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CHAPTER
7
TheX
Y
-picPackage
7.1 IntroducingX
Y
-pic......................................467
7.2 Basicconstructs s .......................................469
7.3 Extensions...........................................474
7.4 Features............................................478
7.5 Furtherexamples s ......................................509
X
Y
-picisageneral-purposedrawingpackagebasedonT
E
X.Itworkssmoothlywithmost
formats,includingL
A
T
E
X,A
M
S-L
A
T
E
X,A
M
S-T
E
X,andplainT
E
X.Ithasbeenusedtotype-
setcomplicateddiagramsfromnumerousapplicationareas,includingcategorytheory,au-
tomata,algebra,geometry,neuralnetworks,andknottheory.X
Y
-pic’sgenericsyntaxlets
youuseaconsistentmnemonicnotationsystemthatisbasedonthelogicalconstructionof
diagramsbythecombinationofvariouselementaryvisualcomponents.Youcanalsowrite
macrosbycombiningthesebasicelementsconsistentlytoformhigher-levelstructuresspe-
cifictotheintendedapplication.
X
Y
-picwasoriginallywrittenbyKristofferHøgsbroRose[105].LaterRossMoore
joinedthedevelopmenteffortandtheensuingcollaborationresultedinextensiverevisions
andextensions[104,106].
7.1 IntroducingX
Y
-pic
TheX
Y
-picsystemisbuiltaroundanobject-orienteddrawinglanguagecalledthekernel:
thisisanotationforcomposing“objects”with“methods”thatcorrespondtothemeaningful
drawingoperationsontheobject.
Thekernelsupportsthefollowingbasicgraphicnotions(seeSection7.2):
• Positionscanbespecifiedinvariousformats.Inparticular,user-definedcoordinates
canbeabsoluteorrelativetopreviouspositions,objects,objectedges,orpointson
connections.
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468
THEX
Y
-picPACKAGE
• Objectscanhaveseveralforms—e.g.,circular,elliptic,andrectangular—andcanbe
adjustedinseveralways,evendependingonthedirectionofotherobjects.Inparticular,
anobjectcanbeusedtoconnecttwootherobjects.
Enhancementstothekernel,called“options”,havetwomainvarieties:extensions(see
Section7.3)addmoreobjectsandmethodstotherepertoire(suchas“curving”and“fram-
ing”),whilefeatures(seeSection7.4)providenotationsforparticularapplicationareas(e.g.,
“arrows”,“matrices”,“polygons”,“lattices”,“knots”).Ingeneral,extensionsprovidevisual
components,whereasfeaturesadddomain-specificnotationsfortheirlogicalcomposition.
ThischaptergivesexamplesofX
Y
-pic’suseinvariousapplicationareas.Throughthis
“teachbyexample”approach,itservesasacomplementtotheX
Y
-picUser’sGuide[106],
whichintroducesthemostusedfeatures,andtheX
Y
-picReferenceManual[104],whichde-
scribesthesyntaxofallX
Y
-piccommandsandtheirarguments.Astudyofourexamples
shouldputyouinanexcellentpositiontostartdrawingyourowndiagrams;wehopeitwill
alsoconvinceyouofthebeauty,power,andflexibilityoftheX
Y
-picpackage.
X
Y
-picconsistsofvariousmodules.Ifyouarenotsurewhichonestoload,itisprobably
Afirstexampleof
X
Y
-piccode besttoload“alargeset”,asfollows:
1
\usepackage[all]{xy}
OnceyouknowenoughaboutX
Y
-pictoidentifywhichfunctionsyouwanttouse,thenyou
canspecifyonlytheextensionsorfeaturesthatareactuallyneeded.Forinstance,
\usepackage[curve,arrow,cmactex]{xy}
loadsthecurveextensionandarrowfeature,whicharetunedtoproduce\specialcom-
mandsunderstoodbyThomasKiffe’sCMacTeXMacintoshportofT
E
Xprograms.
TogetanideaofthephilosophyonwhichX
Y
-picisbased,letusfirstlookathowwe
“construct”anX
Y
-picture.Tomakethingsrelativelyeasy,weconsideramatrix-likediagram.
AsexplainedinmoredetailinSection7.4.2,theprincipalwaytocreateadiagramiswiththe
command\xymatrix{spec},wherespecisthespecificationofthematrixentries,which,in
general,arealignedinrowsandcolumns.Justasinatabularenvironment,entriesinside
arowareseparatedbyampersandsandsuccessiverowsareseparatedby\\.
A
m
i=n
i
2
D

