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5.3ThePGFandTikZGraphicsPackages
117
\begin{tikzpicture}[scale=0.8]
\tikzstyle{v}=[circle, minimum size=2mm,inner sep=0pt,draw]
\foreach \i in {1,...,8}
\foreach \j in {1,...,3}
\node[v]
(G-\i-\j) at (\i,\j) ) {};
\foreach \i in {1,...,8}
\foreach \j/\o in {1/2,2/3}
\draw[->]
(G-\i-\j) -- (G-\i-\o);
\foreach \i/\n in
{1/2,2/3,3/4,4/5,5/6,6/7,7/8}
\foreach \j/\o in {1/2,2/3} {
\draw[->] (G-\i-\j) -- (G-\n-\o);
\draw[->] (G-\n-\j) -- (G-\i-\o);
}
\end{tikzpicture}
Withthe\usetikzlibrarycommandinthepreambleyoucanenablea
widevarietyofadditionalfeaturesfordrawingspecialshapes,likethisbox
whichisslightlybent.
\usetikzlibrary{%
decorations.pathmorphing}
\begin{tikzpicture}[
decoration={bent,aspect=.3}]
\draw [decorate,fill=lightgray]
(0,0) rectangle (5.5,4);
\node[circle,draw]
(A) at (.5,.5) {A};
\node[circle,draw]
(B) at (5,3.5) {B};
\draw[->,decorate] (A) -- (B);
\draw[->,decorate] (B) -- (A);
\end{tikzpicture}
A
B
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118
ProducingMathematical Graphics
\usetikzlibrary{positioning}
\begin{tikzpicture}[xscale=6,
yscale=8,>=stealth]
\tikzstyle{v}=[circle,
minimum size=1mm,draw,thick]
\node[v] (a) {$1$};
\node[v] (b) [right=of a] ] {$2$};
\node[v] (c) [below=of a] ] {$2$};
\node[v] (d) [below=of b] ] {$1$};
\draw[thick,->]
(a) to node {} (c);
\draw[thick,->]
(a) to node {} (d);
\draw[thick,->]
(b) to node {} (d);
\end{tikzpicture}
1
2
2
1
Youcanevendrawsyntaxdiagramsthatlookasiftheycamestraight
fromabookonPascalprogramming. Thecodeisabitmoredauntingthan
theexampleabove,soIwilljustshowyoutheresult.Ifyouhavealookat
thepgfdocumentationyouwillfindadetailedtutorialondrawingthisexact
diagram.
+
unsignedinteger
.
digit
E
unsigned integer
-
Andthereismore,ifyouhavetodrawplotsofnumericaldataorfunctions,
youshouldhaveacloserlookatthepgfplotpackage.Itprovideseverything
youneedtodrawplots.Itcanevencalltheexternalgnuplotcommandto
evaluateactualfunctionsyouwroteintothegraph.
FormoreinspirationmakesuretovisitKjellMagneFauske’sexcellent
http://www.texample.net/tikz/. itcontainsaneverexpandingstoreof
beautifulgraphsandotherLAT
E
Xcode.OnT
E
Xample.netyouwillalsofind
alistoftoolstoworkwithPGF/TikZsothatyoudonothavetowriteall
thatcodebyhand.
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Chapter6
CustomisingL
A
T
E
X
Documentsproducedwiththecommandsyouhavelearneduptothispointwill
lookacceptabletoalargeaudience. Whiletheyarenotfancy-looking,theyobey
alltheestablishedrulesofgoodtypesetting,whichwillmakethemeasytoread
andpleasanttolookat.
However,therearesituationswhereL
A
T
E
Xdoesnotprovideacommandor
environmentthatmatchesyourneeds,ortheoutputproducedbysomeexisting
commandmaynotmeetyourrequirements.
Inthischapter,IwilltrytogivesomehintsonhowtoteachLAT
E
Xnewtricks
andhowtomakeitproduceoutputthatlooksdifferentfromwhatisprovided
bydefault.
6.1 NewCommands,EnvironmentsandPackages
YoumayhavenoticedthatallthecommandsIintroduceinthisbookare
typesetinabox,andthattheyshowupintheindexattheendofthebook.
