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4.4FancyHeaders
87
Table4.2:IndexKeySyntaxExamples.
Example
Index Entry y Comment
\index{hello}
hello,1
Plainentry
\index{hello!Peter}
Peter,3
Subentryunder‘hello’
\index{Sam@\textsl{Sam}} Sam,2
Formattedentry
\index{Lin@\textbf{Lin}} Lin,7
Formattedentry
\index{Kaese@K\"ase}
Käse,33
Formattedentry
\index{ecole@\’ecole}
école,4
Formattedentry
\index{Jenny|textbf}
Jenny,3
Formattedpagenumber
\index{Joe|textit}
Joe,5
Formattedpagenumber
processedagain,thissortedindexgetsincludedintothedocumentatthe
pointwhereL
A
T
E
Xfinds
\printindex
TheshowidxpackagethatcomeswithLAT
E
X2
ε
printsoutallindexentries
intheleftmarginofthetext. Thisisquiteusefulforproofreadingadocument
andverifyingtheindex.
Notethatthe\indexcommandcanaffectyourlayoutifnotusedcarefully.
My Word \index{Word}. As opposed
to Word\index{Word}. Note the
position of the full stop.
MyWord.AsopposedtoWord. Notethe
positionofthefullstop.
makeindexhasnoclueaboutcharactersoutsidetheASCIIrange. To
getthesortingcorrect,usethe@characterasshownintheKäseandécole
examplesabove.
4.4 FancyHeaders
Thefancyhdrpackage,
6
writtenbyPietvanOostrum,providesafewsimple
commandsthatallowyoutocustomizetheheaderandfooterlinesofyour
document. Lookatthetopofthispage,foranapplicationofthispackage.
Thetrickyproblemwhencustomisingheadersandfootersistogetthings
likerunningsectionandchapternamesinthere. L
A
T
E
Xaccomplishesthis
with atwo-stage approach. . In n theheaderandfooterdefinition,youuse
thecommands\rightmarkand\leftmarktorepresentthecurrentsection
6
AvailablefromCTAN://macros/latex/contrib/supported/fancyhdr.
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\documentclass{book}
\usepackage{fancyhdr}
\pagestyle{fancy}
% with this we ensure e that t the chapter and section
% headings s are e in lowercase.
\renewcommand{\chaptermark}[1]{%
\markboth{#1}{}}
\renewcommand{\sectionmark}[1]{%
\markright{\thesection\ #1}}
\fancyhf{} % % delete e current header r and d footer
\fancyhead[LE,RO]{\bfseries\thepage}
\fancyhead[LO]{\bfseries\rightmark}
\fancyhead[RE]{\bfseries\leftmark}
\renewcommand{\headrulewidth}{0.5pt}
\renewcommand{\footrulewidth}{0pt}
\addtolength{\headheight}{0.5pt} % space for the rule
\fancypagestyle{plain}{%
\fancyhead{} % get rid d of f headers s on n plain pages
\renewcommand{\headrulewidth}{0pt} % and the e line
}
Figure4.1: ExamplefancyhdrSetup.
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4.5The VerbatimPackage
89
andchapterheading,respectively. Thevaluesofthesetwocommandsare
overwrittenwheneverachapterorsectioncommandisprocessed.
Forultimateflexibility,the\chaptercommandanditsfriendsdonot
redefine \rightmark and \leftmark themselves. . Theycall l yet another
command(\chaptermark,\sectionmark,or\subsectionmark)thatisre-
sponsibleforredefining\rightmarkand\leftmark.
Ifyouwanttochangethelookofthechapternameintheheaderline,
youneedonly“renew”the\chaptermarkcommand.
Figure4.1showsapossiblesetupforthefancyhdrpackagethatmakes
theheaderslookaboutthesameastheylookinthisbooklet.Inanycase,I
suggestyoufetchthedocumentationforthepackageattheaddressmentioned
inthefootnote.
4.5 TheVerbatimPackage
Earlierinthisbook,yougottoknowtheverbatimenvironment. Inthis
section,youaregoingtolearnabouttheverbatimpackage. Theverbatim
packageisbasicallyare-implementationoftheverbatimenvironmentthat
worksaroundsomeofthelimitationsoftheoriginalverbatimenvironment.