\usepackage[all]{xy}
\[
\xymatrix{
A & & *+[F]{\sum_{i=n}^m {i^2}} \\
& {\bullet} & & D D \ar[ul]
}\]
Example
7-1-1
1
ForformatsotherthanL
A
T
E
X,usethecommand\input xyfollowedby\xyoption{all}.Thealloption
loadsthecurve,frame,tips,line,rotate,andcolorextensionsaswellasthematrix,arrow,andgraph
features.Anyotherfeaturesorextensionsneededmustbeloadedseparately.
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7.2 Basicconstructs
469
ThisexamplehastworowsofthreecolumnsandshowsagooddealabouthowX
Y
-pic
interpretscommands.
• Bydefault,entriesinsideX
Y
-picenvironmentsaretypesetinmathematicsmode,using
“textstyle”,andarecentered.
• Inmanycasesyoumaynotstartentrieswithabaremacroname—suchnamesmustbe
enclosedinbracesorbeotherwise“protected”.
• Asinatabularenvironment,emptyentriesattheendofrowscanbeomittedifnot
referredto.
• Elementscanbeaddressedbytheirrelative(“logical”)positioninthediagram;thus
\ar[ul]drawsanarrowfromthe“current”positiontothematrixcell“oneupand
onetotheleft”.
• Theformatandshapeofanelementcanbecustomizedbyspecifyingan“entrymodi-
fier”(e.g.,“[F]”tellsX
Y
-pictoframetheentry).
Ifyouhavequestionsorneedsomehelp,youcanaddresstheX
Y
-picmailinglist
xy-pic@tug.org,towhichyoucansubscribebyvisitingtheWebsitehttp://tug.org/
mailman/listinfo/xy-pic.
7.2 Basicconstructs
AthoroughknowledgeofhowX
Y
-picinterpretsthevariouscommandswillletyouexploit
itsmanyfunctionsfully.Itwillalsohelpyouunderstandthesubtletiesofthevariousexten-
sionsandfeaturesintroducedinlatersections.
AkernelX
Y
-pictureisenclosedinanxyenvironment:
1
\begin{xy}...\end{xy}
ThelocationatwhichanX
Y
-picobjectisbeing“dropped”iscalledits“position”.Infact,in
mostcasesonlythecoordinatesorshapeofthe“currentposition”isset.
7.2.1 Initialpositions
ThesimplestformofX
Y
-picpositioniscalledabsolute,written<X,Y>.ThecoordinatesX
andYaretheoffsetsrightandabovetheoriginofthepicture,whichthusliesat<0cm,0cm>.
Simplearithmeticoperatorscanbeusedtopositionthecurrentpoint.Acommaisusedto
separateonepositionfromanother:
Example
7-2-1
DL
DR
UL
UR
5,5
\usepackage{xy}
\[\begin{xy}
0*{DL} ,+/r1cm/*{DR}
,<0cm,1cm>*{UL} ,<1cm,1cm>*{UR}
,(5,5)*{5,5}
\end{xy}\]
1
WhenusingX
Y
-picwithformatsotherthanL
A
T
E
X,use\xy...\endxy.
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484
THEX
Y
-picPACKAGE
Squaresandtrianglescanbeeasilycombinedtocreatemorecomplexdiagrams.Aspe-
cialkindofdiagramisthe“pullback”,whichiscreatedasfollows.
Y
Z
g

Z
Y
Y
g

Z
Y
X
p

X
Z
f

T
X
x

T
Z
Y
(x,y)

T
Y
y

\usepackage{diagxy}
\[\bfig
\pullback|brra|
[X\times_ZY‘X‘Y‘Z;p‘g‘f‘g]%
/>‘{.>}‘>/[T;x‘(x,y)‘y]
\efig\]
Example
7-4-9
Inhomologyoneoftenencounters3×3and3×2diagrams.Theyaretypesetwith
the\iiixiiiand\iiixiicommands,respectively,whosedefaultbehaviorisdisplayed
inthefollowingexamples.Theusualorderforthearrowparametersisfirstallhorizontal
arrowsandthenallverticalones,lefttoright,andthentoptobottom.
\usepackage{diagxy}
$\bfig \iiixiii[A‘B‘C‘D‘E‘F‘G‘H‘I; ; 1‘2‘3‘4‘5‘6‘7‘8‘9‘10‘11‘12] \efig$
\quad
$\bfig \iiixii[A‘B‘C‘D‘E‘F; 1‘2‘3‘4‘5‘6‘7] \efig$
G
H
5

