Symbol
Definition
kg
kilogram (a fundamental SI unit of mass)
L
angular momentum
L
liter
L
magnitude of angular momentum
L
self-inductance
angular momentum quantum number
L
α
x rays created when an electron falls into an
n=2
shell from the
n=3
shell
L
e
electron total family number
L
μ
muon family total number
L
τ
tau family total number
L
f
heat of fusion
L
f
andL
v
latent heat coefficients
L
orb
orbital angular momentum
L
s
heat of sublimation
L
v
heat of vaporization
L
z
z- component of the angular momentum
M
angular magnification
M
mutual inductance
m
indicates metastable state
m
magnification
m
mass
m
mass of an object as measured by a person at rest relative to the object
m
meter (a fundamental SI unit of length)
m
order of interference
m
overall magnification (product of the individual magnifications)
m
A
X
atomic mass of a nuclide
MA
mechanical advantage
m
e
magnification of the eyepiece
m
e
mass of the electron
m
angular momentum projection quantum number
m
n
mass of a neutron
m
o
magnification of the objective lens
mol
mole
m
p
mass of a proton
m
s
spin projection quantum number
N
magnitude of the normal force
N
newton
N
normal force
APPENDIX D | GLOSSARY OF KEY SYMBOLS AND NOTATION N 1259
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Symbol
Definition
N
number of neutrons
n
index of refraction
n
number of free charges per unit volume
N
A
Avogadro's number
N
r
Reynolds number
N⋅m
newton-meter (work-energy unit)
N⋅m
newtons times meters (SI unit of torque)
OE
other energy
P
power
P
power of a lens
P
pressure
p
momentum
p
momentum magnitude
p
relativistic momentum
p
tot
total momentum
p
tot
'
total momentum some time later
P
abs
absolute pressure
P
atm
atmospheric pressure
P
atm
standard atmospheric pressure
PE
potential energy
PE
el
elastic potential energy
PE
elec
electric potential energy
PE
s
potential energy of a spring
P
g
gauge pressure
P
in
power consumption or input
P
out
useful power output going into useful work or a desired, form of energy
Q
latent heat
Q
net heat transferred into a system
Q
flow rate—volume per unit time flowing past a point
+Q
positive charge
Q
negative charge
q
electron charge
q
p
charge of a proton
q
test charge
QF
quality factor
R
activity, the rate of decay
R
radius of curvature of a spherical mirror
1260 APPENDIX D | GLOSSARY OF KEY SYMBOLS AND NOTATION
This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11406/1.7
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Symbol
Definition
R
red quark color
R
¯
antired (cyan) quark color
R
resistance
R
resultant or total displacement
R
Rydberg constant
R
universal gas constant
r
distance from pivot point to the point where a force is applied
r
internal resistance
r
perpendicular lever arm
r
radius of a nucleus
r
radius of curvature
r
resistivity
r or rad
radiation dose unit
rem
roentgen equivalent man
rad
radian
RBE
relative biological effectiveness
RC
resistor and capacitor circuit
rms
root mean square
r
n
radius of thenth H-atom orbit
R
p
total resistance of a parallel connection
R
s
total resistance of a series connection
R
s
Schwarzschild radius
S
entropy
S
intrinsic spin (intrinsic angular momentum)
S
magnitude of the intrinsic (internal) spin angular momentum
S
shear modulus
S
strangeness quantum number
s
quark flavor strange
s
second (fundamental SI unit of time)
s
spin quantum number
s
total displacement
secθ
secant
sinθ
sine
s
z
z-component of spin angular momentum
T
period—time to complete one oscillation
T
temperature
T
c
critical temperature—temperature below which a material becomes a superconductor
T
tension
T
tesla (magnetic field strengthB)
APPENDIX D | GLOSSARY OF KEY SYMBOLS AND NOTATION N 1261
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Symbol
Definition
t
quark flavor top or truth
t
time
t
1/2
half-life—the time in which half of the original nuclei decay
tanθ
tangent
U
internal energy
u
quark flavor up
u
unified atomic mass unit
u
velocity of an object relative to an observer
u
'
velocity relative to another observer
V
electric potential
V
terminal voltage
V
volt (unit)
V
volume
v
relative velocity between two observers
v
speed of light in a material
v
velocity
v
¯
average fluid velocity
