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UserGuide
27
AdvancedTopics
Encryptingforviewingbyrecipientonly
Tospecifythattherecipient’sdecryptedplaintextbeshownonlyonthe
recipient’sscreenandnotsavedtodisk,addthe-moption:
pgp-sem<message.txt><recipients_userid>
Whentherecipientdecryptstheciphertextwiththeirsecretkeyand
passphrase,theplaintextisdisplayedontherecipient’sscreenbutisnotsaved
todisk.ThetextisdisplayedasitwouldiftherecipientusedtheUNIX“more”
command,onescreenatatime.Iftherecipientwantstoreadthemessage
again,theymustdecrypttheciphertextasecondtime.
Thisfeatureisthesafestwayforyoutopreventyoursensitivemessagefrom
beinginadvertentlyleftontherecipient’sdisk.
Notethatthisfeaturedoesnotpreventacleveranddeterminedpersonfrom
findingawaytosavethedecryptedplaintexttodisk--itisdesignedtohelp
preventacasualuserfromdoingitinadvertently.
Storingsignedfiles:Signingafilewithoutencrypting
Ifyousignaplaintextfilewithoutspecifyingencryption,PGPcompressesthe
fileafteryousignit.Thismakesthefileunreadabletothecasualhuman
observer.Thisisasuitablewaytostoresignedfilesinarchivalapplications.
Wipingyourdisk
AfterPGPproducesaciphertextfileforyou,youcanrequestPGPto
automaticallyoverwriteanddeletetheplaintextfile,leavingnotraceof
plaintextonthedisk.Usethe“w”whenaplaintextfilecontainssensitive
information;itpreventssomeonefromrecoveringthefilewithadiskblock
scanningutility.
Usethe“w”optionwhenyouencryptandsignamessage:
pgp-ew<message.txt><recipients_userid>
ThisinstructsPGPtocreateaciphertextfile“message.pgp”,andtodestroythe
plaintextfile“message.txt”.
Notethatthisoptionwillnotwipeoutanyfragmentsofplaintextthatyour
wordprocessormighthavecreatedonthediskwhileyouwereeditingthe
messagebeforerunningPGP.Mostwordprocessorscreatebackupfiles,
scratchfiles,orboth.
PGPoverwritesthefile26times.
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AdvancedTopics
28
PGPCommandLine
KeyManagementCommands
EditingyouruserIDorpassphrase,ormakinganexisting
keyyourdefaultsigningkey
Youmayneedtochangeyourpassphrase,perhapsbecausesomeonelooked
overyourshoulderwhileyoutypeditonthekeyboard.Youmayneedto
changeyouruserID,becauseyouchangedyournameoryouremailaddress.
YoumayneedtoaddasecondorthirduserIDtoyourkey,becauseyouare
knownbymorethanonename,emailaddress,orjobtitle.PGPletsyouattach
morethanoneuserIDtoyourkey,anyoneofwhichcanbeusedtolookup
yourkeyonthekeyring.Youmayalsoneedtomakeanexistingkeyyour
defaultsigningkey.
Toedityouruseridorpassphraseforyoursecretkey,ortomakeanexisting
keyyourdefaultsigningkey,usethefollowingcommand:
pgp-ke<your_userid>[keyring]
PGPpromptsyouforanewuserIDoranewpassphrase.
IfyouedityouruserID,PGPactuallyaddsanewuserID,withoutdeletingthe
oldone.IfyouwanttodeleteanolduserID,youmustdothatinaseparate
operation.
Ifyouelecttousethekeyasanultimately-trustedintroducer,youcanmake
thekeyyourdefaultsigningkey.
Theoptional[keyring]parameter,ifspecified,mustbeapublickeyring,nota
secretkeyring.Theuseridfieldmustbeyourownuserid,whichPGPknows
isyoursbecauseitappearsonbothyourpublickeyringandyoursecret
keyring.Bothkeyringsareupdated,eventhoughyouonlyspecifiedthepublic
keyring.
Youcanalsousethe-kecommandtoeditthetrustparametersforapublickey.
Fordetails,see"Editingthetrustparametersforapublickey"onpage28.
Editingthetrustparametersforapublickey
Toeditthetrustparametersforapublickeyonyourpublickeyring,enterthe
followingcommand:
pgp-ke<userid>[keyring]
Theoptional[keyring]parameter,ifspecified,mustbeapublickeyring,nota
secretkeyring.
