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1.4InputFile Structure
7
1.4 InputFileStructure
When L
A
T
E
X2
ε
processes an input file, it expects itto o followa a certain
structure.Thuseveryinputfilemuststartwiththecommand
\documentclass{...}
Thisspecifieswhatsortofdocumentyouintendtowrite. Afterthat,add
commandstoinfluencethestyleofthewholedocument,orloadpackages
thataddnewfeaturestotheLAT
E
Xsystem.Toloadsuchapackageyouuse
thecommand
\usepackage{...}
Whenallthesetupworkisdone,
4
youstartthebodyofthetextwith
thecommand
\begin{document}
NowyouenterthetextmixedwithsomeusefulL
A
T
E
Xcommands. At
theendofthedocumentyouaddthe
\end{document}
command,which tellsL
A
T
E
Xtocallitaday. Anythingthatfollowsthis
commandwillbeignoredbyLAT
E
X.
Figure1.1showsthecontentsofaminimalLAT
E
X2
ε
file. Aslightlymore
complicatedinputfileisgiveninFigure1.2.
1.5 ATypicalCommandLineSession
IbetyoumustbedyingtotryouttheneatsmallL
A
T
E
Xinputfileshown
onpage7. Hereissomehelp: : L
A
T
E
XitselfcomeswithoutaGUIorfancy
buttonstopress.Itisjustaprogramthatcrunchesawayatyourinputfile.
SomeLAT
E
Xinstallationsfeatureagraphicalfront-endwherethereisaLAT
E
X
buttontostartcompilingyourinputfile. Onothersystemstheremightbe
4
Theareabetween\documentclassand\begin{document}iscalledthepreamble.
\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
Small is beautiful.
\end{document}
Figure1.1: AMinimalL
A
T
E
XFile.
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8
Things YouNeedtoKnow
sometypinginvolved,sohereishowtocoaxLAT
E
Xintocompilingyourinput
fileonatextbasedsystem. Pleasenote: thisdescriptionassumesthata
workingLAT
E
Xinstallationalreadysitsonyourcomputer.
5
1. Edit/CreateyourL
A
T
E
Xinputfile.ThisfilemustbeplainASCIItext.
OnUnixalltheeditorswillcreatejustthat.OnWindowsyoumight
wanttomakesurethatyousavethefileinASCIIorPlainTextformat.
Whenpickinganameforyourfile,makesureitbearstheextension
.tex.
2. Openashellorcmdwindow,cdtothedirectorywhereyourinputfile
islocatedandrunLAT
E
Xonyourinputfile. Ifsuccessfulyouwillend
upwitha.dvifile. ItmaybenecessarytorunLAT
E
Xseveraltimesto
getthetableofcontentsandallinternalreferencesright.Whenyour
inputfilehasabugL
A
T
E
Xwilltellyouaboutitandstopprocessing
yourinputfile. Typectrl-Dtogetbacktothecommandline.
latex foo.tex
3. NowyoumayviewtheDVIfile. Thereareseveralwaystodothat.
5ThisisthecasewithmostwellgroomedUnixSystems,and... RealMenuseUnix,
so... ;-)
\documentclass[a4paper,11pt]{article}
% define the title
\author{H.~Partl}
\title{Minimalism}
\begin{document}
% generates the title
\maketitle
% insert the table of f contents
\tableofcontents
\section{Some Interesting Words}
Well, and d here begins s my lovely y article.
\section{Good Bye World}
\ldots{} and d here e it t ends.
\end{document}
Figure 1.2: : Example e of f a a Realistic Journal l Article. . Note e that all l the
commandsyouseeinthisexamplewillbeexplainedlaterintheintroduction.
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1.6TheLayoutoftheDocument
9
Lookatthefileonscreenwith
xdvi foo.dvi &
ThisonlyworksonUnixwithX11. IfyouareonWindowsyoumight
wanttotryyap(yetanotherpreviewer).
Convert the dvi i file to o PostScript t for printing or viewing g with
GhostScript.
dvips -Pcmz foo.dvi -o o foo.ps
IfyouareluckyyourL
A
T
E
Xsystemevencomeswiththedvipdftool,
whichallowsyoutoconvertyour.dvifilesstraightintopdf.
dvipdf foo.dvi
1.6 TheLayoutoftheDocument
1.6.1 DocumentClasses
ThefirstinformationLAT
E
Xneedstoknowwhenprocessinganinputfileis
thetypeofdocumenttheauthorwantstocreate.Thisisspecifiedwiththe
\documentclasscommand.
\documentclass[options]{class}
Hereclassspecifiesthetypeofdocumenttobecreated. Table1.1liststhe
documentclassesexplainedinthisintroduction.TheL
AT
E
X2
ε
distribution
providesadditionalclassesforotherdocuments,includinglettersandslides.
Theoptionsparametercustomisesthebehaviourofthedocumentclass. The
optionshavetobeseparatedbycommas. Themostcommonoptionsforthe
standarddocumentclassesarelistedinTable1.2.
Example: AninputfileforaLAT
E
Xdocumentcouldstartwiththeline
\documentclass[11pt,twoside,a4paper]{article}
whichinstructsL
A
T
E
Xtotypesetthedocumentasanarticlewithabase
fontsizeofelevenpoints,andtoproducealayoutsuitablefordoublesided
printingonA4paper.
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10
Things YouNeedtoKnow
1.6.2 Packages
Whilewritingyourdocument,youwillprobablyfindthattherearesome
areaswherebasicLAT
E
Xcannotsolveyourproblem.Ifyouwanttoinclude
graphics,colouredtextorsourcecodefromafileintoyourdocument,you
needtoenhancethecapabilitiesof L
A
T
E
X. Suchenhancementsarecalled
packages.Packagesareactivatedwiththe
\usepackage[options]{package}
command,wherepackageisthenameofthepackageandoptionsisalist
ofkeywordsthattriggerspecialfeaturesinthepackage. The\usepackage
commandgoesintothepreambleofthedocument. Seesection1.4fordetails.
SomepackagescomewiththeLAT
E
X2
ε
basedistribution(SeeTable1.3).
Othersare provided separately. . Youmayfind d more informationonthe
packagesinstalledatyoursiteinyourLocalGuide[5]. Theprimesourcefor
informationaboutLAT
E
XpackagesisTheLAT
E
XCompanion[3]. Itcontains
descriptionsonhundredsofpackages,alongwithinformationofhowtowrite
yourownextensionstoLAT
E
X2
ε
.
ModernT
E
Xdistributionscomewithalargenumberofpackagesprein-
stalled. IfyouareworkingonaUnixsystem,usethecommandtexdocfor
accessingpackagedocumentation.
Table1.1: DocumentClasses.
article forarticlesinscientificjournals,presentations,shortreports,pro-
gramdocumentation,invitations,...
proc aclassforproceedingsbasedonthearticleclass.
minimal isassmallasitcanget. Itonlysetsapagesizeandabasefont. . It
ismainlyusedfordebuggingpurposes.
report forlongerreportscontainingseveralchapters, smallbooks,PhD
theses,...
book forrealbooks
slides forslides. Theclassusesbigsansserifletters.Youmightwantto
considerusingtheBeamerclassinstead.
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1.6TheLayoutoftheDocument
11
Table1.2: DocumentClassOptions.
10pt,11pt,12pt
Setsthesizeofthemainfontinthedocument.Ifno
optionisspecified,10ptisassumed.
a4paper,letterpaper,...
