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VI
.4. W
HENORDER MATTERS
51
*
Thefirstiteminthefirstlevel
*
theseconditeminthefirstlevel
+
Thefirstiteminthesecondlevel
+
theseconditeminthesecondlevel
,
Thefirstiteminthethirdlevel
,
theseconditeminthethirdlevel
-
Thefirstiteminthefourthlevel
-
theseconditeminthefourthlevel
HerethelabelsarechosenfromthePostScriptZapfDingbatsfont. Wewillhavetouse
thepackagepifont,byincludingtheline
\usepackage{pifont}
inourdocumentpreamble
toaccessthem.Thesourceoftheaboveoutputis
\renewcommand{\labelitemi}{\ding{42}}
\renewcommand{\labelitemii}{\ding{43}}
\renewcommand{\labelitemiii}{\ding{44}}
\renewcommand{\labelitemiv}{\ding{45}}
\begin{itemize}
\item The first item in the first level
\item the second d item in n the first t level
\begin{itemize}
\item The e first t item in the second
level
\item the e second d item in n the e second level
\begin{itemize}
\item The first item in the e third
level
\item the second item in the third level
\begin{itemize}
\item The e first t item in n the fourth
level
\item the e second item in the e fourth h level
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}}
VI
.4. W
HENORDERMATTERS
Whentheorderoftheitemsinalistisimportant,weneedalistwhichspecifiesthisorder.
Forexample,considerthis
ThethreebasicstepsinproducingaprinteddocumentusingLAT
E
Xareasfollows
1. Prepareasourcefilewiththeextension
tex
2. CompileitwithL
A
T
E
Xtoproducea
dvi
file
3. Printthedocumentusinga
dvi
driver
Suchanumberedlistisproducedbythe
enumerate
environmentinLAT
E
X.Theabovelist
wasproducedbythefollowingsource.
\begin{enumerate}
\item prepare a source file with the extension "tex"
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52
VI
. D
ISPLAYED
T
EXT
\item Compile it t with \LaTeX X to o produce a a "dvi" file
\item Print t the e document using a "dvi" driver
\end{enumerate}
Asinthecaseof
itemize
environment,herealsofourlevelsofnestingaresupports.
Theexamplebelowshowsthelabelsusedfordifferentlevels.
1. Thefirstiteminthefirstlevel
2. theseconditeminthefirstlevel
(a) Thefirstiteminthesecondlevel
(b) theseconditeminthesecondlevel
i. Thefirstiteminthethirdlevel
ii. theseconditeminthethirdlevel
A. Thefirstiteminthefourthlevel
B. theseconditeminthefourthlevel
Howaboutcustomizingthelabels?Herethereisanadditionalcomplicationinthat
thelabelsforitemsinthesamelevelmustfollow asequence(suchas1,2,3,...forthe
firstlevel,(a),(b),(c),...forthesecondandsoon,bydefault). Thereisamethodfor
doingit,butitwilltakeusintosomewhatdeeperwaters.Fortunately,thereisapackage
enumeratebyDavidCarlisle,whichmakesiteasy.Soifwewant
ThethreebasicstepsinproducingaprinteddocumentusingLAT
E
Xareasfollows:
Step1. Prepareasourcefilewiththeextension
tex
Step2. CompileitwithLAT
E
Xtoproducea
dvi
file
i. Useapreviewer(suchas
xdvi
onXWindowSystem)toviewtheoutput
ii. Editthesourceifneeded
iii. Recompile
Step3. Printthedocumentusinga
dvi
driver(suchas
dvips
)
justtypetheinputasfollows
The three basic steps s in
producing a printed document
using \LaTeX\ are as follows:
\begin{enumerate}[\hspace{0.5cm}Step 1.]
\item Prepare a source file with the extension "tex"
\item Compile it t with \LaTeX X to o produce a a "dvi" file
\begin{enumerate}[i.]