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UserGuide
29
AdvancedTopics
Verifyingthecontentsofyourpublickeyring
PGPautomaticallychecksanynewkeysorsignaturesonyourpublickeyring
andupdatesallthetrustparametersandvalidityscores.Intheory,itkeepsall
thekeyvaliditystatusinformationup-to-dateasmaterialisaddedtoor
deletedfromyourpublickeyring.
Atsomepoint,however,youmaywanttoexplicitlyforcePGPtoperforma
comprehensiveanalysisofyourpublickeyring,checkingallthecertifying
signatures,checkingthetrustparameters,updatingallthevalidityscores,and
checkingyourownultimately-trustedkeyagainstabackupcopyona
write-protectedfloppydisk.Itmaybeagoodideatodothishygienic
maintenanceperiodicallytomakesurenothingiswrongwithyourpublickey
ring.
ToforcePGPtoperformafullanalysisofyourpublickeyring,usethe-kc(key
ringcheck)command:
pgp-kc
YoucanalsousethefollowingcommandtomakePGPcheckallthesignatures
forasingleselectedpublickey:
pgp-kc<your_userid>[keyring]
Forinformationonhowtocheckthebackupcopyofyourownkey,see
"CERT_DEPTH:Depthofintroducersbenested"onpage35.
Verifyingapublickeyoverthephone
Ifyoureceiveapublickeyfromsomeonethatisnotcertifiedbyanyoneyou
trust,howcanyoutellifit’sreallytheirkey?Ifyouknowthekey’sownerand
wouldrecognizetheirvoiceonthephone,callthemandverifythekey’s
fingerprintoverthetelephone.Todoso,bothyouandthekey’sownerusethe
-kvdcommandtoviewthekey’sfingerprint:
pgp-kvc<userid>[keyring]
ThiscommandinstructsPGPtodisplaythekeywiththe32characterdigestof
thepublickeycomponents(Diffie-Hellmankeyshave40character
fingerprints).Readthefingerprinttothekey’sownertoseeifthefingerprints
match.
Usingthisprocedure,youcanverifyandsigneachother’skeyswith
confidence.Thisisasafeandconvenientwaytogetthekeytrustnetwork
startedforyourcircleoffriends.
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AdvancedTopics
30
PGPCommandLine
Notethatsendingakeyfingerprintviaemailisnotthebestwaytoverifythe
key,becauseemailcanbeinterceptedandmodified.Itisbesttouseadifferent
channelthantheonethatwasusedtosendthekeyitself.Agoodcombination
istosendthekeyviaemail,andthekeyfingerprintviaavoicetelephone
conversation.Somepeopledistributetheirkeyfingerprintontheirbusiness
cards.
SelectingkeysusingthekeyID
InmostcasesyouenterauserIDorthefragmentofauserIDtoselectakey.
However,youcanalsousethehexadecimalkeyIDtoselectakey.Todoso,
enterthekeyID,withaprefixof“0x”,insteadoftheuserID:
pgp-kv0x67F796C2
ThiscommandinstructsPGPtodisplayallkeysthathave67F796C2intheir
keyIDs.
Thisfeatureisparticularlyusefulifyouhavetwodifferentkeysfromthesame
person,withthesameuserID.Youcanpickthecorrectkeybyspecifyingthe
specifickeyID.
PGPPASS:Storeyourpassphrase
WhenPGPneedsapassphrasetounlockasecretkey,PGPpromptsyouto
enteryourpassphrase.UsethePGPPASSenvironmentvariable,enteredon
thecommandline,tostoreyourpassphrase.WhenPGPrequiresapassphrase,
itattemptstousethestoredpassphrase.Ifthestoredpassphraseisincorrect,
PGPrecoversbypromptingyouforthecorrectpassphrase.
SETPGPPASS=zaphodbeeblebroxforpresident
Theaboveexamplewouldeliminatethepromptforthepassphraseifthe
passphrasewas“zaphodbeeblebroxforpresident”.
Thisfeatureisconvenientifyouregularlyreceivealargenumberofincoming
messagesaddressedtoyoursecretkey,eliminatingtheneedforyouto
repeatedlytypeinyourpassphrase.
Thesafestwaytousethisfeatureistoenterthecommandeachtimeyouboot
yoursystem,anderaseitorturnoffyourmachinewhenyouaredone.Donot
usethisfeatureinanenvironmentwheresomeoneelsemayhaveaccessto
yourmachine.
