2.5InternationalLanguageSupport
27
Since theturnofthe CenturymostOperating Systemsare basedon
Unicode(WindowsXP,MacOSX).Thereforeitisrecommendedtouseutf8
foranynewproject. Theutf8encodingusedbyinputenconlydefinesthe
charactersthatareactuallyprovidedbythefontsused. Ifyouneedmore
(non-latin)charactershavealookatX
E
LAT
E
Xinsection4.8aUnicodebased
T
E
X-engine.
Fontencodingisadifferentmatter.Itdefinesatwhichpositioninsidea
T
E
X-fonteachletterisstored.Multipleinputencodingscouldbemapped
intoonefontencoding,whichreducesthenumberofrequiredfontsets. Font
encodingsarehandledthroughfontencpackage:
\usepackage[encoding]{fontenc}
where encoding isfontencoding. . Itispossibletoloadseveralencodings
simultaneously.
The defaultL
A
T
E
X fontencoding isOT1, theencoding of the original
ComputerModernT
E
Xfont. Itcontainsonlythe128charactersofthe7-bit
ASCIIcharacterset. Whenaccentedcharactersarerequired,T
E
Xcreates
thembycombininganormalcharacterwithanaccent. Whiletheresulting
outputlooksperfect,thisapproachstopstheautomatichyphenationfrom
workinginsidewordscontainingaccentedcharacters. Besides,someLatin
letterscouldnotbecreatedbycombininganormalcharacterwithanaccent,
tosaynothingaboutlettersofnon-Latinalphabets,suchasGreekorCyrillic.
Toovercomethese shortcomings,several8-bitCM-like fontsetswere
created. Extended Cork (EC)fontsin T1 encoding containslettersand
punctuation charactersformostof the European languagesusing Latin
script. TheLH H fontsetcontainslettersnecessarytotypesetdocuments
inlanguagesusingCyrillicscript. BecauseofthelargenumberofCyrillic
glyphs,theyarearrangedintofourfontencodings—T2A,T2B,T2C,andX2.
5
TheCBbundlecontainsfontsinLGRencodingforthecompositionofGreek
text.
Improve/enablehyphenationinnon-Englishdocumentsbyusingthese
fonts. AnotheradvantageofusingnewCM-likefontsisthattheyprovide
fontsofCMfamiliesinallweights,shapes,andopticallyscaledfontsizes.
2.5.1 SupportforPortuguese
ByDemerson Andre Polli <polli@linux.ime.usp.br>
ToenablehyphenationandchangeallautomatictexttoPortuguese,usethe
5
Findalistoflanguagessupportedbyeachoftheseencodingsin[11].
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TypesettingText
Table2.3: PreambleforPortuguesedocuments.
\usepackage[portuguese]{babel}
\usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
command:
\usepackage[portuguese]{babel}
OrifyouareinBrazil,substitutebrazilianasthelanguage.
AstherearealotofaccentsinPortugueseyoumightwanttouse
\usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}
tobeabletoinputthemcorrectlyaswellas
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
togetthehyphenationright.
See table 2.3 forthe preamble e you need to write e in n the Portuguese
language. Notethattheexampleisforthelatin1inputencoding. Modern
systemsmightbeusingutf8instead.
2.5.2 SupportforFrench
ByDanielFlipo <daniel.flipo@univ-lille1.fr>
SomehintsforthosecreatingFrenchdocumentswithL
A
T
E
X: loadFrench
languagesupportwiththefollowingcommand:
\usepackage[francais]{babel}
ThisenablesFrenchhyphenation, if youhave configuredyour L
A
T
E
X
systemaccordingly. ItalsochangesallautomatictextintoFrench: \chapter
printsChapitre,\todayprintsthecurrentdateinFrenchandsoon. Aset
ofnewcommandsalsobecomesavailable,whichallowsyoutowriteFrench
inputfilesmoreeasily. Checkouttable2.4forinspiration.