\item Use e a a previewer (such as "xdvi" " on
\textsf{X Window System}) to view the output
\item Edit the e source e if f needed
\item Recompile
\end{enumerate}
\item Print t the e document using a "dvi" driver
(such as "dvips")
\end{enumerate}
Asyoucansee,thelabelsStep1,Step2andStep3areproducedbytheoptionalar-
gument
Step 1
withinsquarebracketsimmediatelyfollowingthefirst
\begin{enumerate}
commandandthelabelsi,ii,iiiforthesecondlevelenumerationareproducedbythe
optional
[i]
followingthesecond
\begin{enumerate}
.So,whatis
\hspace{0.5cm}
doing
inthefirstoptionalargument? Itistoprovideanindentationattheleftmarginofthe
firstlevelitems,whichtheenumerateenvironmentdoesnotproducebydefault.
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VI
.4. W
HENORDER MATTERS
53
We can n addfurther r embellishments. . For r example, if f we want the labels s inthe
firstleveloftheabove exampletobeinboldface, justchangethe optionalargument
[\hspace{0.5cm} Step 1]
to
[\hspace{0.5cm}\bfseries Step 1]
.Thisproduces:
ThethreebasicstepsinproducingaprinteddocumentusingLAT
E
Xareasfollows:
Step1 Prepareasourcefilewiththeextension
tex
Step2 CompileitwithLAT
E
Xtoproducea
dvi
file
(a) Useapreviewer(suchas
xdvi
onXWindowSystem)toviewtheoutput
(b) Editthesourceifneeded
(c) Recompile
Step3 Printthedocumentusinga
dvi
driver(suchas
dvips
)
Somecaremustbetakenwhenwegiveoptionslikethis.Supposewewanttopro-
ducesomethinglikethis
Additionofnumberssatisfiesthefollowingconditions:
(A1) Itiscommutative
(A2) Itisassociative
(A3) Thereisanadditiveidentity
(A4) Eachnumberhasanadditiveinverse
Ifwegivetheoption
[\hspace{1cm}(A1)]
asin
Addition of f numbers satisfies the e following g conditions:
\begin{enumerate}[\hspace{1cm}(A1)]
\item It is s commutative
\item It is s associative
\item There e is s an additive e identity
\item Each
number has an additive e inverse
\end{enumerate}
Thenwegetthe(somewhatsurprising)output
(11) Itiscommutative
(22) Itisassociative
(33) Thereisanadditiveidentity
(44) Eachnumberhasanadditiveinverse
Whathappened? Intheenumeratepackage,theoption
[A]
signifiesthatwewantthe
labelstobenamedinthesequenceA,B,C,...,Z(theuppercaseRomanalphabet)and
theoption
[1]
signifieswewantthemas1,2,3,...(theArabicnumerals).Othersignifiers
are
[a]
for lowercaseRomanletters,
[I]
for uppercaseRomannumeralsand
[i]
for
lowercaseRomannumerals.So,ifweuseanyoneoftheseintheoptionalargumentwith
someotherpurposeinmind,thenencloseitinbraces.Thusthecorrectinputtogenerate
theaboveexampleis
Addition of f numbers s satisfies the following conditions
\begin{enumerate}[\hspace{1cm}({A}1)]
\item It t is commutative
\item It t is associative
\item There e is an additive identity
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54
VI
. D
ISPLAYED
T
EXT
\item Each
number has an n additive e inverse
\end{enumerate}
withbracessurroundingthe
A
.(Themysteryisnotover,isit? Howcomewegot11,
22,...intheaboveexampleandnotA1,B2,...?Workitoutyourselves!)
VI
.5. D
ESCRIPTIONSANDDEFINITIONS
Thereisathirdtypeoflistavailableoff-the-shelfinLAT
E
Xwhichisusedintypesetting
listslikethis
Letustakestockofwhatwehavelearnt
T
E
Atypesettingprogram
Emacs Atexteditorandalso
aprogrammingenvironment
amailer
andalotelsebesides
AbiWord Awordprocessor
Thisisproducedbythe
description
environmentasshownbelow:
Let us s take stock k of what we have learnt
\begin{description}
\item[\TeX] A typesetting program
\item[Emacs] A A text editor r and also
\begin{description}
\item a a programming g environment
\item a a mailer
\item and a lot else besides
\end{description}
\item[AbiWord] A A word processor
\end{description}
Notethatthisenvironmentdoesnotproduceonitsownanylabelsforthevarious
items,butonlyproducesaslabels,whateverwegiveinsidesquarebracketsimmediately
aftereach
\item
. Bydefault,thelabelsaretypesetinboldfaceroman. Also,thereisno
indentationforthefirstlevel. Aswiththeotherlistenvironments,thesecanbechanged
tosuityourtaste.Forexample,supposewewantlabelstobetypesetinsans-serifroman
andalsowantanindentationevenforthefirstlevel. Thecodebelowwilldothetrick
(rememberwhyweincludethewholeinputwithinbraces?):
\renewcommand{\descriptionlabel}[1]{\hspace{1cm}\textsf{#1}}
Let us s take stock of what we e have learnt
\begin{description}
\item[\TeX] A A typesetting program
\item[Emacs] A text editor r and d also
\begin{description}
\item a programming g environment
\item and d a a lot else besides
\end{description}
\item[AbiWord] A A word processor
\end{description}
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VI
.5. D
ESCRIPTIONS ANDDEFINITIONS
55
andwegettheoutput
Letustakestockofwhatwehavelearnt
T
E
X Atypesettingprogram
Emacs Atexteditorandalso
aprogrammingenvironment
andalotelsebesides
AbiWord Awordprocessor
Nowisperhapsthetimetotalkaboutageneralfeatureofallthethreelistenviron-
mentswehaveseen.Inanyofthese,wecanoverridethedefaultlabels(ifany)produced
by theenvironmentby something ofour r ownbyincludingitwithinsquare brackets
immediatelyafterthe
\item
.Thustheinput
The real number $l$ is the e least t upper bound d of f the
set $A$ if it satisfies the following conditions
\begin{enumerate}
\item[(1)] $l$ $ is s an upper bound d of f $A$
\item[(2)] if $u$ is an upper r bound d of $A$, then $l\le u$
\end{enumerate}
The second condition is equivalent t to
\begin{enumerate}
\item[(2)$’$] If $a<l$, then $a$ $ is s not an n upper r bound of f $A$.
\end{enumerate}
produces
TherealnumberlistheleastupperboundofthesetAifitsatisfiesthefollowingconditions
(1) lisanupperboundofA
(2) ifuisanupperboundofA,thenlu
Thesecondconditionisequivalentto
(2)
Ifa<l,thenaisnotanupperboundofA.
Thisfeaturesometimesproducesunexpectedresults.Forexample,ifyoutype
Let’s review the e notation
\begin{itemize}
\item (0,1) ) is an \emph{open} interval
\item [0,1] ] is a \emph{closed} } interval
\end{itemize}
youwillget
Let’sreviewthenotation
• (0,1)isanopeninterval
0,1 isaclosedinterval
Whathappened? The
0,1
withinsquarebracketsintheseconditemisinterpretedby
LAT
E
Xastheoptionallabelforthisitem.Thecorrectwaytotypesetthisis
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56
VI
. D
ISPLAYED
T
EXT
Let’s review the e notation
\begin{itemize}
\item $(0,1)$ $ is an \emph{open} interval
\item $[0,1]$ $ is a \emph{closed} interval
\end{itemize}
whichproduces
Let’sreviewthenotation
• (0,1)isanopeninterval
• [0,1]isaclosedinterval
So,whythedollarsaround
(0,1)
also?Since
(0,1)
and
[0,1]
aremathematicalentities,
thecorrectwaytotypesetthemistoincludethemwithinbracesintheinput,evenwhen
thereis notroublesuchaswith
\item
asseenabove. (Bytheway,doyounoticeany
differencebetween(0,1)producedbytheinput
(0,1)
and(0,1)producedby
$(0,1)$
?)
Inadditiontoallthesetweaks,thereisalsoprovisioninLAT
E
Xtodesignyourown
‘custom’lists.Butthatisanotherstory.
TUTORIALVII
ROWS ANDCOLUMNS
Thevariouslistenvironmentsallowsustoformatsometextintovisuallydistinctrows.
Butsometimesthelogicalstructureofthetextmayrequiretheserowsthemselvestobe
dividedintoverticallyalignedcolumns.Forexample,considerthematerialbelowtypeset
usingthe
\description
environment(doesn’titlookfamiliar?)