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UserGuide
31
AdvancedTopics
Passingyourpassphrasefromanotherapplication
PGPincludesacommandlineoption,-z,thatyoucanusetopassyour
passphraseintoPGPfromanotherapplication.Thisoptionisdesigned
primarilytoinvokePGPfrominsideanemailpackage.
Thepassphrasefollowsthe-zoptiononthecommandline.Usethisfeature
withcaution.
PGPPASSFD
Thepassphrasefiledescriptor.Ifthisenvironmentvariableissettozero(0),
PGPusesthefirsttextlinefromstdinasthepassword.
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AdvancedTopics
32
PGPCommandLine
4
UserGuide
33
4
PGP’sConfigurationFile
LearningaboutPGP’sconfigurationfile:pgp.cfg
PGPstoresanumberofuser-definedparametersintheconfigurationtextfile,
pgp.cfg.Aconfigurationfileenablesyoutodefineflagsandparameters(also
calledenvironmentvariables)forPGP,eliminatingtheneedtodefinethese
parametersinthePGPcommandline.
Usetheseconfigurationparameterstoperformthefollowingtasksaswellas
manyothers:
• ControlwherePGPstoresitstemporaryscratchfiles.
• AdjustPGP’slevelofskepticismwhenitevaluatesakey’svaliditybased
onthenumberofthekey’scertifyingsignatures.
Configurationparametersmaybeassignedintegervalues,characterstring
values,oron
/
offvalues;thetypeofvaluesdependsonthetypeofparameter.
PGPincludesasampleconfigurationfileforyourreview.
Thefollowingrulesapplytotheconfigurationfile:
• Blanklinesareignored.
• Charactersthatfollowthecommentcharacter,#,areignored.
• Keywordsarenotcase-sensitive.
Thefollowingisashortsamplefragmentofatypicalconfigurationfile:
# TMP is the directory for PGP scratch h files, , such as a RAM disk.
TMP = "e:\"
# Can be overridden by environment variable e TMP.
Armor = = on
# Use -a flag for ASCII I armor r whenever applicable.
# CERT_DEPTH is how deeply introducers s may y introduce introducers.
cert_depth = 3
Underthefollowingconditions,PGPusesdefaultvaluesfortheconfiguration
parameters:
• Configurationparametersarenotdefined.
• Configurationfiledoesnotexist.
• PGPcannotfindtheconfigurationfile.
PGP’sConfigurationFile
34
PGPCommandLine
Notethatitisalsopossibletosetthesesameconfigurationparametersdirectly
fromthePGPcommandline,byprecedingtheparametersettingwitha“+”
(plus)character.Forexample,thefollowingtwoPGPcommandsproducethe
sameeffect:
pgp-e+armor=onmessage.txtsmith
pgp-eamessage.txtsmith
Forthelocationofpgp.cfg,pleasereferto"LocationofPGPfiles"onpage5.
TheremainderofthischaptersummarizesPGP’sconfigurationparameters.
Parametersappearinalphabeticalorder.
ARMOR:ASCII-armoroutput
Defaultsetting:ARMOR=off
TheconfigurationparameterARMORisequivalenttothe-acommandline
option.Ifenabled,thisparametercausesPGPtoemitciphertextorkeysin
ASCII-armoredformatsuitabletotransportthroughemailchannels.Output
filesarenamedwiththe".asc"extension.
IfyouintendtousePGPprimarilyforemailpurposes,youshouldturnthis
parameteron(ARMOR=ON).
ARMORLINES:SizeofASCIIarmormultipartfiles
Defaultsetting:ARMORLINES=0
Mostemailfacilitiesprohibitmessagesthataremorethan50000or65000
bytes.Asaresult,PGPrestrictsthenumberoflinestoafileto720.WhenPGP
createsalarge“.asc”ASCII-armoredfile,thefileisbrokenintosmaller
multipartfilessothatitcanbesentthroughemailutilities.Thesmallerfilesare
namedwithsuffixes“.as1”,“.as2”,“.as3”,andsoon.
TheconfigurationparameterARMORLINESspecifiesthemaximumnumber
oflinesineachofthesmallerfilesinamultipart“.asc”filesequence.Ifyouset
ARMORLINEStozero,PGPdoesnotbreakthelargefileintosmallerfiles.