Thisbyitself isnotspectacular,buttheimplementationof theverbatim
packageaddednewfunctionality,whichiswhyIammentioningthepackage
here.Theverbatimpackageprovidesthe
\verbatiminput{filename}
command,whichallowsyoutoincluderawASCIItextintoyourdocument
asifitwereinsideaverbatimenvironment.
Astheverbatimpackageispartofthe‘tools’bundle,youshouldfindit
pre-installedonmostsystems. Ifyouwanttoknowmoreaboutthispackage,
makesuretoread[10].
4.6 InstallingExtraPackages
MostL
A
T
E
Xinstallationscomewithalargesetofpre-installedstylepackages,
butmanymoreareavailableonthenet. Themainplacetolookforstyle
packagesontheInternetisCTAN(http://www.ctan.org/).
Packagessuchasgeometry,hyphenat,andmanyothersaretypicallymade
upoftwofiles: afilewiththeextension.insandanotherwiththeextension
.dtx. There e will often be a readme.txt witha brief descriptionof the
package. Youshouldofcoursereadthisfilefirst.
Inanyevent,onceyouhavecopiedthepackagefilesontoyourmachine,
youstillhavetoprocesstheminawaythat(a)tellsyourT
E
Xdistribution
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90
Specialities
aboutthenewstylepackageand(b)givesyouthedocumentation. Here’s
howyoudothefirstpart:
1. RunLAT
E
Xonthe.insfile. Thiswillextracta.styfile.
2. Movethe.styfiletoaplacewhereyourdistributioncanfindit. Usually
thisisinyour.../localtexmf/tex/latexsubdirectory(Windowsor
OS/2usersshouldfeelfreetochangethedirectionoftheslashes).
3. Refresh yourdistribution’s file-name database. . The e command de-
pendsontheL
A
T
E
Xdistributionyouuse:T
E
Xlive–texhash;web2c–
maktexlsr;MiKT
E
X–initexmf --update-fndborusetheGUI.
Nowextractthedocumentationfromthe.dtxfile:
1. RunLAT
E
Xonthe.dtxfile. Thiswillgeneratea.dvifile. Notethatyou
mayhavetorunLAT
E
Xseveraltimesbeforeitgetsthecross-references
right.
2. ChecktoseeifLAT
E
Xhasproduceda.idxfileamongthevariousfiles
younowhave. Ifyoudonotseethisfile,thenthedocumentationhas
noindex.Continuewithstep5.
3. Inordertogeneratetheindex,typethefollowing:
makeindex -s gind.ist name
(wherenamestandsforthemain-filenamewithoutanyextension).
4. RunL
A
T
E
Xonthe.dtxfileonceagain.
5. Lastbutnotleast,makea.psor.pdffiletoincreaseyourreading
pleasure.
Sometimesyouwillseethata.glo(glossary)filehasbeenproduced.
Runthefollowingcommandbetweenstep4and5:
makeindex -s gglo.ist -o name.gls name.glo
BesuretorunLAT
E
Xonthe.dtxonelasttimebeforemovingontostep5.
4.7 WorkingwithpdfL
A
T
E
X
ByDanielFlipo <Daniel.Flipo@univ-lille1.fr>
PDF isaportablehypertextdocumentformat. . Muchasin n awebpage,
somewordsinthedocumentaremarkedashyperlinks. Theylinktoother
placesinthedocumentoreventootherdocuments. Ifyouclickonsucha
hyperlinkyougettransportedtothedestinationofthelink.Inthecontext
of L
A
T
E
X,thismeansthatalloccurrencesof \refand\pageref become
hyperlinks. Additionally,thetableofcontents,theindexandalltheother
similarstructuresbecomecollectionsofhyperlinks.
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4.7WorkingwithpdfL
A
T
E
X
91
MostwebpagesyoufindtodayarewritteninHTML(HyperTextMarkup
Language). Thisformat t has two o significantdisadvantages s when writing
scientificdocuments:
1. IncludingmathematicalformulaeintoHTMLdocumentsisnotgener-
allysupported.Whilethereisastandardforit,mostbrowsersused
todaydonotsupportit,orlacktherequiredfonts.
2. PrintingHTML documentsispossible, butthe resultsvarywidely
betweenplatformsandbrowsers.Theresultsaremilesremovedfrom
thequalitywehavecometoexpectintheLAT
E
Xworld.