H
I
6

E
F
4

D
E
3

A
B
1

B
C
2

C
F
9

B
E
8

A
D
7

D
G
10

E
H
11

F
I
12

D
E
3

E
F
4

A
B
1

A
D
5

B
C
2

B
E
6

C
F
7

Example
7-4-10
Amoreinterestingexampleofa3×2diagramisthefollowing,whereweaddannota-
tions(textandmatrices)tothearrows.Theplacementofthearrowlabelsisspecifiedwith
thefirstargument.Recalltheorderinwhichthearrowcharacteristicsshouldbespecified
(seeExample7-4-10).Wealsoloadtheamsmathpackagesinceweusethepmatrixenvi-
ronment.
\usepackage{diagxy,amsmath}
\[\bfig
\iiixii|aaaalmr|<1000,800>
[X‘Y‘Z‘X\oplus X_0‘Y\oplus X_0\oplus Z_0‘Z\oplus Z_0;
f_1‘f_2‘\begin{pmatrix}f_1&0\\0&1\\0&0\end{pmatrix}‘
\begin{pmatrix}f_2&0&0\\0&0&1\end{pmatrix}‘
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7.4 Features
485
\begin{pmatrix}1\\0\end{pmatrix}‘
\begin{pmatrix}1\\0\\0\end{pmatrix}‘
\begin{pmatrix}1\\0\end{pmatrix}]
\efig\]
Example
7-4-11
X⊕X
0
Y ⊕X
0
⊕Z
0
f
1
0
0 1
0 0

Y ⊕X
0
⊕Z
0
Z⊕Z
0
f
2
0 0
0 0 0 1

X
Y
f
1

X
X⊕X
0
1
0

Y
Z
f
2

Y
Y ⊕X
0
⊕Z
0
1
0
0

Z
Z⊕Z
0
1
0

Finite-stateandstackdiagrams
Finite-statediagramscanalsobetypesetinastraightforwardway:
Example
7-4-12
in