Youwillalsonoticethatthelayoutoflistschangeswhenswitchingtothe
Frenchlanguage. Formoreinformationonwhatthefrancaisoptionofbabel
doesandhowtocustomize itsbehaviour,runL
A
T
E
Xonfile frenchb.dtx
andreadtheproducedfilefrenchb.dvi.
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2.5InternationalLanguageSupport
29
Table2.4:SpecialcommandsforFrench.
\og guillemets \fg{}
«guillemets»
M\up{me}, D\up{r}
M
me
,D
r
1\ier{}, 1\iere{}, 1\ieres{}
1
er
,1
re
,1
res
2\ieme{} 4\iemes{}
2
e
4
es
\No 1, \no o 2
N
o
1,n
o
2
20~\degres C, 45\degres
20°C,45°
\bsc{M. Durand}
M.Durand
\nombre{1234,56789}
1234,56789
Recentversionsoffrenchbrelyonnumprinttoimplementthe\nombre
command.
2.5.3 SupportforGerman
SomehintsforthosecreatingGermandocumentswithLAT
E
X: loadGerman
languagesupportwiththefollowingcommand:
\usepackage[german]{babel}
ThisenablesGermanhyphenation,ifyouhaveconfiguredyourL
A
T
E
X
systemaccordingly. ItalsochangesallautomatictextintoGerman. Eg.
“Chapter”becomes“Kapitel.”Asetofnewcommandsalsobecomesavailable,
whichallowsyoutowriteGermaninputfilesmorequicklyevenwhenyou
don’tusetheinputencpackage. Checkouttable2.5forinspiration. With
inputenc,allthisbecomesmoot,butyourtextalsoislockedinaparticular
encodingworld.
InGermanbooksyouoftenfindFrenchquotationmarks(«guillemets»).
Germantypesetters,however,usethemdifferently. AquoteinaGerman
bookwouldlooklike»this«. IntheGermanspeakingpartofSwitzerland,
typesettersuse«guillemets»thesamewaytheFrenchdo.
Amajorproblemarisesfromtheuseofcommandslike\flq:Ifyouuse
theOT1font(whichisthedefaultfont)theguillemetswilllooklikethemath
symbol“”,whichturnsatypesetter’sstomach.T1encodedfonts,onthe
otherhand,docontaintherequiredsymbols. Soifyouareusingthistypeof
quote,makesureyouusetheT1encoding. (\usepackage[T1]{fontenc})
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30
TypesettingText
Table2.5:GermanSpecialCharacters.
"a
ä
"s
ß
"‘
"’
"<or\flqq «
">or\frqq »
\flq
\frq
\dq
"
2.5.4 SupportforKorean
6
ToprocessHangul
7
charactersorprepareadocumentwritteninKorean
usingLAT
E
X,putthefollowingcodeinthepreambleofthedocument.
\usepackage{kotex}
Adocumentcontainingthedeclarationabovewillhavetobeprocessed
bypdfLAT
E
X,X
E
LAT
E
X,orLuaLAT
E
X. Makesurethattheinputfilewrittenin
HangulisencodedinUnicodeUTF-8.Thepackagecalledko.T
E
X
8
isunder
continuousdevelopmentbytheKoreanT
E
XUsersGroupandtheKorean
T
E
XSociety.10 ManypeopleusethispackagetocreateKoreandocuments
fortheireverydayneeds. ko.T
E
XhasbeenavailableonCTANsince2014. It
isincludedT
E
XLive,MiKT
E
XandothermodernT
E
Xdistributions.Soin
alllikelyhoodyoucanstartworkingrightawaywithoutinstallinganyextra
packages.
ko.T
E
X does not use the babel package. . Manyfunctions s related to
Korean canbe activated using the optionsandconfigurationcommands
providedbythekotexpackage.IfyouwanttocomposearealworldKorean
document,youareadvisedtoconsultthepackagedocumentation(These
documentsarewritteninKorean).
With ko.T
E
X, you u also get oblivoir, , a a memoir-based d document t class,
tailoredforKoreandocumentpreparation. SoyourKoreandocumentwould
6
WrittenbyKarnesKim<karnes@ktug.org>andKihwangLee<leekh@ktug.org>on
behalfoftheKoreanT
E
XUsersGroupandtheKoreanT
E
XSociety.
7
Hangulisthenameof theKoreanwritingsystem. . Refertohttp://en.wikipedia.
org/wiki/Hangulformoreinformation.
8
Reads“KoreanT
E
X”. ko.T
E
Xisthenameofacollectionofpackagesincludingcjk-ko,
kotex-utf,xetexko,andluatexko.
9
http://ktug.org
10
http://ktug.kr
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2.5InternationalLanguageSupport
31
Table2.6:PreambleforGreekdocuments.
\usepackage[english,greek]{babel}
\usepackage[iso-8859-7]{inputenc}
startlikethis:
\documentclass{oblivoir}
TogenerateanindexforaKoreandocument,executekomkindexinstead
ofmakeindex.ItisaversionofthemakeindexutilitymodifiedforKorean
processing. ForlexicographicalsortingoftheKoreanindexitems,youcan
useindexstylekotex.istprovidedbyko.T
E
Xasfollows:
komkindex -s s kotex foo.idx
YoucanalsousexindyforindexgenerationastheKoreanmodulefor
xindyisincludedinT
E
XLive.
ThereisanotherKorean/Hangultypesetting package calledCJK.As
thenameofthepackagesuggests,ithasfacilitiesfortypesettingChinese,
Japanese,andKoreancharacters. ItsupportsmultipleencodingsoftheCJK
characters. ThefollowingisasimpleexampleoftypesettingUTF-8encoded
Hangulusing CJK package. . Itisusefulwhenyou u submitamanuscript
tosomeacademicjournalsthatallowtypesettingauthornamesinnative
languages.
\usepackage{CJK}
\begin{CJK}{UTF8}{}
\CJKfamily{nanummj}
...
\end{CJK}
2.5.5 WritinginGreek
ByNikolaosPothitos <pothitos@di.uoa.gr>
Seetable2.6forthepreambleyouneedtowriteintheGreeklanguage. This
preambleenableshyphenationandchangesallautomatictexttoGreek.
11
11
Ifyouselecttheutf8xoptionforthepackageinputenc,LAT
E
X willunderstandGreek
andpolytonicGreekUnicodecharacters.
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32
TypesettingText
Asetofnewcommandsalso becomesavailable,whichallowsyou to
write Greek input files more easily. . In n order r to o temporarily y switch h to
Englishandviceversa,onecanusethecommands\textlatin{englishtext}
and\textgreek{greektextthatbothtake one argumentwhichisthen
typesetusing therequestedfontencoding. . Otherwise e usethe command
\selectlanguage{...}describedinaprevioussection. Checkouttable2.7
forsomeGreekpunctuationcharacters. Use\eurofortheEurosymbol.
Table2.7:GreekSpecialCharacters.
;
·
?
;
((
«
))
»
‘‘
’’
2.5.6 SupportforCyrillic
ByMaksymPolyakov <polyama@myrealbox.com>
Version3.7hofbabelincludessupportfortheT2*encodingsandfortypeset-
tingBulgarian,RussianandUkrainiantextsusingCyrillicletters.
SupportforCyrillicisbasedonstandardL
A
T
E
Xmechanismsplusthe
fontencandinputencpackages. But,ifyouaregoingtouseCyrillicsinmath
mode,youneedtoloadmathtextpackagebeforefontenc:
12
\usepackage{mathtext}
\usepackage[T1,T2A]{fontenc}
\usepackage[koi8-ru]{inputenc}
\usepackage[english,bulgarian,russian,ukranian]{babel}
Generally,babelwillauthomaticallychoosethedefaultfontencoding,for
theabovethreelanguagesthisisT2A.However,documentsarenotrestricted
toasinglefontencoding. Formulti-lingualdocumentsusingCyrillicand
Latin-basedlanguagesitmakessensetoincludeLatinfontencodingexplicitly.
babelwilltakecareofswitchingtotheappropriatefontencodingwhena
differentlanguageisselectedwithinthedocument.