There havebeen manyattemptsto create translatorsfrom L
A
T
E
Xto
HTML.Some wereevenquite successfulinthe sense thattheyare able
toproducelegiblewebpagesfromastandardL
A
T
E
Xinputfile. Butallof
themcutcornersleftandrighttogetthejobdone. Assoonasyoustart
usingmorecomplexL
A
T
E
Xfeaturesandexternalpackagesthingstendto
fallapart. Authorswishingtopreservetheuniquetypographicqualityof
theirdocumentsevenwhenpublishingonthewebturntoPDF (Portable
DocumentFormat),whichpreservesthelayoutofthedocumentandpermits
hypertextnavigation. Mostmodernbrowserscomewithpluginsthatallow
thedirectdisplayofPDFdocuments.
EventhoughthereareDVIandPSviewersforalmosteveryplatform,
youwillfindthatAcrobatReaderandXpdfforviewingPDFdocumentsare
morewidelydeployed
7
. SoprovidingPDFversionsofyourdocumentswill
makethemmuchmoreaccessibletoyourpotentialreaders.
4.7.1 PDFDocumentsfortheWeb
ThecreationofaPDFfilefromL
A
T
E
Xsourceisverysimple,thankstothe
pdfT
E
Xprogram developedbyHànTh
´
êThành. pdfT
E
X producesPDF
outputwherenormalT
E
XproducesDVI.ThereisalsoapdfL
A
T
E
X,which
producesPDFoutputfromLAT
E
Xsources.
BothpdfT
E
XandpdfLAT
E
Xareinstalledautomaticallybymostmodern
T
E
Xdistributions,suchasteT
E
X,fpT
E
X,MikT
E
X,T
E
XLiveandCMacT
E
X.
ToproduceaPDFinsteadofDVI,itissufficienttoreplacethecommand
latex file.texbypdflatex file.tex. OnsystemswhereL
A
T
E
Xisnot
calledfromthecommandline,youmayfindaspecialbuttonintheT
E
X
GUI.
Setthe papersize withan optionaldocumentclassargumentsuch as
a4paperorletterpaper. ThisworksinpdfLAT
E
Xtoo,butontopofthis
pdfT
E
Xalsoneedstoknowthephysicalsizeofthepapertodeterminethe
physicalsizeofthepagesinthepdffile. Ifyouusethehyperrefpackage(see
page93),thepapersizewillbeadjustedautomatically.Otherwiseyouhave
7
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Specialities
todothismanuallybyputtingthefollowinglinesintothepreambleofthe
document:
\pdfpagewidth=\paperwidth
\pdfpageheight=\paperheight
Thefollowingsectionwillgointomoredetailregardingthedifferences
betweennormalL
A
T
E
XandpdfL
A
T
E
X. Themaindifferencesconcernthree
areas: thefontstouse,theformatofimagestoinclude,andthemanual
configurationofhyperlinks.
4.7.2 TheFonts
pdfLAT
E
Xcandealwithallsortsoffonts(PKbitmaps,TrueType,PostScript
type1...) butthenormalLAT
E
Xfontformat,thebitmapPKfontsproduce
veryuglyresultswhenthedocumentisdisplayedwithAcrobatReader. Itis
besttousePostScriptType1fontsexclusivelytoproducedocumentsthat
displaywell. ModernTeXinstallationswillbesetupsothatthishappens
automatically. Bestistotry. Ifitworksforyou,justskipthiswholesection.
TheType1fontsetmostwidelyusedtodayiscalledLatinModern(LM).
IfyouhavearecentT
E
Xinstallation,chancesarethatyoualreadyhavea
copyoftheminstalled;allyouneedtodoistoadd
\usepackage{lmodern}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage{textcomp}
tothepreambleofyourdocumentandyouareallsetforcreatingexcellent
PDF outputwithfullsupportforthefullLatincharacterset. . Ifyouare
working with astrippeddown setup, youmayhave toaddthe lmfonts
explicitly.
FortheRussianlanguageyoumaywanttouseC1virtualfonts,available
at ftp://ftp.vsu.ru/pub/tex/font-packs/c1fonts. These e fonts com-
binethestandardCMtype1fontsfromBlueskycollectionandCMCYR
type1fontsfrom theParadissa andBaKoMa collection,allavailableon
CTAN.BecauseParadissafontscontainonlyRussianletters,C1fontsare
missingotherCyrillicglyphs.