InsteadofdirectlyusingthenecessaryL
A
T
E
Xcommandstoachievethis,I
havecreatedapackageinwhichIdefinednewcommandsandenvironments
forthispurpose.NowIcansimplywrite:
\begin{lscommand}
\ci{dum}
\end{lscommand}
\dum
Inthisexample,Iamusingbothanewenvironmentcalled
lscommand,whichisresponsiblefordrawingtheboxaroundthecommand,
andanewcommandnamed\ci,whichtypesetsthecommandnameand
makesacorrespondingentryintheindex. Checkthisoutbylookingupthe
\dumcommandintheindexatthebackofthisbook,whereyou’llfindan
entryfor\dum,pointingtoeverypagewhereImentionedthe\dumcommand.
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120
CustomisingL
A
T
E
X
IfIeverdecidethatIdonotlikehavingthecommandstypesetinabox
anymore,Icansimplychangethedefinitionofthelscommandenvironment
tocreatea newlook. . Thisismucheasierthangoingthroughthe e whole
documenttohuntdownalltheplaceswhereIhaveusedsomegenericLAT
E
X
commandstodrawaboxaroundsomeword.
6.1.1 NewCommands
Toaddyourowncommands,usethe
\newcommand{name}[num]{definition}
command. Basically,thecommandrequirestwoarguments: thenameof
thecommandyouwanttocreate,andthedefinitionofthecommand. The
num argumentinsquarebracketsisoptionalandspecifiesthenumberof
argumentsthe newcommand takes(upto 9are possible). . Ifmissingit
defaultsto0,i.e.noargumentallowed.
Thefollowingtwoexamplesshouldhelpyoutogettheidea. Thefirst
exampledefinesanewcommandcalled\tnss. Thisisshortfor“TheNot
SoShortIntroductiontoLAT
E
X2
ε
.”Suchacommandcouldcomeinhandy
ifyouhadtowritethetitleofthisbookoverandoveragain.
\newcommand{\tnss}{The not
so Short Introduction to
\LaTeXe}
This is ‘‘\tnss’’ \ldots{}
‘‘\tnss’’
Thisis“ThenotsoShortIntroductionto
LAT
E
X2
ε
”... “ThenotsoShortIntroduc-
tiontoLAT
E
X2
ε
Thenextexampleillustrateshowtodefineanewcommandthattakes
oneargument. The#1taggetsreplacedbytheargumentyouspecify. Ifyou
wantedtousemorethanoneargument,use#2andsoon.
\newcommand{\txsit}[2]
{This is the \emph{#1}
#2 Introduction to \LaTeXe}
% in the document body:
\begin{itemize}
\item \txsit{not so}{short}
\item \txsit{very}{long}
\end{itemize}
• ThisisthenotsoshortIntroduction
toLAT
E
X2
ε
• Thisisthevery longIntroduction
toLAT
E
X2
ε
L
A
T
E
Xwillnotallowyoutocreateanewcommandthatwouldoverwrite
an existing one. . Butthere e isa a special command in case you explicitly
wantthis: \renewcommand. Itusesthesamesyntaxasthe\newcommand
command.
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6.1NewCommands,EnvironmentsandPackages
121
Incertaincasesyoumightalsowanttousethe\providecommandcom-
mand. Itworkslike\newcommand,butifthecommandisalreadydefined,
LAT
E
X2
ε
willsilentlyignoreit.
TherearesomepointstonoteaboutwhitespacefollowingL
A
T
E
Xcom-
mands. Seepage5formoreinformation.
6.1.2 NewEnvironments
Justas with the \newcommand command, , there e is s a a command tocreate
yourownenvironments. The\newenvironmentcommandusesthefollowing
syntax:
\newenvironment{name}[num]{before}{after}
Again\newenvironmentcanhaveanoptionalargument. Thematerial
specifiedinthebeforeargumentisprocessedbeforethetextintheenviron-
mentgetsprocessed. Thematerialinthe after argumentgetsprocessed
whenthe\end{name}commandisencountered.
Theexamplebelowillustratestheusageofthe\newenvironmentcom-
mand.
\newenvironment{king}
{\rule{1ex}{1ex}%
\hspace{\stretch{1}}}
{\hspace{\stretch{1}}%
\rule{1ex}{1ex}}
\begin{king}
My humble subjects \ldots
\end{king}
Myhumblesubjects...
Thenumargumentisusedthesamewayasinthe\newcommandcommand.
LAT
E
Xmakessurethatyoudonotdefineanenvironmentthatalreadyexists.
Ifyoueverwanttochangeanexistingcommand,usethe\renewenvironment
command.Itusesthesamesyntaxasthe\newenvironmentcommand.
Thecommandsusedinthisexamplewillbeexplainedlater. Forthe\rule
commandseepage135,for\stretchgotopage129,andmoreinformation
on\hspacecanbefoundonpage129.
6.1.3 ExtraSpace
Whencreatinganewenvironmentyoumayeasilygetbittenbyextraspaces
creepingin,whichcanpotentiallyhavefataleffects,forexamplewhenyou
wanttocreateatitleenvironmentwhichsupressesitsownindentationaswell
astheoneonthefollowingparagraph. The\ignorespacescommandinthe
beginblockoftheenvironmentwillmakeitignoreanyspaceafterexecuting
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122
CustomisingL
A
T
E
X
thebeginblock. Theendblockisabitmoretrickyasspecialprocessing
occursatthe endofanenvironment. . Withthe \ignorespacesafterend
L
A
T
E
Xwillissuean \ignorespaces afterthespecial‘end’processinghas
occured.
\newenvironment{simple}%
{\noindent}%
{\par\noindent}
\begin{simple}
See the space\\to the left.
\end{simple}
Same\\here.
Seethespace
totheleft.
Same
here.
\newenvironment{correct}%
{\noindent\ignorespaces}%
{\par\noindent%
\ignorespacesafterend}
\begin{correct}
No space\\to the left.
\end{correct}
Same\\here.
Nospace
totheleft.
Same
here.
6.1.4 CommandlineL
A
T
E
X
If you u work on a a Unix-like OS, you might be using Makefiles to build
yourL
A
T
E
Xprojects. Inthatconnectionitmightbeinterestingtoproduce
differentversionsofthesamedocumentbycallingLAT
E
Xwithcommandline
parameters. Ifyouaddthefollowingstructuretoyourdocument:
\usepackage{ifthen}
\ifthenelse{\equal{\blackandwhite}{true}}{
% "black k and d white" " mode; do o something..
}{
% "color" mode; ; do something g different..
}
NowcallLAT
E
Xlikethis:
latex ’\newcommand{\blackandwhite}{true}\input{test.tex}’
Firstthecommand\blackandwhitegetsdefinedandthentheactual
fileisreadwithinput. Bysetting\blackandwhitetofalsethecolorversion
ofthedocumentwouldbeproduced.
6.2FontsandSizes
123
6.1.5 YourOwnPackage
Ifyoudefinealotofnewenvironmentsandcommands,thepreambleofyour
documentwillgetquitelong.Inthissituation,itisagoodideatocreatea
L
A
T
E
Xpackagecontainingallyourcommandandenvironmentdefinitions. Use
the\usepackagecommandtomakethepackageavailableinyourdocument.
% Demo o Package by Tobias s Oetiker
\ProvidesPackage{demopack}
\newcommand{\tnss}{The not t so Short t Introduction
to \LaTeXe}
\newcommand{\txsit}[1]{The \emph{#1} } Short
Introduction to \LaTeXe}
\newenvironment{king}{\begin{quote}}{\end{quote}}
Figure6.1: ExamplePackage.
Writing a package e basically consistsof copying g the contents s of f your
documentpreambleintoaseparatefilewithanameendingin.sty.There
isonespecialcommand,
\ProvidesPackage{packagename}
foruseattheverybeginningofyourpackagefile. \ProvidesPackagetells
L
A
T
E
Xthenameofthepackageandwillallowittoissue asensibleerror
messagewhenyoutrytoincludeapackagetwice.Figure6.1showsasmall
examplepackagethatcontainsthecommandsdefinedintheexamplesabove.
6.2 FontsandSizes
6.2.1 FontChangingCommands
LAT
E
Xchoosestheappropriatefontandfontsizebasedonthelogicalstructure
ofthedocument(sections,footnotes,...). Insomecases,onemightlike
tochangefontsandsizesbyhand. Todothis,usethecommandslistedin
Tables6.1and6.2. Theactualsizeofeachfontisadesignissueanddepends
onthedocumentclassanditsoptions. Table6.3showstheabsolutepoint
sizeforthesecommandsasimplementedinthestandarddocumentclasses.
{\small The small and
\textbf{bold} Romans ruled}
{\Large all of great big
\textit{Italy}.}
ThesmallandboldRomansruled
allof
greatbigItaly.
124
CustomisingL
A
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E
X
OneimportantfeatureofL
AT
E
X2
ε
isthatthefontattributesareinde-
pendent. Thismeansthatissuingsizeorevenfontchangingcommands,and
stillkeepboldorslantattributessetearlier.
Inmathmodeusethefontchangingcommandstotemporarilyexitmath
modeandentersomenormaltext. Ifyouwanttoswitchtoanotherfont
formathtypesettingyouneedanotherspecialsetofcommands; referto
Table6.4.
Inconnectionwiththefontsizecommands,curlybracesplayasignificant
role.Theyareusedtobuildgroups.GroupslimitthescopeofmostL
A
T
E
X
commands.
He likes {\LARGE large and
{\small small} letters}.
Helikes
largeand
small
letters
.
Thefontsizecommandsalsochange theline spacing, butonlyifthe
paragraphendswithinthescopeofthefontsizecommand. Theclosingcurly
brace}shouldthereforenotcometooearly.Notethepositionofthe\par
commandinthenexttwoexamples.
1
1
\parisequivalenttoablankline
Table6.1:Fonts.
\textrm{...} roman
\textsf{...} sansserif
\texttt{...} typewriter
\textmd{...} medium
\textbf{...} boldface
\textup{...} upright
\textit{...} italic
\textsl{...} slanted
\textsc{...} SmallCaps
\emph{...} emphasized
\textnormal{...} documentfont
Table6.2:FontSizes.
\tiny
tiny font
\scriptsize
verysmallfont
\footnotesize
quitesmallfont
\small
smallfont
\normalsize
normalfont
\large
largefont
\Large
largerfont
\LARGE
verylargefont
\huge
huge
\Huge
largest
6.2FontsandSizes
125
Table6.3:AbsolutePointSizesinStandardClasses.
size
10pt(default) 11ptoption 12ptoption
\tiny
5pt
6pt
6pt
\scriptsize
7pt
8pt
8pt
\footnotesize
8pt
9pt
10pt
\small
9pt
10pt
11pt
\normalsize
10pt
11pt
12pt
\large
12pt
12pt
14pt
\Large
14pt
14pt
17pt
\LARGE
17pt
17pt
20pt
\huge
20pt
20pt
25pt
\Huge
25pt
25pt
25pt
Table6.4: MathFonts.
\mathrm{...}
RomanFont
\mathbf{...}
BoldfaceFont
\mathsf{...}
SansSerifFont
\mathtt{...}
TypewriterFont
\mathit{...}
ItalicFont
\mathcal{...}
CALLIGRAPHICFONT
\mathnormal{...} NormalFont
126
CustomisingL
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T
E
X
{\Large Don’t read this!
It is not true.
You can believe me!\par}
Don’treadthis!Itisnottrue.
Youcanbelieveme!
{\Large This is not true either.
But remember I am a liar.}\par
This is not trueeither. . But
rememberIamaliar.
Ifyouwanttoactivateasizechangingcommandforawholeparagraph
oftextorevenmore,youmightwanttousetheenvironmentsyntaxforfont
changingcommands.
\begin{Large}
This is not true.
But then again, what is these
days \ldots
\end{Large}
This is s not true. . But t then
again,whatisthesedays...
Thiswillsaveyoufromcountinglotsofcurlybraces.
6.2.2 Danger,WillRobinson,Danger
Asnotedatthebeginningofthischapter,itisdangeroustoclutteryour
documentwithexplicitcommandslikethis,becausetheyworkinopposition
tothebasicideaofLAT
E
X,whichistoseparatethelogicalandvisualmarkup
of yourdocument. . Thismeansthatif f you use the e same e font t changing
commandinseveralplacesinordertotypesetaspecialkindofinformation,
youshoulduse\newcommandtodefinea“logicalwrappercommand”forthe
fontchangingcommand.
\newcommand{\oops}[1]{%
\textbf{#1}}
Do not \oops{enter} this room,
it’s occupied by \oops{machines}
of unknown origin and purpose.
Donotenterthisroom,it’soccupiedby
machinesofunknownoriginandpurpose.
Thisapproach has the advantage e thatyou u can decide at some later
stage thatyou wanttouse a visualrepresentationofdangerotherthan
\textbf,withouthavingtowadethroughyourdocument,identifyingallthe
occurrencesof\textbfandthenfiguringoutforeachonewhetheritwas
usedforpointingoutdangerorforsomeotherreason.
PleasenotethedifferencebetweentellingL
A
T
E
Xtoemphasizesomething
andtellingittouseadifferentfont. The\emphcommandiscontextaware,
whilethefontcommandsareabsolute.
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