Definesthepapersize.Thedefaultsizeis
letterpaper.Besidesthat,a5paper,b5paper,executivepaper,
andlegalpapercanbespecified.
fleqn
Typesetsdisplayedformulaeleft-alignedinsteadofcentred.
leqno
Placesthenumberingofformulaeonthelefthandsideinsteadof
theright.
titlepage,notitlepage
Specifieswhetheranewpageshouldbestarted
afterthedocumenttitleornot. Thearticleclassdoesnotstarta
newpagebydefault,whilereportandbookdo.
onecolumn,twocolumn
InstructsL
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T
E
Xtotypesetthedocumentinone
columnortwocolumns.
twoside, oneside
Specifieswhetherdoubleorsinglesidedoutput
shouldbegenerated. Theclassesarticleandreportaresinglesided
andthebookclassisdoublesidedbydefault. Notethatthisoption
concernsthestyleofthedocumentonly. Theoptiontwosidedoesnot
telltheprinteryouusethatitshouldactuallymakeatwo-sided
printout.
landscape
Changesthelayoutofthedocumenttoprintinlandscape
mode.
openright, openany
Makeschaptersbegineitheronlyonrighthand
pagesoronthenextpageavailable.Thisdoesnotworkwiththe
articleclass,asitdoesnotknowaboutchapters.Thereportclass
bydefaultstartschaptersonthenextpageavailableandthebook
classstartsthemonrighthandpages.
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12
Things YouNeedtoKnow
Table1.3:SomeofthePackagesDistributedwithL
A
T
E
X.
doc Allowsthedocumentationof f L
A
T
E
Xprograms.
Describedindoc.dtx
a
andinTheL
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T
E
XCompanion[3].
exscale Providesscaledversionsofthemathextensionfont.
Describedinltexscale.dtx.
fontenc SpecifieswhichfontencodingLAT
E
Xshoulduse.
Describedinltoutenc.dtx.
ifthen Providescommandsoftheform
‘if...thendo...otherwisedo....’
Describedinifthen.dtxandTheLAT
E
XCompanion[3].
latexsym To accessthe LAT
E
Xsymbolfont,youshould usethe latexsym
package. Describedinlatexsym.dtxandinTheLAT
E
XCompanion[3].
makeidx Providescommandsforproducingindexes. Describedinsection4.3
andinTheLAT
E
XCompanion[3].
syntonly Processesadocumentwithouttypesettingit.
inputenc AllowsthespecificationofaninputencodingsuchasASCII,ISO
Latin-1,ISOLatin-2,437/850IBMcodepages,AppleMacintosh,Next,
ANSI-Windowsoruser-definedone. Describedininputenc.dtx.
aThisfileshouldbeinstalledonyoursystem,andyoushouldbeabletogeta
dvifile
bytypinglatex doc.dtxinanydirectorywhereyouhavewritepermission. Thesameis
trueforalltheotherfilesmentionedinthistable.
1.7FilesYouMightEncounter
13
1.6.3 Page e Styles
L
A
T
E
Xsupportsthreepredefinedheader/footercombinations—so-calledpage
styles. Thestyleparameterofthe
\pagestyle{style}
commanddefineswhichonetouse. Table1.4liststhepredefinedpagestyles.
Table1.4: ThePredefinedPageStylesof LAT
E
X.
plain printsthepagenumbersonthebottomofthepage,inthemiddleof
thefooter.Thisisthedefaultpagestyle.
headings printsthecurrentchapterheadingandthepagenumberinthe
headeroneachpage,whilethefooterremainsempty. (Thisisthestyle
usedinthisdocument)
empty setsboththeheaderandthefootertobeempty.
It ispossible e to change e the e page e style e of f the e currentpage with the
command
\thispagestyle{style}
Adescriptionhowtocreateyourownheadersandfooterscanbefound
inTheLAT
E
XCompanion[3]andinsection4.4onpage87.
1.7 FilesYouMightEncounter
WhenyouworkwithL
A
T
E
Xyouwillsoonfindyourselfinamazeoffiles
withvariousextensionsandprobablynoclue. Thefollowinglistexplainsthe
variousfiletypesyoumightencounterwhenworkingwithT
E
X.Pleasenote
thatthistabledoesnotclaimtobeacompletelistofextensions,butifyou
findonemissingthatyouthinkisimportant,pleasedropmealine.