V
B
V
A
change in potential
v
d
drift velocity
V
p
transformer input voltage
V
rms
rms voltage
V
s
transformer output voltage
v
tot
total velocity
v
w
propagation speed of sound or other wave
v
w
wave velocity
W
work
W
net work done by a system
W
watt
w
weight
w
weight of the fluid displaced by an object
W
c
total work done by all conservative forces
W
nc
total work done by all nonconservative forces
W
out
useful work output
X
amplitude
X
symbol for an element
Z
X
N
notation for a particular nuclide
x
deformation or displacement from equilibrium
x
displacement of a spring from its undeformed position
1262 APPENDIX D | GLOSSARY OF KEY SYMBOLS AND NOTATION
This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11406/1.7
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Symbol
Definition
x
horizontal axis
X
C
capacitive reactance
X
L
inductive reactance
x
rms
root mean square diffusion distance
y
vertical axis
Y
elastic modulus or Young's modulus
Z
atomic number (number of protons in a nucleus)
Z
impedance
APPENDIX D | GLOSSARY OF KEY SYMBOLS AND NOTATION N 1263
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Index
Symbols
(peak) emf,826
RC circuit,759
A
aberration,949
aberrations,947
absolute pressure,368,388
absolute zero,431,461
ac current,711,722
ac voltage,711,722
acceleration,43,75,126,153
acceleration due to gravity,62,75
accommodation,931,949
accuracy,25,31
acoustic impedance ,615,620
active transport,419,419
activity,1131,1140
adaptive optics,947,949
adhesive forces,377,388
adiabatic,515
adiabatic process,540
air resistance,101,114
alpha,1114
alpha decay,1124,1140
alpha rays,1140
alternating current,710,722
ammeter,762
ammeters,752
ampere,696,723
ampere’s law,796,801
amplitude,555,579,864,878,879
amplitude modulation,868
amplitude modulation (am),879
analog meter,762
analog meters,754
analytical method,114
analytical methods,95
anger camera,1152,1174
angular acceleration,318,346
angular magnification,945,949
angular momentum,336,347
angular momentum quantum number,1093,
1102
angular velocity,189,212
antielectron,1128,1140
antimatter,1126,1140
antinode,575,579,604,620
approximation,31
approximations,29
arc length,188,212
archimedes’ principle,372,388
astigmatism,935,949
atom,1064,1102
atomic de-excitation,1082,1102
atomic excitation,1082,1102
atomic mass,1120,1140
atomic number,1096,1103,1120,1140
atomic spectra,1032,1055
average acceleration,43,76,75
average speed,41,75
average velocity,40,75
avogadro’s number,444,461
axions,1225,1230
axis of a polarizing filter,979,988
B
b-field,781,801
back emf,828,850
banked curve,212
banked curves,196
barrier penetration,1138,1140
baryon number,1193,1204
baryons,1193,1204
basal metabolic rate,247,251
beat frequency,576,580
becquerel,1131,1140
bernoulli’s equation,401,419
bernoulli’s principle,402,419
beta,1114
beta decay,1126,1140
beta rays,1140
big bang,1214,1230
binding energy,1034,1055,1134,1140
binding energy per nucleon,1135,1140
bioelectricity,717,723
biot-savart law,796,801
birefringent,985,988
black holes,1220,1230
blackbodies,1031
blackbody,1055
blackbody radiation,1031,1055
bohr radius,1075,1103
boltzmann constant,443,461
boson,1191,1204
bottom,1200,1204
bow wake,602,620
break-even,1164,1174
breeder reactors,1170,1174
breeding,1170,1174
bremsstrahlung,1038,1055
brewster’s angle,981,988
brewster’s law,981,988
bridge device,762
bridge devices,758
brownian motion,1064,1103
buoyant force,372,388
C
capacitance,676,686,759,763
capacitive reactance,843,850
capacitor,675,686,759,763
capillary action,382,388
carbon-14 dating,1130,1140
carnot cycle,522,540
carnot efficiency,523,540
carnot engine,522,540
carrier particle,153
carrier particles,152
carrier wave,868,879
cathode-ray tube,1103
cathode-ray tubes,1066
celsius,431
celsius scale,461
center of gravity,295,309
center of mass,202,212
centrifugal force,198,212
centrifuge,192
centripetal acceleration,191,212
centripetal force,194,212
change in angular velocity,319,347
change in entropy,531,540
change in momentum,264,280
chaos,1226,1230
characteristic time constant,840,850
characteristic x rays,1038,1055
charm,1200,1204
chart of the nuclides,1122,1140
chemical energy,240,251
classical physics,16,31
