
associatedwiththepackage,andyoucangetthepackage(whichmaybeonefileor
several).
Ifyouheardaboutthefilesomewhereelse,it’spossiblethatthesourcetoldyou
wheretolook;ifnot,trytheCTANsearchingfacilities,suchas
http://www.tex.ac.
uk/search/
.That(rathersimple)searchenginecanreturndatafromasearchofthe
CTANcatalogue(whichcoversmostusefulpackages),ordatafromasearchofthe
namesoffilesonthearchive.
Packagescomeinavarietyofdifferentstylesofdistribution;theverysimplestwill
actuallyofferjust
package.sty
—inthiscase,justdownloadthefileandgetonwith
installation.
Youwillregularlyfindthatthefileyouwant(e.g.,
foo.sty
)isdistributedinaLaTeX
documentedsourcefile
foo.dtx
;thusyoushouldsearchjustforfoo
foo.sty
won’t
bevisibleanywhereonthearchiveorinthecatalogue.
Sincemostpackagesaredistributedinthis
.dtx
/
.ins
way,theyusuallyoccupy
theirowndirectoryonthearchive.Evenifthatdirectorycontainsotherpackages,you
shoulddownloadeverythinginthedirectory:asoftenasnot,packagesgroupedinthis
waydependoneachother,sothatyoureallyneedtheotherones.
Havingacquiredthepackagedistribution,“unpackingLaTeXpackages”outlines
yournextstep.
108 UnpackingLaTeXpackages
Asdiscussedelsewhere,the‘ordinary’waytodistributeaLaTeXpackageisasapair
offiles
package.dtx
and
package.ins
.Ifyou’veacquiredsuchapair,yousimply
process
package.ins
withLaTeX,andthefileswillappear,readyforinstallation.
Othersortsofprovisionshouldordinarilybeaccompaniedbya
README
file,telling
youwhattodo;welistafewexampleconfigurations.
Sometimes,adirectorycomeswithabunchof
.dtx
files,butfewer(oftenonlyone)
.ins
files(LaTeXitselfcomeslookinglikethis).Ifthereismorethanone
.ins
file,
andintheabsenceofanyinstructioninthe
README
file,simplyprocessthe
.ins
file(s)
onebyone.
Ifyou’remissingthe
package.ins
altogether,youneedtoplayarounduntilsome-
thingworks.Some
.dtx
filesare“self-extracting”—theydowithoutan
.ins
file,and
onceyou’veprocessedthe
package.dtx
,
package.sty
hasautomagicallyappeared.
Variousotherodditiesmayappear,butthearchivistsaimtohave
README
fileinevery
package,whichshoulddocumentanythingoutoftheordinarywiththedistribution.
109 Generatingpackagedocumentation
Wearefacedwitharangeof“normal”provision,aswellasseveraloddities.Oneshould
notethatdocumentationofmanypackagesisavailableonCTAN,withouttheneedof
69
anyfurthereffortbytheuser—suchdocumentationcanusuallybebrowsedinsitu.
However,ifyoufindapackagethatdoesnotofferdocumentationonthearchive,or
ifyouneedthedocumentationinsomeotherformatthanthearchiveoffers,youcan
usuallygeneratethedocumentationyourselffromwhatyoudownloadfromthearchive.
Thestandardmechanism,forLaTeXpackages,issimplytorunLaTeXonthe
package.dtx
file,asyouwouldanyordinaryLaTeXfile(i.e.,repeatedlyuntilthe
warningsgoaway).
Avariantisthattheunpackingprocessprovidesafile
package.drv
;ifsucha
thingappears,processitinpreferencetothe
package.dtx
(itseemsthatwhenthe
documentedLaTeXsourcemechanismwasfirstdiscussed,the
.drv
mechanismwas
suggested,butit’snotwidelyusednowadays).
Sometimes,theLaTeXrunwillcomplainthatitcan’tfind
package.ind
(thecode
lineindex)and/or
package.gls
(thelistofchangerecords,notasyoumightimagine,a
glossary).Bothtypesoffileareprocessedwithspecialmakeindexstylefiles;appropriate
commandsare:
makeindex -s s gind package
makeindex -s s gglo -o o package.gls package.glo
Thisauthorfindsthatthesecond(thechangerecord)isgenerallyoflimitedutilitywhen
readingpackagedocumentation;itis,however,valuableifyou’repartofthepackage
developmentteam.Ifyoudon’tfeelyouneedit,justleaveoutthatstep
Anothercommon(andreasonable)trickperformedbypackageauthorsistoprovide
aseparatefile
package-doc.tex
orevensimply
manual.tex
;ifthefile
package.dtx
doesn’thelp,simplylookaroundforsuchalternatives.Thefilesaretreatedinthesame
wayasany“ordinary”LaTeXfile.
110 Installingfiles“where(La)TeXcanfindthem”
Inthepast,packagedocumentationusedalwaystotellyoutoputyourfiles“where
LaTeXcanfindthem”;thiswasalwaysunhelpful—ifyouknewwherethatwas,you
didn’tneedtelling,butifyoudidn’tknow,youwerecompletelystuck.
ItwasfromthisissuethatthewholeideaoftheTDSsprang;“wheretoput”questions
nowcomedownto“where’stheTDStree?”.
Wethereforeanswerthequestionbyconsidering:
• whattreetouse,and
• whereinthetreetoputthefiles.
Onceweknowtheanswertobothquestions,andwe’vecreatedanydirectoriesthat
areneeded,wesimplycopyfilestotheirrightfullocation.
Thishasdonewhattheoldrequirementspecified: LaTeX(orwhatever)can(in
principle)findthefiles.However,inorderthatthesoftwarewillfindthefiles,weneed
toupdateanindexfile.
On a MiKTeX system, , open n the window
Start
!
All Programs
!
MiKTeX
h
version
i!
Settings
, and click on
Refresh FNDB
. The e job may also be done
inacommandwindow,usingthecommand:
initexmf --update-fndb
TheMiKTeXdocumentationgivesfurtherdetailsabout
initexmf
.
OnaTeXLive-basedsystem(oritspredecessorteTeX,usethecommand
texhash
(orifthat’snotavailable,
mktexlsr
—theyoughttobedifferentnamesforthesame
program).
Havingdoneallthis,thenewpackagewillbeavailableforuse.
111 Whichtreetouse
Inalmostallcases,newmaterialthatyouinstallshouldgointothe“local”treeofyour
(La)TeXinstallation.(Adiscussionofreasonsnottousethelocaltreeappearsbelow.)
OnaUnix(-alike)system,usingTeXLiveorteTeX,therootdirectorywillbenamed
somethinglike
/usr/share/texmf-local/
or
/usr/local/share/texmf/
Youcan
asksuchasystemwhereitbelievesalocaltreeshouldbe:
70
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested