XII
.5. L
OSTTHE KEYS
?U
SElablst.tex
141
XII
.5. L
OST THEKEYS
?U
SElablst.tex
Oneoftheconveniencesofusingkeysforcrossreferencesisthatyouneednotkeeptrack
oftheactualnumbers,butthenyou’llhavetorememberthekeys.Youcanproducethe
listofkeysusedinadocumentbyrunningLAT
E
Xonthefile
lablst.tex
. Inoursystem,
wedothisbyfirsttyping
latex lablst
L
A
T
E
Xrespondsasfollows:
*********************************
* Enter input t file name
*
without the .tex extension:
*********************************
\lablstfile=
Wetypeinthefilenameas
cref
whichisthesourceofthisdocumentandispresented
withanotherquery.
**********************************************
* Enter document class used in file cref.tex
*
with no o options or extension:
**********************************************
\lablstclass=
Sowetype
article
.Andisasked
********************************************
* Enter packages used in file cref.tex
*
with no o options or extensions:
********************************************
\lablstpackages=
Hereonlythosepackagesusedinthearticlewhichdefinecommandsusedinsection
titlesetc.needbegiven.Sowetype
amsmath,array,enumerate
Thisproducesafile
lablst.dvi
whichcanbeviewedtoseealistofkeys usedinthe
document.
Finallyifyourtexteditoris
GNU Emacs
,thenyoucanuseits
RefTeX
packagetoauto-
mategeneration,insertionandlocationofkeysattheeditingstage.
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TUTORIALXIII
FOOTNOTES
,
MARGINPARS
,
ANDENDNOTES
LAT
E
Xhasfacilitiestotypeset“inserted”text,suchasfootnotes,marginalnotes,figures
andtables.Thischapterlooksmorecloselyatdifferentkindsofnotes.
XIII
.1. F
OOTNOTES
Footnotesaregeneratedwiththecommand
\footnote{
footnote
text
}
whichcomesimmediatelyafterthewordrequiringanexplanationinafootnote. The
textfootnote
textappearsasafootnoteinasmallertypefaceatthebottomofthepage.
Thefirstlineofthefootnoteisindentedandisgiventhesamefootnotemarkerasthat
insertedinthemaintext. Thefirstfootnoteonapageisseparatedfromtherestofthe
pagetextbymeansofashorthorizontalline.
Thestandardfootnotemarkerisasmall,raisednumber
1
,whichissequentiallynum-
bered.
Footnotes producedwiththe
\footnote
commandinsideaminipageenvironment
usethempfootnotecounterandaretypesetatthebottomoftheparboxproducedbythe
minipage2.
However, ifyouusethe
\footnotemark
commandina
minipage
itwillproducea
footnotemarkinthesamestyleandsequenceasthemaintextfootnotes—i.e.,stepping
the
mpfootnote
counter and d using the
\thefootnote
commandfor the representation.
Thisbehaviorallowsyoutoproduceafootnoteinsideyour
minipage
thatistypesetinse-
quencewiththemaintextfootnotesatthebottomofthepage:youplacea
\footnotemark
insidethe
minipage
andthecorresponding
\footnotetext
afterit.Seebelow:
Footnotesinaminipage arenum-
beredusinglowercaseletters.
a
This text t references a footnote at
thebottomofthepage.
3
a
Insideminipage
\begin{minipage}{5cm}
Footnotes in n a a minipage are e numbered
using lowercase letters.\footnote{%
Inside minipage} \par This text
references a a footnote e at the bottom
of the e page.\footnotemark
\end{minipage}
\footnotetext{At bottom of page}
Thefootnote numbering is incrementedthroughoutthedocumentfor thearticle
class,whereitisresetto1foreachnewchapterinthereportandbookclasses.
1
Seehow thefootnoteisproduced: : “... . raisednumber
\footnote
{
See how the footnote is s produced:
...
}.
2
Withnestedminipages,thefootnotecomesafterthenext
\endminipage
command,whichcouldbeatthe
wrongplace.
3Atbottomofpage.
143
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144
XIII
. F
OOTNOTES
,M
ARGINPARS
,
AND
E
NDNOTES
XIII
.1.1. Footnotesintabularmaterial
FootnotesappearinginsidetabularmaterialarenottypesetbystandardLAT
E
X. Only
tabularx
and
longtable
environmentswilltreatfootnotescorrectly. Butfootnotesused
inthesetableswon’tappearjustfollowingthetables,butwouldappearatthebottom
ofthepagejustlikethefootnotesusedinthetext. Butin
longtable
youcanplacethe
footnotesastablenotesbyplacingthelongtableinaminipage.Seebelow:
Table
XIII
.1:PostScripttype1fonts
Courier
a
cour,courb,courbi,couri
Nimbus
b
unmr,unmrs
URWAntiquab
uaqrrc
URWGrotesk
b
ugqp
Utopia
c
putb,putbi,putr,putri
aDonatedbyIBM.
b
DonatedbyURWGmbH.
c
DonatedbyAdobe.
\begin{minipage}{.47\textwidth}
\renewcommand{\thefootnote}{\thempfootnote}
\begin{longtable}{ll}
\caption{PostScript type 1 1 fonts}\\
Courier\footnote{Donated by IBM.} & cour,courb,courbi,couri \\
Nimbus\footnote{Donated by y URW GmbH.} & unmr, unmrs s \\
URW Antiqua\footnotemark[\value{mpfootnote}] ] & & uaqrrc\\
URW Grotesk\footnotemark[\value{mpfootnote}] ] & & ugqp\\
Utopia\footnote{Donated by y Adobe.} & & putb, , putbi, putr, putri
\end{longtable}
\end{minipage}
Youcanalsoputyour
tabular
or
array
environmentinside a
minipage
environ-
ment,sinceinthatcasefootnotesaretypesetjustfollowingthatenvironment.Notethe
redefinitionof
\thefootnote
thatallowsustomakeuseofthe
\footnotemark
command
insidethe
minipage
environment. Withoutthisredefinition
\footnotemark
wouldhave
generatedafootnotemarkinthestyleofthefootnotesforthemainpage.
\begin{minipage}{.5\linewidth}
\renewcommand{\thefootnote}{\thempfootnote}
\begin{tabular}{ll}
\multicolumn{2}{c}{\bfseries PostScript type 1 fonts} } \\
Courier\footnote{Donated by IBM.} } & & cour,courb,courbi,couri \\
Charter\footnote{Donated by Bitstream.} & bchb,bchbi,bchr,bchri\\
Nimbus\footnote{Donated by URW W GmbH.} } & unmr, unmrs \\
URW Antiqua\footnotemark[\value{mpfootnote}] & uaqrrc\\
URW Grotesk\footnotemark[\value{mpfootnote}] & ugqp\\
Utopia\footnote{Donated by Adobe.} & putb, putbi, putr, putri
\end{tabular}
\end{minipage}
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XIII
.1. F
OOTNOTES
145
PostScripttype1fonts
Courier
a
cour,courb,courbi,couri
Charter
b
bchb,bchbi,bchr,bchri
Nimbus
c
unmr,unmrs
URWAntiqua
c
uaqrrc
URWGrotesk
c
ugqp
Utopia
d
putb,putbi,putr,putri
a
DonatedbyIBM.
b
DonatedbyBitstream.
c
DonatedbyURWGmbH.
d
DonatedbyAdobe.
Ofcoursethisapproachdoesnotautomaticallylimitthewidthofthefootnotesto
thewidthofthetable,soalittleiterationwiththe
minipage
widthargumentmightbe
necessary.
Anotherwaytotypesettablenotesiswiththepackage
threeparttable
byDonald
Arseneau. Thispackagehastheadvantagethatitindicatesunambiguouslythatyouare
dealingwithnotesinsidetablesand,moreover,itgivesyoufullcontroloftheactualrefer-
encemarksandoffersthepossibilityofhavingacaptionforourtabularmaterial.Inthis
sense,the
threeparttable
environmentissimilartothenonfloating
table
environment.
\begin{threeparttable}
\caption{\textbf{PostScript type 1 fonts}}
\begin{tabular}{ll}
Courier\tnote{a} & & cour, courb, , courbi, couri\\
Charter\tnote{b} & & bchb, bchbi, , bchr, , bchri \\
Nimbus\tnote{c} & unmr, unmrs \\
URW Antiqua\tnote{c} & uaqrrc\\
URW Grotesk\tnote{c} & ugqp\\
Utopia\tnote{d} & putb, putbi, putr, putri
\end{tabular}
\begin{tablenotes}
\item[a] Donated by IBM.
\item[b] Donated by Bitstream.
\item[c] Donated by URW GmbH.
\item[d] Donated by Adobe.
\end{tablenotes}
\end{threeparttable}
Table14.2:PostScripttype1fonts
Courier
a
cour,courb,courbi,couri
Charterb
bchb,bchbi,bchr,bchri
Nimbus
c
unmr,unmrs
URWAntiqua
c
uaqrrc
URWGrotesk
c
ugqp
Utopia
d
putb,putbi,putr,putri
a
DonatedbyIBM.
b
DonatedbyBitstream.
DonatedbyURWGmbH.
d
DonatedbyAdobe.
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146
XIII
. F
OOTNOTES
,M
ARGINPARS
,
AND
E
NDNOTES
XIII
.1.2. Customizingfootnotes
Iftheuserwishesthefootnotenumberingtoberesetto
1
foreach
\section
command
withthearticleclass,thismaybeachievedbyputting
\setcounter{footnote}{0}
beforeeverysectionorusingthefollowingcommandatpreamble
4
\@addtoreset{footnote}{section}
Theinternalfootnotecounterhasthename
footnote
.Eachcallto
\footnote
increments
thiscounterbyoneandprintsthenewvalueinArabicnumberingasthefootnotemarker.
Adifferentstyleofmarkercanbeimplementedwiththecommand
\renewcommand{\thefootnote}{
number
style
}{footnote}
where number
styleis one ofthe counter r printcommands;
\arabic
,
\roman
,
\Roman
,
\alph
,or
\Alph
.However,forthecounter
footnote
,thereisanadditionalcounterprint
commandavailable,
\fnsymbol
,whichprintsthecountervalues1–9asoneofninesym-
bols:
§

††
‡‡
Itisuptotheusertoseethatthefootnotecounterisresettozerosometimebefore
thetenth
\footnote
callismade. Iftheuserwantstoaddvaluesabovenine,thenhe
hastoeditthedefinitionof
\fnsymbol
.Seeanexample,whichallowsupto12footnotes
withoutresettingthecounter:
\makeatletter
\def\@fnsymbol#1{\ensuremath{\ifcase#1\or *\or \dagger\or r \ddagger\or
\mathsection\or \mathparagraph\or \|\or r **\or \dagger\dagger
\or \ddagger\ddagger\or \mathsection\mathsection
\or \mathparagraph\mathparagraph \or \|\|\else\@ctrerr\fi}}
\renewcommand{\thefootnote}{\fnsymbol{footnote}}
\makeatother
Anoptionalargumentmaybeaddedtothe
\footnote
command:
\footnote[
num
]{
footnote
text
}
wherenumisapositiveintegerthatisusedinsteadofthevalueofthefootnotecounter
forthemarker.Inthiscase,thefootnotecounterisnotincremented.Forexample
∗∗
,
\renewcommand{\thefootnote}{\fnsymbol{footnote}}
For example\footnote[7]{The 7$ˆ{\rm th}$ symbol .... marker.},
\renewcommand{\thefootnote}{\arabic{footnote}}
wherethelastlineisnecessarytorestorethefootnotemarkerstyletoitsstandardform.
Otherwise,allfuturefootnoteswouldbemarkedwithsymbolsandnotwithnumbers.
XIII
.1.3. Footnotestyleparameters
Theappearanceofthestandardfootnotecanbechangedbycustomizingtheparameters
listedbelow:
\footnotesize
Thefontsizeusedinsidefootnotes.
4
Thiscommandwillonlyworkwithin
\makeatletter
and
\makeatother
.
∗∗The7th symbolappearsasthefootnotemarker.
XIII
.2. M
ARGINAL NOTES
147
\footnotesep
Theheightofastrutplacedatthebeginningofeveryfootnote. Ifitis
greaterthanthe
\baselineskip
usedfor
\footnotesize
,thenadditional
verticalspacewillbeinsertedaboveeachfootnote.
\skip\footins
Alow-levelT
E
Xcommandthatdefinesthespacebetweenthemaintext
andthestartofthefootnotes.Youcanchangeitsvaluewiththe
\setlength
or
\addtolength
commandsbyputting
\skip\footins
intothefirstargu-
ment,e.g.,
\addtolength{\skip\footins}{3mm}
\footnoterule
Amacrotodrawtheruleseparatingfootnotesfromthemaintext.Itis
executedrightaftertheverticalspaceof
\skip\footins
. Itshouldtake
zeroverticalspace,i.e.,itshoulduseanegativeskiptocompensatefor
anypositivespaceitoccupies,forexample:
\renewcommand{\footnoterule{\vspace*{-3pt}%
\rule{.4\columnwidth}{0.4pt}\vspace*{2.6pt}
Youcanalsoconstructafancier“rule”e.g.,oneconsistingofaseriesofdots:
\renewcommand{\footnoterule}{\vspace*{-3pt}%
\qquad\dotfill\qquad\vspace*{2.6pt}}
XIII
.2. M
ARGINALNOTES
\marginpar{
left-text
}{
right-text
}
The
\marginpar
commandgeneratesamarginalnote. This s commandtypesetsthetext
givenasanargumentinthemargin,thefirstlineatthesameheightasthelineinthe
maintextwherethe
\marginpar
commandoccurs. Themarginalnoteappearinghere
This
isa
margi-
nal
note
wasgeneratedwith
... command occurs\marginpar{This is a marginal note}. The ...
Whenonlythemandatoryargumentright-textisspecified,thenthetextgoestotheright
marginforone-sidedprinting;totheoutsidemarginfortwo-sidedprinting;andtothe
nearestmarginfortwo-columnformatting. Whenyouspecifyanoptionalargument,it
isusedfortheleftmargin,whilethesecond(mandatory)argumentisusedfortheright.
Thereareafewimportantthingstounderstandwhenusingmarginalnotes. First,
\marginpar
commanddoes notstartaparagraph,thatis,ifitis usedbeforethe first
wordofaparagraph,theverticalalignmentmaynotmatchthebeginningofthepara-
graph. Secondly,ifthemarginisnarrow,andthewordsarelong(asinGerman),you
mayhavetoprecedethefirstwordbya
\hspace{0pt}
commandtoallowhyphenation
ofthefirstword. Thesetwopotentialproblemscanbeeasedbydefiningacommand
\marginlabel{
text
}
,whichstartswithanemptybox
\mbox{}
,typesetsamarginalnote
raggedleft,andaddsa
\hspace{0pt}
infrontoftheargument.
\newcommand{\marginlabel}[1]
{\mbox{}\marginpar{\raggedleft\hspace{0pt}#1}}
Bydefault,inone-sidedprintingthemarginalnotes goontheoutsidemargin. . These
defaultscanbechangedbythefollowingdeclarations:
\reversemarginpar
Marginalnotesgointotheoppositemarginwithrespecttothede-
faultone.
\normalmarginpar
Marginalnotesgointothedefaultmargin.
148
XIII
. F
OOTNOTES
,M
ARGINPARS
,
AND
E
NDNOTES
XIII
.2.1. Usesofmarginalnotes
\marginpar{}
canbeusedtodrawattentiontocertaintextpassagesbymarkingthem
withaverticalbarinthemargin. Theexamplemarkingthisparagraphwas s madeby
including
\marginpar{\rule[-10.5mm]{1mm}{10mm}}
inthefirstline. Bydefiningamacro
\query
asshownbelow
\def\query#1#2{\underline{#1}\marginpar{#2}}
wecanproducequeries.ForexampleLAT
E
X
.Thisqueryisproducedwiththefollowing
Hey!
Look
command.
For example e \query{\LaTeX}{Hey!\\ \ Look}{}. . This ...
XIII
.2.2. Styleparametersformarginalnotes
Thefollowingstyleparametersmaybechangedtoredefinehowmarginalnotesappear:
\marginparwidth
Determinesthewidthofthemarginbox.
\marginparsep
Setstheseparationbetweenthemarginboxandtheedgeofthemain
text.
\marginparpush
Isthesmallestverticaldistancebetweentwomarginalnotes.
These parameters are all lengths s andare e assigned d new values s as usual withthe
\setlength
command.
XIII
.3. E
NDNOTES
Scholarlyworks usuallygroupnotes at t the endofeachchapter r or attheendofthe
document.Thesearecalledendnotes.EndnotesarenotsupportedinstandardLAT
E
X,but
theycanbecreatedinseveralways.
Thepackage
endnotes
(byJohnLavagnino)typesetsendnotesinawaysimilarto
footnotes. Ituses s anextraexternal file,withextension
.ent
, toholdthetextofthe
endnotes. Thisfilecanbedeletedaftertherunsinceanew w versionisgeneratedeach
time.
Withthispackageyoucanoutputyourfootnotesasendnotesbysimplygivingthe
command:
\renewcommand{\footnote}{\endnote}
Theuser interfaceforendnotesisverysimilartotheonefor footnotes aftersub-
stitutingtheword“foot”for“end”. Thefollowingexampleshowstheprincipleofthe
useofendnotes,whereyousavetextinmemorywiththe
\endnote
command,andthen
typesetallaccumulatedtextmaterialatapointinthedocumentcontrolledbytheuser.
Thisissimpletext.
1
Thisissimple
text.
2
Thisissimpletext.
3
Notes
1
Thefirstendnote.
2
Thesecondendnote.
3
Thethirdendnote.
Thisissomemoresimpletext
This is simple text.\endnote{The first
endnote.} This is simple text.\endnote{%
The second d endnote.} This is s simple
text.\endnote{The third d endnote.}
\theendnotes\bigskip
This is some more simple text
GNUFREEDOCUMENTATIONLICENSE
Version1.2,November2002
Copyright
c
 2000,2001,2002FreeSoftware Foundation, Inc. . 59Temple
Place,Suite330,Boston,MA02111-1307,USA
Everyoneispermittedtocopyanddistributeverbatimcopiesofthislicense
document,butchangingitisnotallowed.
0 PREAMBLE
ThepurposeofthisLicenseistomakeamanual,textbook,orotherfunctionaland
usefuldocumentfreeinthesenseoffreedom:toassureeveryonetheeffectivefreedom
tocopyandredistributeit,withorwithoutmodifyingit,eithercommerciallyornon-
commercially.Secondarily,thisLicensepreservesfortheauthorandpublisheraway
togetcreditfortheirwork,whilenotbeingconsideredresponsibleformodifications
madebyothers.
ThisLicenseisakindof“copyleft”,whichmeansthatderivativeworksofthedoc-
umentmustthemselvesbefreeinthesamesense. ItcomplementstheGNUGeneral
PublicLicense,whichisacopyleftlicensedesignedforfreesoftware.
WehavedesignedthisLicenseinordertouseitformanualsforfreesoftware,because
freesoftwareneedsfreedocumentation: afreeprogramshouldcomewithmanuals
providingthesamefreedomsthatthesoftwaredoes.ButthisLicenseisnotlimitedto
softwaremanuals;itcanbeusedforanytextualwork,regardlessofsubjectmatteror
whetheritispublishedasaprintedbook.WerecommendthisLicenseprincipallyfor
workswhosepurposeisinstructionorreference.
(1) APPLICABILITYANDDEFINITIONS
ThisLicenseappliestoanymanualorotherwork,inanymedium,thatcontainsa
noticeplacedbythecopyrightholder sayingitcanbedistributedundertheterms
ofthisLicense. Suchanotice e grants aworld-wide, royalty-freelicense,unlimited
induration,tousethatworkundertheconditionsstatedherein. The“Document”,
below,referstoanysuchmanualorwork. Anymemberofthepublicisalicensee,
andisaddressedas“you”. Youacceptthelicenseifyoucopy,modifyordistribute
theworkinawayrequiringpermissionundercopyrightlaw.
A“ModifiedVersion”oftheDocumentmeansanyworkcontainingtheDocumentor
aportionofit,eithercopiedverbatim,orwithmodificationsand/ortranslatedinto
anotherlanguage.
149
150
XIII
. F
OOTNOTES
,M
ARGINPARS
,
AND
E
NDNOTES
A“SecondarySection”isanamedappendixorafront-mattersectionoftheDoc-
umentthatdeals exclusively y withthe relationshipofthepublishers s or authors of
theDocumenttotheDocument’soverallsubject(ortorelatedmatters)andcontains
nothingthatcouldfalldirectlywithinthatoverallsubject.(Thus,iftheDocumentis
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or withrelatedmatters, oroflegal,commercial,philosophical,ethicalorpolitical
positionregardingthem.
The“InvariantSections”arecertainSecondarySectionswhosetitlesaredesignated,
asbeingthose ofInvariantSections, inthe notice thatsays thattheDocumentis
releasedunderthisLicense.IfasectiondoesnotfittheabovedefinitionofSecondary
thenitisnotallowedtobedesignatedasInvariant.TheDocumentmaycontainzero
InvariantSections. IftheDocumentdoesnotidentifyanyInvariantSections s then
therearenone.
The“CoverTexts”arecertainshortpassagesoftextthatarelisted,asFront-Cover
TextsorBack-CoverTexts,inthenoticethatsaysthattheDocumentisreleasedunder
thisLicense. AFront-CoverTextmaybeatmost5words,andaBack-CoverText
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anotherwiseTransparentfileformatwhosemarkup,orabsenceofmarkup,hasbeen
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Acopythatisnot“Transparent”iscalled“Opaque”.
Examples of f suitable formats for Transparentcopies include plain
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without
markup,Texinfoinputformat,LAT
E
Xinputformat,
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or
XML
usingapublicly
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,andstandard-conformingsimple
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,PostScriptor
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designed
forhumanmodification. Examplesoftransparentimageformatsinclude
PNG
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. Opaqueformatsincludeproprietaryformatsthatcanbereadandedited
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titlepage.Forworksinformatswhichdonothaveanytitlepageassuch,“TitlePage”
meansthetextnearthemostprominentappearanceofthework’stitle,precedingthe
beginningofthebodyofthetext.
Asection“EntitledXYZ”meansanamedsubunitoftheDocumentwhosetitleeither
ispreciselyXYZorcontainsXYZinparenthesesfollowingtextthattranslatesXYZ
inanotherlanguage.(HereXYZstandsforaspecificsectionnamementionedbelow,
suchas“Acknowledgements”,“Dedications”,“Endorsements”,or“History”.) To
“PreservetheTitle”ofsuchasectionwhenyoumodifytheDocumentmeansthatit
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