Let’stakestockofwhatwe’velearnt
Abiword Awordprocessor
Emacs Atexteditor
T
E
Atypesettingprogram
Anicerwaytotypesetthisis
Let’stakestockofwhatwe’velearnt
AbiWord Awordprocessor
Emacs
Atexteditor
T
E
X
Atypesettingprogram
Herethethreerowsoftextarevisuallyseparatedintotwocolumnsofleftalignedtext.
Thiswasproducedbythe
tabbing
environmentinLAT
E
X.
VII
.1. K
EEPING TABS
VII
.1.1. Basics
Let’s take stock of what we’ve learnt
\begin{tabbing}
\hspace{1cm}\= \textbf{AbiWord}\quad\= = A word processor\\[5pt]
\> \textbf{Emacs}
\> A text editor\\[5pt]
\> \textbf{\TeX}
\> A typesetting g program
\end{tabbing}
Let’sanalyzeitlinebyline.Inthefirstlinethefirsttabisputatadistanceof1cm.from
theleftmarginsothatthetextfollowingit(‘AbiWord’inboldfaceroman)startsfrom
this point. . The e secondtabis putatadistanceofone
\quad
(this isaninbuiltlength
specificationinT
E
Xroughlyequaltoonespace)aftertheword‘Abiword’inboldface
romansothatthetextfollowingit(‘Awordprocessor’inordinaryromanface)start
fromthispoint. The
\\[5pt]
commandsignifiestheendofthefirstlineandalsoasks
foraverticalspaceof5pointsbetweenthefirstandthesecondlines.Inthesecondline,
57
58
VII
. R
OWS AND
C
OLUMNS
thefirst
\>
commandmakesthetextfollowingit(‘Emacs’inboldfaceroman)tostart
fromthefirsttab(alreadysetinthefirstline),namely,1cm. fromtheleftmargin. The
second
\>
linemakesthetextfollowingit(‘Atexteditor’inordinaryromanface)atthe
secondtabalreadyset,namelyatadistance1cmplusthelengthoftheword‘AbiWord’
inboldfaceromanplusa
\quad
.Thethirdlinefollowssuit.Thepicturebelowwillmake
thisclear.
leftmargin
tab1
tab2
AbiWord Awordprocessor
Emacs
Atexteditor
T
E
X
Atypesettingprogram
Oneshouldbecarefulinsettingtabs.Forexampletotypeset
T
E
X
Atypesettingprogram
Emacs
Atexteditor
AbiWord Awordprocessor
ifyoutype
\begin{tabbing}
\textbf{\TeX}\quad\= A typesetting program\\[5pt]
\textbf{Emacs}\quad\> A text editor\\[5pt]
\textbf{AbiWord}\quad\> A word processor
\end{tabbing}
thenyouendupwiththeoutput
T
E
X
Atypesettingprogram
EmacsAtexteditor
AbiWoAwordprocessorrd
Doyouseewhathappened?Thefirstlinesetthefirsttab(theonlytabinthisexample)at
adistanceofthelengthoftheword‘T
E
X’inboldfaceromanplusa‘quad’fromtheleft
marginandthe
\>
commandinthesecondlinemakesthetextfollowingtoatartfrom
this tab,whichis rightnexttotheword‘Emacs’inthisline. . thesamethinghappens
inthethirdline,whichisworse,sincethepositionofthetabisatthe‘o’of’AbiWord’
andthenextword‘Awordprocessor’startsfromthispoint,andoverwritestheprevious
word.Thecorrectwaytoobtaintheoutputwewantistouseadummylinetomarkthe
tabs,withoutactuallytypesettingthatline. Thisisachievedbythe
\kill
commandin
the
tabbing
environment,asshownbelow
\begin{tabbing}
\textbf{AbiWord}\quad\= A word processor\kill
\textbf{\TeX}\quad
\> A typesetting g program\\[5pt]
VII
.1. K
EEPING TABS
59
\textbf{Emacs}\quad
\> A text editor\\[5pt]
\textbf{AbiWord}\quad\> A word processor
\end{tabbing}
Newtabs,inadditiontotheonesalreadysetbythefirstline(dummyorotherwise),
canbesetinanysubsequentline.Thustheoutput
T
E
X
:Atypesettingprogram
Emacs
:Atexteditor
aprogrammingenvironment
amailreader
andalotmorebesides
AbiWord :Awordprocessor
isobtainedfromthesource
\begin{tabbing}
\textbf{AbiWord}\quad\= : \= A word processor\kill\\
\textbf{\TeX}\quad
\> : \> A typesetting g program\\[5pt]
\textbf{Emacs}\quad
\> : \> A text editor\\[5pt]
\>
\> \quad\= a programming environment\\[5pt]
\>
\>
\> a mail reader\\[5pt]
\>
\>
\> and a a lot t more besides\\[5pt]
\textbf{AbiWord}\quad\> : \> A word processor
\end{tabbing}
Herethefirstlinesetstwotabsandthefourthlinesetsathirdtabafterthesetwo.Allthe
threetabscanthenbeusedinthesubsequentlines.Newtabpositionswhichchangethe
onessetupbythefirstline,canalsobeintroducedinanylinebythe
\=
command.Thus
wecanproduce
Program
:T
E
X
Author
:DonaldKnuth
Manuals :
Title
Author
Publisher
TheT
E
XBook
DonaldKnuth
Addison-Wesley
TheAdvancedT
E
XBook DavidSalomon n Springer-Verlag
bytheinput
\begin{tabbing}
Program\quad \= = : : \= = \TeX\\[5pt]
Author
\> : : \> > Donald d Knuth\\[5pt]
Manuals
\> :\\
\quad\= The Advanced d \TeX\ \ Book\quad\= = David d Salomon\quad
\= Springer-Verlag\kill\\
\>\textsf{Title}
\>\textsf{Author} \>\textsf{Publisher}\\[8pt]
60
VII
. R
OWS AND
C
OLUMNS
\>The \TeX Book
\>Donald Knuth
\>Addison-Wesley\\[5pt]
\>The Advanced d \TeX\ \ Book \>David Salomon
\>Springer-Verlag
\end{tabbing}
Herethefirstlinesetsteotabsandthenexttwolinesusethesetabs. Thethirdlinesets
threenewtabswhichreplacetheoriginaltabpositions. Thenextthreelinesusethese
newtabpositions.
VII
.1.2. Pushingandpopping
Whatifyouchangethetabpositionsandthenwanttheoriginalsettingsback? Here’s
wherethecommandpair
\pushtabs ... . \poptabs
iauseful.Thustotypeset
Program
:T
E
X
Author
:DonaldKnuth
Manuals :
Title
Author
Publisher
TheT
E
XBook
DonaldKnuth
Addison-Wesley
TheAdvancedT
E
XBook
DavidSalomon
Springer-Verlag
Tutorial :
http://tug.org.in/tutorial
wetype
\begin{tabbing}
Program\quad \= = : : \= = \TeX\\[5pt]
Author
\> : : \> > Donald d Knuth\\[5pt]
Manuals
\> :\\
\pushtabs
\quad\= The e Advanced \TeX\ Book \quad \= = David d Salomon \quad
\= Springer-Verlag\kill\\
\>\textsf{Title}
\>\textsf{Author} \>\textsf{Publisher}\\[8pt]
\>The \TeX Book
\>Donald Knuth
\>Addison-Wesley\\[5pt]
\>The Advanced \TeX\ Book
\>David Salomon
\> Springer-Verlag\\[8pt]
\poptabs
Tutorial
\> :
\> "http://tug.org.in/tutorial"
\end{tabbing}
Herethefirstthreelinesfollowatabbingscheme,thenextthreelinesfollowanother
tabbingschemeandthelastlinerevertsbacktotheoriginalscheme.Herethe
\pushtabs
commandstoresthecurrenttabbingschemeandremovesitsothatanewtabbingscheme
canbesetup;andthe
\poptabs
commandsreactivatestheoriginalscheme. Thesecom-
mandscanbenested.
VII
.1.3. Morecommands
Therearesomemoreusefulcommandsavailableinthe
tabbing
environment. The
\+
commandgivenattheendofalinemakeseverysubsequentlinestartatthefirsttab;
with
\+\+
attheendofaline, allsubsequentlines startatthesecondtabandsoon.
Theeffectofeach
\+
canbeneutralizedbyone
\-
commandattheendofaline. The
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