1
b

a


2
a

b


3


a

b


4
a



b

\usepackage[matrix,curve,arrow,tips,frame]{xy}
\[\UseTips
\entrymodifiers={++[o][F]}
\xymatrix @-1mm {
*+\txt{in} \ar[r]
& 1 1 \ar@(dr,dl)[]^b b \ar[r]_a
& 2 2 \ar@(d,dl)[]^a a \ar[r]_b
& 3 3 \ar r ‘u[l] ‘^d[l]_a [l] \ar[r]_b
& *++[o][F=]{4}
\ar ‘dl_l[ll]+/d6mm/‘l_ul[ll]^a a [ll]
\ar ‘u^l[lll]+/u1cm/‘l^d[lll]_b b [lll]
}\]
Inthiskindofdiagram,
1
allstates(elements)areenclosedincircles;hereweusethe
\entrymodifierscommandtospecifythedefaultmodifiertorealizethisgoal.Toget
nicearrowheadsontheendofcurves,weuseComputerModerntips.Tokeepthediagrama
littlemorecompact,wereducetheinterelementspacingby1mm(@-1mmbeforetheopening
braceofthe\xymatrixcommand).Startinganentrywithanasterisk(i.e.,usingtheform
*object)overridesthedefaultsettingsfrom\entrymodifiers;thisfeatureisusedinthe
leftmostcelltoeliminatetheframeandintherightmostcelltotypesetadoublecircle.Note
thatinthelattercasethecompletemodifierspecificationhadtobegiven.Theonlyother
trickybitistheuseofdisplacementstowardstheexterior,whichadd6mm(fora)and1cm
(forb)inestablishingthelocationsoftheturns.
1
Webasedourexampleonthedeterministicfiniteautomatondiagramin[7,p.136];anotherrepresentation
ofthesamediagramcanbefoundin[106,Section3.4],andwealsouseditforExample3-4-10onp.79.
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506
THEX
Y
-picPACKAGE
Notetheuseofthe^characterinthefirstpositionofthelabel“5”,whichplacesthelabel
“above”thearrowwhilethe(default)_characterplacesit“below”.
\usepackage[curve,knot,graph,dvips]{xy}
\[\xygraph{!{0;/r10mm/:}
!{\vover}
[u] !{\hcap[-2]}
[d] !{\vover-}
[ruu] !{\hcap[2]}
}\]
\[\begin{xy} 0;/r10mm/:
,\hcap[-2]\vunder\vunder-
,+(1,2),\hcap[2]
\end{xy}\]
Example
7-4-39
Sinceallknotcrossingsare,bydefault,boundedbyarectangleofonecoordinateunit,
andsinceloopandcapcommandsdonotchangethecurrentpoint,itisconvenienttousethe
graphfeaturetoputtogetherthevariouspiecesofknotcrossingsandjoins.Thisisshown
inthetoppartofExample7-4-39,wherethe\voverand\hcapcommandspositionthe
elementsbyusing“turtle”movements(up,down,left,right).Thebottompartpresentsa
variantdiagraminwhichanexplicitcoordinatemovewasusedtoplacethefinal\hcap.
Notetheuseofthescalingfactors,[2]or[-2].
Commandsarealsoavailabletocombinepiecesinwhichthestringsarebasicallyat
anglesof45degrees,asinthisnextexample.
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
\usepackage[curve,knot,arrow,dvips]{xy}
\[\renewcommand{\labelstyle}{\scriptstyle}
\begin{xy} 0;/r8mm/:
,{\xcapv-|{a}}
, +(0,1) ,{\xcaph|{b}\xunderh|{c}%
\xcaph|{d}\xcapv|{e}}
,-(3,0),{\xoverh|{f}}
,+(1,0),{\xoverh|{g}}
,-(3,1),{\xcapv-|{h}\xcaph-|{i}}
,+(0,1),{\xunderh-|{j}}
,+(0,-1),{\xcaph-|{k}}
,+(0,1),{\xcapv|{l}}
\end{xy}\]
Example
7-4-40
Theplacementofthevariouspiecesinthisconstructioniseasytofollowbylookingatthe
labels.
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CHAPTER
8
ApplicationsinScience,
Technology,andMedicine
8.1 Typographicalrulesforscientifictexts .........................512
8.2 Typesettingchemicalformulae..............................518
8.3 Alignmentandtopologyplotsinbioinformatics...................547
8.4 DrawingFeynmandiagrams s ...............................555
8.5 Typesettingtimingdiagrams...............................572
8.6 Electronicsandopticscircuits...............................576
Becauseofitsunsurpassedmathematicaltypesetting,T
E
Xiswidelyusedintheareaofsci-
ence,technology,andmedicine(STM).Itisnotsurprising,therefore,thattheSTMcommu-
nityhasdevelopedanumberofpackagestotypesetthediagramsandschematicsneeded
intheirvariousdisciplines.Chapter8ofTheL
A
T
E
XCompanion,SecondEdition[83],de-
scribesindetailtheA
M
S-L
A
T
E
Xpackage,whichmakesmarkingup(higher)mathematics
rathermoreconvenientthanwithT
E
X’sbasiccommands.Chapter10ofthatbookmentions
afewsimplepackages,suchasepic,eepic,andpspicture(ortherecentlyreleasedpict2e),
whichcomplementL
A
T
E