classical relativity,111,114
classical velocity addition,1021
coefficient of linear expansion,436,462
coefficient of performance,529,540
coefficient of volume expansion,438,462
coherent,960,988
cohesive forces,377,388
colliding beams,1188,1204
color,1200,1204
color constancy,938,949
commutative,92,114,114
complexity,1226,1230
component (of a 2-d vector),114
components ,95
compound microscope,939,949
compton effect,1042,1055
conduction,482,495
conductor,633,652
conductors,644
confocal microscopes,987,988
conservation laws,749,763
conservation of energy,222
conservation of mechanical energy,234,251
conservation of momentum principle,267,
280
conservation of total ,1193
conservation of total baryon number,1193,
1204
conservation of total electron family number,
1204
conservation of total lμ,1193
conservation of total muon family number,
1204
conservative force,233,251
constructive interference,574,580
constructive interference for a diffraction
grating,964,988
constructive interference for a double slit,
961,988
contact angle,381,388
contrast,985,988
convection,482,495
converging (or convex) lens,904
converging lens,921
converging mirror,921
conversion factor,22,31
coriolis force,199,212
corner reflector,898,921
correspondence principle,1030,1055
cosmic microwave background,1215,1230
cosmological constant,1223,1230
cosmological red shift,1214,1230
cosmology,1212,1230
coulomb force,638,652
coulomb forces,638
coulomb interaction,644,652
coulomb’s law,637,652
critical angle,895,921
critical damping,566,580
critical density,1223,1230
critical mass,1168,1174
critical point,454,462
critical pressure,454,462
critical temperature,454,462,1227,1230
criticality,1169,1174
curie,1131,1140
curie temperature,778,801
current,734,763
current sensitivity,754,763
cyclical process,519,540
cyclotron,1187,1204
D
dalton’s law of partial pressures,457,462
dark matter,1223,1230
daughter,1140
1264 INDEX
This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11406/1.7
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daughters,1124
de broglie wavelength,1046,1055
decay,1114,1123,1140
decay constant,1130,1140
decay equation,1125,1128,1140
decay series,1124,1140
deceleration,43,75
defibrillator,684,686
deformation,173,181,550,580
degree celsius,431,462
degree fahrenheit,431,462
density,359,388
dependent variable,69,75
derived units,19,31
destructive interference,574,580
destructive interference for a double slit,961,
988
destructive interference for a single slit,969,
988
dew point,458,462
dialysis,419,419
diastolic pressure,369,385,389
dielectric,678,686
dielectric strength,686
dielectric strengths,679
diffraction,959,988
diffraction grating,963,988
diffusion,416,419
digital meter,763
digital meters,754
dipole,644,652
direct current,710,723
direction,90
direction (of a vector),114
direction of magnetic field lines,781,801
direction of polarization,978,988
dispersion,900,921
displacement,36,75
distance,37,75
distance traveled,37,75
diverging lens,905,921
diverging mirror,921
domains,778,801
doppler effect,598,620
doppler shift,599,620
doppler-shifted ultrasound,617,620
double-slit interference,1073,1103
down,1195,1204
drag force,169,181
drift velocity ,699,723
dynamic equilibrium,290,309
dynamics,124,124,154,153
E
eddy current,822,850
efficiency,242,251
elapsed time,40,75
elastic collision,269,280
elastic potential energy,552,580
electric and magnetic fields,878
electric charge,629,652
electric current,696,723
electric field,645,652,864,879
electric field lines,652,863,879
electric field strength,640,879
electric fields,640
electric generator,850
electric generators,825
electric potential,664,686
electric power,707,723
electrical energy,240,251
electrocardiogram (ecg),721,723
electromagnet,801
electromagnetic force,628,652
electromagnetic induction,816,850
electromagnetic spectrum,879
electromagnetic waves,861,864,878,880
electromagnetism,778,801
electromagnets,778
electromotive force,742
electromotive force (emf),763,880
electron,652
electron capture,1128,1140
electron capture equation,1128,1140
electron family number ,1192,1204
electron volt,667,686
electrons,629
electron’s antineutrino,1126,1140
electron’s neutrino,1128,1140
electrostatic equilibrium,644,652