AnothersolutionistoswitchtootherPostScripttype1fonts. Actually,
someofthemareevenincludedwitheverycopyofAcrobatReader. Because
thesefontshavedifferentcharactersizes,thetextlayoutonyourpageswill
change. GenerallytheseotherfontswillusemorespacethantheCMfonts,
whichare veryspace-efficient. . Also,the e overallvisualcoherenceofyour
documentwillsufferbecause Times,HelveticaandCourier(the primary
candidatesforsuchareplacementjob)havenotbeendesignedtoworkin
harmonyinasingledocument.
4.7WorkingwithpdfL
A
T
E
X
93
Twoready-madefontsetsareavailableforthispurpose: pxfonts,whichis
basedonPalatinoasitsmaintextbodyfont,andthetxfontspackage,which
isbasedonTimes. Tousethemitissufficienttoputthefollowinglinesinto
thepreambleofyourdocument:
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage{pxfonts}
Youmayfindlineslike
Warning: pdftex (file eurmo10): : Font eur... . not t found
inthe.logfileaftercompilingyourinputfile. Theymeanthatsomefont
usedinthedocumenthasnotbeenfound.Makesureyouidentifyandfix
theoffendingpartsofyourdocument,astheresultingPDFdocumentmay
notdisplaythepageswiththemissingcharactersatall.
4.7.3 UsingGraphics
Includinggraphicsintoadocumentworksbestwiththegraphicxpackage
(seepage83):
\usepackage{xcolor,graphicx}
InthesampleaboveIhaveincludedthe colorpackage,asusing colorin
documentsdisplayedonthewebcomesquitenaturally.
Somuchforthegoodnews. ThebadnewsisthatgraphicsinEncapsulated
PostScriptformatdonotworkwithpdfL
A
T
E
X. Ifyoudon’tdefineafile
extensioninthe\includegraphicscommand,graphicxwillgolookingfora
suitablefileonitsown,dependingonthesettingofthedriver option.For
pdftexthisisformats.png,.pdf,.jpgand.mps(METAPOST)—butnot
.eps.
ThesimplewayoutofthisproblemistojustconvertyourEPSfilesinto
PDFformatusingtheepstopdfutilityfoundonmanysystems. Forvector
graphics(drawings)thisisagreatsolution. Forbitmaps(photos,scans)this
isnotideal,becausethePDFformatnativelysupportstheinclusionofPNG
andJPEGimages.PNGisgoodforscreenshotsandotherimageswithfew
colours.JPEGisgreatforphotos,asitisveryspace-efficient.
Itmayevenbedesirablenottodrawcertaingeometricfigures,butrather
describethe figure withaspecializedcommandlanguage,suchasMETA-
POST,whichcanbefoundinmostT
E
Xdistributions,andcomeswithits
ownextensivemanual.
4.7.4 HypertextLinks
Thehyperrefpackagewilltakecareofturningallinternalreferencesofyour
documentintohyperlinks. Forthistoworkproperlysomemagicisnecessary,
94
Specialities
soyouhavetoput\usepackage[pdftex]{hyperref}asthelast command
intothepreambleofyourdocument.
Manyoptionsareavailabletocustomizethebehaviourofthehyperref
package:
• eitherasacommaseparatedlistafterthepdftexoption
\usepackage[pdftex]{hyperref}
• oronindividuallineswiththecommand\hypersetup{options}.
Theonlyrequiredoptionispdftex;theothersareoptionalandallow
youtochangethedefaultbehaviourofhyperref.Inthefollowinglistthe
defaultvaluesarewritteninanuprightfont.
bookmarks (=true,false) showorhidethebookmarksbarwhen
displayingthedocument
unicode (=false,true) allowstheuseofcharactersofnon-latinbased
languagesinAcrobat’sbookmarks
pdftoolbar (=true,false) showorhideAcrobat’stoolbar
pdfmenubar (=true,false) showorhideAcrobat’smenu
pdffitwindow (=false,true) adjusttheinitialmagnificationofthePDF
whendisplayed
pdftitle (={text}) definethetitlethatgetsdisplayedintheDocument
InfowindowofAcrobat
pdfauthor (={text}) thenameofthePDF’sauthor
pdfnewwindow (=false,true) definewhetheranewwindowshouldbe
openedwhenalinkleadsoutofthecurrentdocument
colorlinks (=false,true) surroundthelinksbycolourframes(false)
orcolourthetextofthelinks(true). Thecolouroftheselinkscanbe
configuredusingthefollowingoptions(defaultcoloursareshown):
linkcolor (=red) colourofinternallinks(sections,pages,etc.)
citecolor (=green) colourofcitationlinks(bibliography)
filecolor (=magenta) colouroffilelinks
urlcolor (=cyan) colourofURLlinks(mail,web)
8Itisworthnotingthatthehyperref packageisnotlimitedtoworkwithpdfT
E
X. It
canalsobeconfiguredtoembedPDF-specificinformationintotheDVIoutputofnormal
L
A
T
E
X,whichthengetsputintothePSfilebydvipsandisfinallypickedupbythepdf
convertorwhenturningthePSfileintoPDF.
4.7WorkingwithpdfL
A
T
E
X
95
Ifyouarehappywiththedefaults,use
\usepackage[pdftex]{hyperref}
Tohavethebookmarklistopenandlinksincolour(the=truevalues
areoptional):
\usepackage[pdftex,bookmarks,colorlinks]{hyperref}
WhencreatingPDFsdestinedforprinting,colouredlinksarenotagood
thingastheyendupingrayinthefinaloutput,makingitdifficulttoread.
Usecolourframes,whicharenotprinted:
\usepackage{hyperref}
\hypersetup{colorlinks=false}
ormakelinksblack:
\usepackage{hyperref}
\hypersetup{colorlinks,%
citecolor=black,%
filecolor=black,%
linkcolor=black,%
urlcolor=black,%
pdftex}
When you just wantto o provide information n for the Document Info
sectionofthePDFfile:
\usepackage[pdfauthor={Pierre Desproges},%
pdftitle={Des femmes s qui i tombent},%
pdftex]{hyperref}
Inadditiontotheautomatichyperlinksforcrossreferences,itispossible
toembedexplicitlinksusing
\href{url}{text}
Thecode
The \href{http://www.ctan.org}{CTAN} website.
producestheoutput“CTAN”;aclickontheword“CTAN”willtakeyouto
theCTANwebsite.
IfthedestinationofthelinkisnotaURLbutalocalfile,usethe\href
commandwithoutthe’http://’bit:
The complete e document t is \href{manual.pdf}{here}
96
Specialities
whichproducesthetext“Thecompletedocumentishere”. Aclickonthe
word“here”willopenthefilemanual.pdf. (Thefilenameisrelativetothe
locationofthecurrentdocument).
Theauthorof anarticlemightwantherreadersto easilysendemail
messagesbyusingthe\hrefcommandinsidethe\authorcommandonthe
titlepageofthedocument:
\author{Mary Oetiker $<$\href{mailto:mary@oetiker.ch}%
{mary@oetiker.ch}$>$
NotethatIhaveputthelinksothatmyemailaddressappearsnotonlyin
thelinkbutalsoonthepageitself.Ididthisbecausethelink
\href{mailto:mary@oetiker.ch}{Mary Oetiker}
wouldworkwellwithin Acrobat,butoncethe page isprinted theemail
addresswouldnotbevisibleanymore.
4.7.5 ProblemswithLinks
Messageslikethefollowing:
! pdfTeX X warning g (ext4): destination n with the e same
identifier (name{page.1}) has been n already used,
duplicate ignored
appearwhenacountergetsreinitialized,forexamplebyusingthecommand
\mainmatterprovidedbythebookdocumentclass. Itresetsthepagenumber
counterto1priortothefirstchapterofthebook. Butastheprefaceofthe
bookalsohasapagenumber1alllinksto“page1”wouldnotbeunique
anymore,hencethenoticethat“duplicatehasbeenignored.”
The countermeasure consistsof putting plainpages=false into the
hyperrefoptions.Thisunfortunatelyonlyhelpswiththepagecounter. An
evenmoreradicalsolutionistousetheoption
hypertexnames=false,butthiswillcausethepage linksintheindexto
stopworking.
4.7.6 ProblemswithBookmarks
Thetextdisplayedbybookmarksdoesnotalwayslooklikeyouexpectitto
look.Becausebookmarksare“justtext,”fewercharactersareavailablefor
bookmarksthanfornormalLAT
E
Xtext.Hyperrefwillnormallynoticesuch
problemsandputupawarning:
Package hyperref Warning:
Token not allowed in a a PDFDocEncoded string:
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