Inadditiontoenablinghyphenations,translatingautomaticallygener-
atedtextstrings,andactivatingsomelanguagespecifictypographicrules
(like\frenchspacing),babelprovidessomecommandsallowingtypesetting
accordingtothestandardsofBulgarian,Russian,orUkrainianlanguages.
Forallthreelanguages,languagespecificpunctuationisprovided: The
Cyrillicdashforthetext(itislittlenarrowerthanLatindashandsurrounded
12
IfyouuseA
M
S-LAT
E
Xpackages,loadthembeforefontencandbabelaswell.
2.5InternationalLanguageSupport
33
bytinyspaces),adashfordirectspeech,quotes,andcommandstofacilitate
hyphenation,seeTable2.8.
Table2.8: TheextradefinitionsmadebyBulgarian,Russian,andUkrainian
optionsofbabel
"|
disableligatureatthisposition.
"-
anexplicithyphensign,allowinghyphenationintherestoftheword.
"--- Cyrillicemdashinplaintext.
"--~ Cyrillicemdashincompoundnames(surnames).
"--* Cyrillicemdashfordenotingdirectspeech.
""
like"-,butproducingnohyphensign(forcompoundwordswith
hyphen,e.g.x-""yorsomeothersignsas“disable/enable”).
"~
foracompoundwordmarkwithoutabreakpoint.
"=
foracompoundwordmarkwithabreakpoint,allowinghyphenation
inthecomposingwords.
",
thinspaceforinitialswithabreakpointinfollowingsurname.
"‘
forGermanleftdoublequotes(lookslike,,).
"’
forGermanrightdoublequotes(lookslike“).
"<
forFrenchleftdoublequotes(lookslike<<).
">
forFrenchrightdoublequotes(lookslike>>).
TheRussianandUkrainianoptionsofbabeldefinethecommands\Asbuk
and\asbuk,whichactlike \Alphand\alph13, butproduce capitaland
smalllettersof Russian or r Ukrainianalphabets(whicheveristhe e active
language ofthe document). . The e Bulgarianoptionof babel providesthe
commands\enumBul and \enumLat (\enumEng), which make \Alph and
\alphproducelettersofeitherBulgarianorLatin(English)alphabets.The
defaultbehaviourof\Alphand\alphfortheBulgarianlanguageoptionis
toproducelettersfromtheBulgarianalphabet.
2.5.7 SupportforMongolian
To use L
A
T
E
X for typesetting Mongolian you have a choice between two
packages: MultilingualBabelandMonT
E
XbyOliverCorff.
MonT
E
XincludessupportforbothCyrillicandtraditionalMongolian
Script. InordertoaccessthecommandsofMonT
E
X,add:
\usepackage[language,encoding]{mls}
to the preamble. . Choose e the language option xalx x to o generate captions
anddates inModern Mongolian. . To o write a complete documentinthe
13
thecommandsforturningcountersintoa,b,c,...
34
TypesettingText
traditionalMongolianscriptyouhavetochoosebicigforthelanguageoption.
Thedocumentlanguageoptionbicigenablesthe“SimplifiedTransliteration”
inputmethod.
EnableanddisableLatinTransliterationModewith
\SetDocumentEncodingLMC
and
\SetDocumentEncodingNeutral
MoreinformationaboutMonT
E
XisavailablefromCTAN://language/
mongolian/montex/doc.
Mongolian Cyrillicscriptissupportedbybabel. . Activate e Mongolian
languagesupportwiththefollowingcommands:
\usepackage[T2A]{fontenc}
\usepackage[mn]{inputenc}
\usepackage[mongolian]{babel}
wheremnisthecp1251inputencoding. Foramoremodernapproachinvoke
utf8instead.