electrostatic force,637,652
electrostatic precipitators,650,652
electrostatic repulsion,634,652
electrostatics,648,652
electroweak epoch,1218,1230
electroweak theory,1201,1204
emf,749
emf induced in a generator coil,826,850
emissivity,492,495
endoscope,897
energies of hydrogen-like atoms,1075,1103
energy,222,251
energy stored in an inductor ,839,850
energy-level diagram,1074,1103
english units,19,31
entropy,530,540
equipotential line,686
equipotential lines,673
escape velocity,1220,1230
event horizon,1220,1230
external force,126,153
external forces,125,154
extremely low frequency (elf),868,880
eyepiece,939,949
F
fahrenheit,431
fahrenheit scale,462
far point,933,949
faraday cage,647,652
faraday’s law of induction,817,850
farsightedness,933,949
fermion,1191,1204
ferromagnetic,778,801
feynman diagram,1186,1204
fiber optics,897,921
fictitious force,198,212
field,652
fine structure,1091,1103
first law of thermodynamics,506,540
first postulate of special relativity,999,1021
fission fragments,1167,1175
flat (zero curvature) universe,1224,1230
flavors,1195,1204
flow rate,398,419
fluid dynamics,398,419
fluids,358,389
fluorescence,1082,1103
focal length,904,921
focal point,904,921
food irradiation,1160,1175
force,124,154,153
force constant,550,580
force field,150,151,153,638
fossil fuels,249,251
free charge,652
free charges,644
free electron,652
free electrons,633
free radicals,1161,1175
free-body diagram,125,154,143,153
free-fall,62,75,129,153
frequency,554,580,864,880
frequency modulation,869
frequency modulation (fm),880
friction,127,153,164,181,236,251
full-scale deflection,754,763
fundamental,605,620
fundamental frequency,575,580
fundamental particle,1194,1204
fundamental units,19,31
G
galvanometer,754,763
gamma,1114
gamma camera,1152,1175
gamma decay,1129,1140
gamma ray,876,880,1055
gamma rays,1036,1140
gauge boson,1204
gauge bosons,1191
gauge pressure,368,389
gauss,782,801
geiger tube,1118,1140
general relativity,1218,1231
geometric optics,888,921
glaucoma,386,389
gluons,1187,1202,1204
grand unified theory,1204
grand unified theory (gut),1201
gravitational constant,203
gravitational constant, g,212
gravitational potential energy,228,251
gravitational waves,1221,1231
gray (gy),1154,1175
greenhouse effect,493,495
grounded,649,652
grounding,673,686
gut epoch,1218,1231
H
hadrons,1190,1205
half-life,1129,1140
hall effect,787,801
hall emf,787,801
harmonics,605,620
head,89
head (of a vector),114
head-to-tail method,89,114,114
hearing,590,609,620
heat,470,495
heat engine,510,540
heat of sublimation,481,495
heat pump,540
heat pump’s coefficient of performance,527
heat transfer,430
heisenberg uncertainty principle,1051
heisenberg’s uncertainty principle ,1052,
1055
henry,836,850
hertz,880
higgs boson,1203,1204
high dose,1155,1175
hologram,1087,1103
holography,1087,1103
hooke’s law,173,181
horizontally polarized,978,988
hormesis,1156,1175
horsepower,244,251
INDEX 1265
hubble constant,1214,1231
hues,937,949
human metabolism,509,540
huygens’s principle,957,988
hydrogen spectrum wavelength,1073
hydrogen spectrum wavelengths,1103
hydrogen-like atom,1074,1103
hydrogen-spectrum wavelengths,1072
hyperopia,933,949
I
ideal angle,212
ideal banking,196,212
ideal gas law,443,462
ideal speed,212
ignition,1164,1175
image distance ,909
impedance,844,850
impulse,264,280
incoherent,960,988
independent variable,69,75
index of refraction,892,921
inductance,836,850
induction,634,652,814,850
inductive reactance,842,850
inductor,837,850
inelastic collision,271,280
inertia,126,154,153
inertial confinement,1165,1175
inertial frame of reference,142,153,998,
1021
inflationary scenario,1218,1231
infrared radiation,871,1055
infrared radiation (ir),880,1040
infrasound,609,620
ink jet printer,649
ink-jet printer,653
instantaneous acceleration,45,75
instantaneous speed,41,75
instantaneous velocity,40,76
insulator,653
insulators,634
intensity,578,580,595,620,878,880
intensity reflection coefficient,615,620
interference microscopes,986,988
internal energy,507,540
internal kinetic energy,269,280
internal resistance,742,763
intraocular pressure,386,389
intrinsic magnetic field ,1091,1103
intrinsic spin,1091,1103
ionizing radiation,1036,1055,1116,1140