UserGuide
35
PGP’sConfigurationFile
CERT_DEPTH:Depthofintroducersbenested
Defaultsetting:CERT_DEPTH=4
TheconfigurationparameterCERT_DEPTHidentifieshowmanylevelsdeep
youcannestintroducerstocertifyotherintroducerstocertifypublickeyson
yourpublickeyring.
Forexample,IfCERT_DEPTHissetto1,therecanonlybeonelayerof
introducersbelowyourownultimately-trustedkey.Ifthatisthecase,youare
requiredtodirectlycertifythepublickeysofalltrustedintroducersonyour
keyring.IfyousetCERT_DEPTHto0,youcouldhavenointroducersatall,
andyouwouldhavetodirectlycertifyeachandeverykeyonyourpublickey
ringtouseit.TheminimumCERT_DEPTHis0,themaximumis8.
CLEARSIG:Signedmessagereadablewithhumaneyes
Defaultsetting:CLEARSIG=on
UsetheCLEARSIGparametertogenerateasignedmessagethatcanberead
withhumaneyes,withouttheaidofPGP.TherecipientmuststillusePGPto
verifythesignature.
UnencryptedPGPsignedmessageshaveasignaturecertificateprependedin
binaryform.Thesignedmessageiscompressed,renderingthemessage
unreadabletohumaneyes,eventhoughthemessageisnotencrypted.
Tosendthisbinarydatathrougha7-bitemailchannel,PGPapplies
ASCII-armor(seetheARMORparameter).EvenifPGPdidnotcompressthe
message,theASCIIarmorrendersthemessageunreadabletohumaneyes.
TherecipientmustfirstusePGPtostripthearmoroffthemessage,andthen
decompressthemessagebeforereadingit.
Iftheoriginalplaintextmessageisintext,notbinaryform,youcanusethe
CLEARSIGparametertosendasignedmessagethroughanemailchannel;the
signedmessageisnotcompressed,andtheASCIIarmorisappliedtothe
binarysignaturecertificate,butnottotheplaintextmessage.TheCLEARSIG
parametermakesitpossibletogenerateasignedmessagethatcanberead
withhumaneyes,withouttheaidofPGP(again,therecipientstillneedsPGP
toverifythesignature).
TheCLEARSIGflagispresetto“on”.ToenablethefullCLEARSIGbehavior,
theARMORandTEXTMODEflagsmustalsobeturnedon.SetARMOR=ON
(orusethe-aoption),andsetTEXTMODE=ON(orusethe-toption).If
CLEARSIGissettooffinyourconfigurationfile,youcanturnitbackonagain
directlyonthecommandline:
pgp-sta+clearsig=onmessage.txt
PGP’sConfigurationFile
36
PGPCommandLine
NotethatsincethismethodonlyappliesASCIIarmortothebinarysignature
certificate,andnottothemessagetextitself,thereissomeriskthatthe
unarmoredmessagemaysuffersomeaccidentalmolestationwhileenroute.
Thiscanhappenifitpassesthroughanemailgatewaythatperformscharacter
setconversions,orinsomecasesextraspacesmaybeaddedtoorstripped
fromtheendsoflines.Ifthisoccurs,thesignaturewillfailtoverify,whichmay
giveafalseindicationofintentionaltampering.
WhenPGPcalculatesthesignaturefortextinCLEARSIGmode,trailing
blanksareignoredoneachline.
COMMENT:ASCIIarmorcomment
ASCIIArmorCommentappearsinallarmoredoutputasaCommentheader
justbeneaththeVersionheader.
COMPATIBLE:Enableuser-interfacecompatibilitywith
PGP2.6.2
Defaultsetting:COMPATIBLE=off
TheconfigurationparameterCOMPATIBLEenablesuser-interface
compatibilitywithPGP2.6.2.Youmayrequirethisfeatureforinteroperation
withscriptsthatparsetheoutputorotherwiseinteractwithPGPdialogues.
Toactivatethisfeature,addthefollowinglinetotheconfigurationfile,
pgp.cfg:
COMPATIBLE=on
COMPLETES_NEEDED:Numberofcompletelytrusted
introducersneeded
Defaultsetting:COMPLETES_NEEDED=1
TheconfigurationparameterCOMPLETES_NEEDEDidentifiestheminimum
numberofcompletelytrustedintroducersrequiredtofullycertifyapublickey
onyourpublickeyring.
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