2.5.8 TheUnicode e option
ByAxelKielhorn <A.Kielhorn@web.de>
Unicodeisthewaytogoifyouwanttoincludeseverallanguagesinone
document,especiallywhenthese languagesarenotusingthelatinscript.
TherearetwoT
E
X-enginesthatarecapableofprocessingUnicodeinput:
X
E
T
E
wasdevelopedforMacOSXbutisnowavailableforallarchitectures.
ItwasfirstincludedintoTexLive2007.
LuaT
E
isthesuccessorofpdfT
E
X. ItwasfirstincludedintoTexLive2008.
ThefollowingdescribesX
E
L
A
T
E
XasdistributedwithTexLive2010.
Quickstart
ToconvertanexistingLAT
E
XfiletoX
E
LAT
E
Xthefollowingneedstobedone:
1. SavethefileasUTF-8
2.5InternationalLanguageSupport
35
2. Remove
\usepackage{inputenc}
\usepackage{fontenc}
\usepackage{textcomp}
fromthepreamble.
3. Change
\usepackage[languageA]{babel}
to
\usepackage{polyglossia}
\setdefaultlanguage[babelshorthands]{languageA}
4. Add
\usepackage[Ligatures=TeX]{fontspec}
tothepreamble.
Thepackagepolyglossia[19]isareplacementforbabel. Ittakescareof
the hyphenationpatternsandautomaticallygeneratedtextstrings. . The
optionbabelshorthandsenablesbabelcompatibleshorthandsforgerman
andcatalan.
Thepackagefontspec[21]handlesfontloadingforX
E
LAT
E
XandLuaT
E
X.
ThedefaultfontisLatinModernRoman. Itisalittleknownfactthatsome
T
E
XcommandareligaturesdefinedintheComputerModernfonts. Ifyou
wanttousethemwithanon-T
E
Xfont,youhavetofakethem. Theoption
Ligatures=TeXdefinesthefollowingligatures:
--
--- —
’’
‘‘
!‘
¡
?‘
¿
,,
<<
«
>>
»
36
TypesettingText
It’s all Γρκtome
SofartherehasbeennoadvantagetousingaUnicodeT
E
Xengine. This
changeswhenwe leave theLatin scriptandmove to amore interesting
language like GreekorRussian. . WithaUnicode e basedsystem, you can
simply
14
enterthecharactersinyoureditorandT
E
Xwillunderstandthem.
Writingindifferentlanguagesiseasy,justspecifythelanguagesinthe
preamble:
\setdefaultlanguage{english}
\setotherlanguage[babelshorthands]{german}
TowriteaparagraphinGerman,youcanusetheGermanenvironment:
Englishtext.
\begin{german}
DeutscherText.
\end{german}
MoreEnglishtext.
Ifyoujustneedawordinaforeignlanguageyoucanusethe\textlanguage
command:
Englisch text. \textgerman{Gesundheit} } is s actually a German word.
Thismaylookunnecessarysincetheonlyadvantageisacorrecthyphen-
ation,butwhenthe secondlanguage isalittle bitmoreexoticitwillbe
worththeeffort.
Sometimesthefontusedinthemaindocumentdoesnotcontainglyphs
thatarerequiredinthesecondlanguage
15
.Thesolutionistodefineafont
thatwillbeusedforthatlanguage.Wheneveranewlanguageisactivated,
polyglossiawillfirstcheckwhetherafonthasbeendefinedforthatlanguage.
\newfontfamily\russianfont[Script=Cyrillic,(...)]{(font)}
Nowyoucanwrite
\textrussian{Pravda} is a russian newspaper.
SincethisdocumentiswritteninLatin1-encoding,Icannotshowthe
actualCyrillicletters.
Thepackagexgreek[22]offerssupportforwritingeitherancientormodern
(monotonicorpolytonic)greek.
14
Forsmallvaluesofsimple.
15
LatinModerndoesnotcontainCyrillicletters
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