ionosphere,646,653
irreversible process,517,540
isobaric process,512,540
isochoric,513
isochoric process,540
isolated system,267,280
isothermal,515
isothermal process,540
isotopes,1121,1141
J
joule,224,252
joule’s law,735,763
junction rule,749,763
K
kelvin,431
kelvin scale,462
kilocalorie,470,495
kilogram,20,31
kilowatt-hour,252
kilowatt-hours,246
kinematics,36,76,102,114
kinematics of rotational motion,322,347
kinetic energy,226,252
kinetic friction,164,181
kirchhoff’s rules,748,763
L
laminar,407,419
laser,1084,1103
laser printer,653
laser printers,649
laser vision correction,936,949
latent heat coefficient,495
latent heat coefficients,477
law,15,31
law of conservation of angular momentum,
339,347
law of conservation of charge,632,653
law of conservation of energy,240,252
law of inertia,126,154,153
law of reflection,921
law of refraction,894
length contraction ,1006,1021
lenz’s law,817,850
leptons,1190,1205
linear accelerator,1189,1205
linear hypothesis,1155,1175
linear momentum,262,280
liquid drop model,1167,1175
liter,398,419
longitudinal wave,572,580
loop rule,749,763
lorentz force,782,801
loudness,609,620
low dose,1155,1175
M
machos,1225,1231
macrostate,537,540
magic numbers,1123,1141
magnetic confinement,1164,1175
magnetic damping,822,850
magnetic field,781,802,864,880
magnetic field lines,781,801,863,880
magnetic field strength,880
magnetic field strength (magnitude) produced
by a long straight current-carrying wire,795,
802
magnetic field strength at the center of a
circular loop,796,802
magnetic field strength inside a solenoid,797,
802
magnetic flux,816,850
magnetic force,782,802
magnetic monopoles,780,802
magnetic resonance imaging (mri),800,802
magnetized,778,802
magnetocardiogram (mcg),801,802
magnetoencephalogram (meg),801,802
magnification,909,921
magnitude,90
magnitude (of a vector),114
magnitude of kinetic friction,181
magnitude of kinetic friction f k, 165
magnitude of static friction,181
magnitude of static friction f s,164
magnitude of the intrinsic (internal) spin
angular momentum,1094,1103
mass,126,154,153
mass number,1120,1141
massive compact halo objects,1225
maximum field strength,878,880
maxwell’s equations,796,801,862,880
mechanical advantage,301,309
mechanical energy,234,252,667,686
mechanical equivalent of heat,470,495
meson,1185,1205
mesons,1193
metabolic rate,247,252
metastable,1083,1103
meter,20,31,802
meters,794
method of adding percents,27,31
metric system,20,31
michelson-morley experiment,999,1021
microgravity,206,212
microlensing,1225,1231
microshock sensitive,717,723
microstate,537,540
microwaves,871,880,1041,1055
micturition reflex,388,389
mirror,921
model,15,31,41,76
moderate dose,1155,1175
modern physics,18,31
mole,444,462
moment of inertia,326,327,347
motion,101,114
motor,802
motors,792
muon family number,1193,1205
mutual inductance,836,850
myopia,933,949
N
natural frequency,569,580
near point,933,949
nearsightedness,933,949
negatively curved,1224,1231
nerve conduction,717,723
net external force,127,154
net rate of heat transfer by radiation,493,495
net work,224,252
neutral equilibrium,297,309
neutralinos,1225,1231
neutrino,1126,1141
neutrino oscillations,1225,1231
neutron,1120,1141
neutron stars,1220,1231
neutron-induced fission,1167,1175
newton,128
newton-meters,224
newton’s first law of motion,125,154,154
newton’s second law of motion,126,154
newton’s third law of motion,132,154,154
newton’s universal law of gravitation,202,
212
node,604,620
nodes,575,580
non-inertial frame of reference,198,212
nonconservative force,236,252
normal force,135,154
north magnetic pole,776,802
note,620
notes,609
nuclear energy,240,252
nuclear fission,1166,1175
nuclear fusion,1161,1175
nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr),800,802
nuclear radiation,1114,1141
nuclear reaction energy,1125,1141
nucleons,1120,1141
nucleus,1141
1266 INDEX
This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11406/1.7
nuclide,1120,1141
null measurements,756,763
numerical aperture,949
numerical aperture (NA), 941
O
objective lens,939,949
ohm,701,723
ohmic,701,723
ohmmeter,763
ohmmeters,757
ohm’s law,701,723,734,763
optically active,984,988
orbital angular momentum,1090,1103
orbital magnetic field,1090,1103