.tex LAT
E
XorT
E
Xinputfile. Canbecompiledwithlatex.
.sty LAT
E
XMacropackage. LoadthisintoyourLAT
E
Xdocumentusingthe
\usepackagecommand.
.dtx DocumentedT
E
X. ThisisthemaindistributionformatforL
A
T
E
Xstyle
files.Ifyouprocessa.dtxfileyougetdocumentedmacrocodeofthe
LAT
E
Xpackagecontainedinthe.dtxfile.
14
Things YouNeedtoKnow
.ins Theinstallerforthefilescontainedinthematching.dtxfile. Ifyou
downloadaLAT
E
Xpackagefromthenet,youwillnormallygeta.dtx
anda.insfile. RunLAT
E
Xonthe.insfiletounpackthe.dtxfile.
.cls Classfilesdefinewhatyourdocumentlookslike. Theyareselected
withthe\documentclasscommand.
.fd FontdescriptionfiletellingLAT
E
Xaboutnewfonts.
ThefollowingfilesaregeneratedwhenyourunL
A
T
E
Xonyourinputfile:
.dvi DeviceIndependentFile.ThisisthemainresultofaLAT
E
Xcompile
run. LookatitscontentwithaDVIpreviewerprogramorsendittoa
printerwithdvipsorasimilarapplication.
.log Givesadetailedaccountofwhathappenedduringthelastcompiler
run.
.toc Storesallyoursectionheaders.Itgetsreadinforthenextcompiler
runandisusedtoproducethetableofcontents.
.lof Thisislike.tocbutforthelistoffigures.
.lot Andagainthesameforthelistoftables.
.aux Anotherfilethattransportsinformationfromonecompilerruntothe
next. Amongotherthings,the.auxfileisusedtostoreinformation
associatedwithcross-references.
.idx Ifyourdocumentcontainsanindex.L
A
T
E
Xstoresallthewordsthat
gointotheindexinthisfile. Processthisfilewithmakeindex.Refer
tosection4.3onpage86formoreinformationonindexing.
.ind Theprocessed.idxfile,readyforinclusionintoyourdocumentonthe
nextcompilecycle.
.ilg Logfiletellingwhatmakeindexdid.
1.8 BigProjects
Whenworkingonbigdocuments,youmightwanttosplittheinputfileinto
severalparts. LAT
E
Xhastwocommandsthathelpyoutodothat.
\include{filename}
Usethiscommandinthedocumentbodytoinsertthecontentsofanotherfile
namedfilename.tex. NotethatLAT
E
Xwillstartanewpagebeforeprocessing
thematerialinputfromfilename.tex.
1.8BigProjects
15
Thesecondcommandcanbeusedinthe preamble. . Itallowsyouto
instructLAT
E
Xtoonlyinputsomeofthe\includedfiles.
\includeonly{filename,filename,...}
Afterthiscommandisexecutedinthepreambleofthedocument,only
\includecommandsforthefilenamesthatarelistedintheargumentofthe
\includeonlycommandwillbeexecuted.
The\includecommandstartstypesettingtheincludedtextonanew
page. Thisishelpfulwhenyouuse\includeonly,becausethepagebreaks
willnotmove,evenwhensomeincludefilesareomitted. Sometimesthis
mightnotbedesirable. Inthiscase,usethe
\input{filename}
command. Itsimplyincludesthefilespecified. Noflashysuits,nostrings
attached.
TomakeL
A
T
E
Xquicklycheckyourdocumentusethesyntonlypackage.
ThismakesL
A
T
E
Xskimthroughyourdocumentonlycheckingforproper
syntaxandusageofthecommands,butdoesn’tproduceany(DVI)output.
AsLAT
E
Xrunsfasterinthismodeyoumaysaveyourselfvaluabletime. Usage
isverysimple:
\usepackage{syntonly}
\syntaxonly
Whenyouwanttoproduce pages,justcommentoutthe secondline(by
addingapercentsign).
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