X’spictureenvironmentfordrawing“simple”genericgraphics.Of
course,thegeneralpackages,suchas
(Chapters3and4)andPSTricks(Chap-
ters5and6),oreventheslightlymoredirectedX
Y
-picpackage(Chapter7)mayprovideall
thefunctionalityyouneedtotypeseteventhemostcomplexgraphics.Nevertheless,thespe-
cificneedsofagivenusercommunityareoftenbetterservedbyamoretargetedapproach;
thepackagescoveredinthischapteraddresssuchproblemareas.
Inscientifictexts,precisionandconsistencyareoftheutmostimportance.Therefore
westartwithabriefdiscussionoftypographicconventionsinscientifictexts.Thenexttwo
sectionsdescribepackagesfortypesettingchemicalstructuresandcomplexbiologicalpro-
teintopologies.Section8.4exploresvariouswaysofconstructingFeynmandiagrams,an
512
APPLICATIONSINSCIENCE,TECHNOLOGY,ANDMEDICINE
importanttoolusedbyphysicists.Thelasttwosectionsturntoelectronicsanddescribeded-
icatedpackagesfordrawingtimingandcircuitdiagrams.
8.1 Typographicalrulesforscientifictexts
Inscientifictextsthetypographicrepresentationofasymbolcarriesasemanticmeaning.
Authorsworkingintheseareasshould,therefore,beawareofandadheretothesetypograph-
icalconventions.Abriefsummaryofthemostimportantrulesforcomposingscientifictexts
follows(seealso[52,53,56,69]).
Themostimportantruleinallcircumstancesisconsistency:agivensymbolshouldal-
waysbepresentedinthesameway,whetheritappearsinthetextbody,atitle,afigure,a
table,oraformula;onthemainlineorasasuperscriptorsubscript.Animportantcorollary
forL
A
T
E
Xusersisthis:alwaystypesetasymbolineithermathortextmode—nevermixthe
two,eveniftheresultsappeartobethesame.Indeed,withL
A
T
E
X,thefinalvisualappearance
maychangesubstantiallywhenusingadifferentclassfileorafteraddinganewpackage.For
example,whenusingPostScriptfonts,digitsintextaretakenfromthePostScripttextface
andcanlookquitedifferentfromthoseinformulae.Therefore,itisgoodpracticetoalways
typesetnumbersthatrefertoaresultorpartofaformulainmathmode—i.e.,surrounded
by$.
Inscientifictexts,manysymbolsaretraditionallytypesetasRoman(upright)charac-
ters
1
andmaynotbeunderstoodproperlyotherwise.Themostimportantsuchsymbolsare
describedhere:
2
• Units—forexample,g,cm,s,keV.Notethatphysicalconstantsareusuallysetinital-
ics,sothatunitsinvolvingconstantsaremixedRoman–italics,e.g.,keV/c(wherecis
thespeedoflight,aconstant).Unitsymbolsareneverfollowedbyaperiod(seeSec-
tion8.1.1).
• Chemicalelements—forexampleNe,O,Cu—andelementaryparticlenames—forex-
ample,p,K,q,H.Tohelpthetypistproducetypographicallycorrecttexts,packages
thatcontaincommandsrepresentingthevariousnameshavebeendeveloped.Inpar-
ticular,chemistscanusechemsym(seeSection8.1.2),whilethePEN(ParticleEntity
Notation)schemehasbeenproposedforhigh-energyphysics[34].
3
• Standardmathematicalfunctions(sin,det,cos,tan,,,etc.),forwhichthebuilt-in
L
A
T
E
Xfunctionsshouldbeused.
• Numbers.
1
WithLAT
E
X,Romantypeinmathematicsmodecanbeachievedbythe\mathrmcommand.
2
Seehttp://physics.nist.gov/Document/typefaces.pdfforaconvenienttwo-pageoverview.
3
Andy Buckley’s s heppennames s package e is an implementation of the e PEN N notation. He e also o wrote
hepnicenames,whichcomplementsheppennamesbyprovidingmore“user-friendly”namesforoften-occurring
particles.Thesepackagesdo,however,allowyoutoomuchfreedombyofferingthepossibilitytodefinetheoutput
stylefortheparticlenames.Forinstance,youcantypesettheirsymbolsinitalic,astylestilloften(wrongly)used
inAmericanphysicsjournals,ratherthaninRoman,asmandatedbytheIUPAPrules[56]describedhere.See
Section8.4.2foranexampleofhowthesepackagesareusedinpractice.
8.1 Typographicalrulesforscientifictexts
513
Table8.1:Theimportanceoftypographicrulesinscientifictexts
RomanType
ItalicType
A
ampere(electricunit)
A
atomicnumber(variable)
e
electron(particlename)
e
electroncharge(constant)
g
gluon(particlename)
g
gravitationalconstant
l
liter(volumeunit)
l
length(variable)
m
meter(lengthunit)
m
mass(variable)
p
proton(particlename)
p
momentum(variable)
q
quark(particlename)
q
electriccharge(variable)
s
second(timeunit)
s
c.m.energysquared(variable)
t
tonne(weightunit)
t
time(variable)
V
volt(electricunit)
V
volume(variable)
Z
Zboson(particlename)
Z
atomiccharge(variable)
• Namesofwavesorstates(p-wave)andcovariantcouplings(Aforaxial,Vforvector);
namesofmonopoles(Eforelectric,Mformagnetic).
• Abbreviationsthatarepiecesofwords(expforexperimental;minforminimum).
• The“d”inintegrands(e.g.,dp).
Obeyingthesetypesettingconventionshelpsthereaderunderstandatfirstglancethe
meaningofasymbol.Table8.1showsafewexamplesinwhichthemeaningofasymbol
dependsonitstypographicrepresentation.
8.1.1 Gettingtheunitsright
Theimportanceofcorrectlytypesettingunitswasrecognizedearly,andseveralauthorshave
developedpackagestohelpusersinthisrespect.AxelReichertmadeafirststepwithhisunits
andnicefracpackages.MorerecentandcompleteapproachesarePatrickHappel’sunitsdef
packageandDanieEls’sSIstylepackage.Bothcontainusefulrulesforexpressingvaluesof
quantities.
1
SIstylecanbeusedtogetherwithMarcelHeldoorn’sSIunitspackage.Thispack-
age,whichweshalldescribenext,isbyfarthemorecompleteandprovidesfullsupportfor
allunitsdefinedbytheInternationalSystemofUnits(abbreviatedSI
2
),themodernformof
themetricsystem.Itistheworld’smostwidelyusedsystemofunits,bothineverydaycom-
1
TherequirementsforformattingandtypesettingofSIunitsandnumbersaredescribedintheNIST(National
InstituteofStandardsandTechnology)documenthttp://physics.nist.gov/Document/sp811.pdf. A
veryhandychecklistforreviewingcompuscriptsisavailablefromhttp://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/
rules.html.
2
FromtheFrenchnameSystèmeInternationald’Unités.TheSIwasadoptedbythe“GeneralConferenceon
WeightsandMeasures”,whichisalsoknownunderitsFrenchacronymCGPM(ConférenceGénéraledesPoids
etMesures;seehttp://www.bipm.fr/en/convention/cgpm/).TheCGPMmeetsinParisonceeveryfour
years,andthelastCGPMwasheldinOctober2003.TheSIisacoherentsystembasedonsevenbaseunitsas
definedintheCGPM1960andsubsequentconferences.AnoverviewoftheSIsystemisavailableinthebrochure
http://www1.bipm.org/utils/common/pdf/si_brochure_8_en.pdf(eighthedition,2006).
540
APPLICATIONSINSCIENCE,TECHNOLOGY,ANDMEDICINE
Configurations,conformations,andreactionschemes
Numerousconfigurationsoftetrahedralmoleculeswithwedgedbondscanbedrawnus-
ingvariantsofthecommand \tetrahedral. Forinstance,thefollowingFischerdia-
gram,whichshowstheabsoluteconfigurationofthesugarD-glucose,usesfournested
\tetrahedralcommands.
C
CHO
H
OH
C
HO
H
C
H
OH
C
H
OH
CH
2
OH
\usepackage{xymtexps}
\changeunitlength{0.09pt}
\tetrahedral{0==C;1A==CHO;%
2B==H;4B==OH;3A==%
\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);%
2B==HO;4B==H;3A==%
\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);%
2B==H;4B==OH;3A==%
\tetrahedral{0==C;1==(yl);%
2B==H;4B==OH;3A==CH$\sb{2}$OH}}}}
Example
8-2-39
Finally,reactionschemescontainingtetrahedralmoleculeswithwedgedbondscanalso
behandled.Forinstance,considertheWaldeninversionreaction,whichisdrawnwiththe
helpofthechemeqnenvironmentandthe\reactrarrowcommand,bothofwhichare
definedinthechemistpackage(partoftheX
Υ
MT
E
Xdistribution).
\usepackage{xymtexps,chmst-ps}
\begin{chemeqn}
HO\sp{-}~+~
\raisebox{-28pt}{\ltetrahedralS{0==C;1==Cl;%
2==C$\sb{3}$H$\sb{7}$;%
3A==CH$\sb{3}$;4B==C$\sb{2}$H$\sb{5}$}}
\reactrarrow{0pt}{1cm}{}{}\qquad
\raisebox{-28pt}{\dtrigpyramid[{0{~~$\delta+$}}]%
{0==C;4A==HO$\sp{\delta-}$;%
5A==Cl$\sp{\delta-}$;%
1==C$\sb{3}$H$\sb{7}$;%
2A==CH$\sb{3}$;%
3B==C$\sb{2}$H$\sb{5}$}}
\quad\reactrarrow{0pt}{1cm}{}{}\quad
\raisebox{-28pt}{\rtetrahedralS{0==C;1==HO;%
2==C$\sb{3}$H$\sb{7}$;%
3A==CH$\sb{3}$;4B==C$\sb{2}$H$\sb{5}$}}
~+~Cl\sp{-} \label{myeqn}
\end{chemeqn}
+
C
Cl
C
3
H
7
CH
3
C
2
H
5
δ+
C
HO
δ
Cl
δ
C
3
H
7
CH
3
C
2
H
5
C
HO
C
3
H
7
CH
3
C
2
H
5
+
(1)
Example
8-2-40
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