order,961,988
order of magnitude,20,31
oscillate,550,580,880
osmosis,419,419
osmotic pressure,419,419
otto cycle,521,540
over damping,580
overdamped,566
overtones,575,580,605,620
P
parallel,736,763
parallel plate capacitor,675,687
parent,1124,1141
partial pressure,457,462
particle physics,1184,1205
particle-wave duality,1045,1053,1056
pascal’s principle,366,389
pauli exclusion principle,1097,1103
peak emf,850
percent relative humidity,460,462
percent uncertainty,26,31
perfectly inelastic collision,271,280
period,554,580
periodic motion,554,580
permeability of free space,795,802
perpendicular lever arm,292,309
phase angle,847,850
phase diagram,462
phase diagrams,455
phase-contrast microscope,986,989
phon,610,620
phosphorescence,1083,1103
photoconductor,649,653
photoelectric effect,1032,1056
photomultiplier,1119,1141
photon,1033,1041,1056
photon energy,1033,1056
photon momentum,1042,1056
physical quantity,18,31
physics,12,31
pion,1184,1205
pit,188,212
pitch,592,609,620
planck’s constant,1031,1056
planetary model of the atom,1070,1103
point charge,639,653
point masses,274,280
poiseuille’s law,409,420
poiseuille’s law for resistance,409,419
polar molecule,644,653,679,687
polarization,634,653,978,989
polarization microscope,987,989
polarized,645,653,978,989
population inversion,1084,1103
position,36,76
positively curved,1224,1231
positron,1128,1141
positron decay,1128,1141
positron emission tomography (pet),1152,
1175
potential difference,665,742,763
potential difference (or voltage),687
potential energy,233,233,252
potential energy of a spring,233,252
potentiometer,756,763
power,243,252,905,921
power factor,848,850
precision,25,31
presbyopia,933,949
pressure,361,363,366,389
probability distribution,1050,1056
projectile,101,114
projectile motion,101,114
proper length ,1005,1021
proper time ,1001,1021
proton,653
proton-proton cycle,1163,1175
protons,629,1120,1141
pv diagram,454,462
Q
quality factor,1154,1175
quantized,1030,1056
quantum chromodynamics,1200,1202,1205
quantum electrodynamics,1186,1205
quantum gravity,1218,1231
quantum mechanical tunneling,1138,1141
quantum mechanics,18,31,1030,1056
quantum numbers,1092,1103
quark,281,1205
quarks,268,1195
quasars,1220,1231
R
R factor,485
rad,1153,1175
radar,871,880
radians,189,212
radiant energy,240,252
radiation,482,490,495
radiation detector,1118,1141
radio waves,862,868,880
radioactive,1114,1141
radioactive dating,1130,1141
radioactivity,1114,1141
radiolytic products,1161,1175
radiopharmaceutical,1150,1175
radiotherapy,1158,1175
radius of a nucleus,1121,1141
radius of curvature,188,212
rainbow,921
range,106,114
range of radiation,1116,1141
rate of conductive heat transfer,483,495
rate of decay,1131,1141
ray,888,921
ray tracing,906
rayleigh criterion,970,989
rc circuit,763
real image,908,921
reflected light is completely polarized,981
reflected light that is completely polarized,
989
refraction,891,921
relative biological effectiveness,1154
relative biological effectiveness (rbe),1175
relative humidity,458,462
relative osmotic pressure,419,420
relative velocities,111
relative velocity,114
relativistic doppler effects,1023,1021
relativistic kinetic energy,1018,1022
relativistic momentum,1014,1022
relativistic velocity addition,1010,1022
relativity,18,31,111,114,998,1022
renewable forms of energy,249,252
resistance,701,723,734,763
resistivity,703,723
resistor,734,759,763
resonance,569,580
resonant,865,880
resonant frequency,846,850
resonate,569,580
rest energy,1015,1022
rest mass,1014,1022
restoring force,550,580
resultant,90,114
resultant vector,89,114
retinex,949
retinex theory of color vision,939,949
retinexes,939
reverse dialysis,419,420
reverse osmosis,419,420
reversible process,516,540
reynolds number,414,420
right hand rule 1,782
right hand rule 1 (rhr-1),802
right hand rule 2,795
right hand rule 2 (rhr-2),802
right-hand rule,344,347
rlc circuit,880
rms current,711,723
rms voltage,711,723
rods and cones,937,949
roentgen equivalent man,1154
roentgen equivalent man (rem),1175
rotation angle,188,212
rotational inertia,326,347
rotational kinetic energy,329,347
rydberg constant,1072,1077,1103
S
saturation,458,462
scalar,38,76,94,114,668,687
schwarzschild radius,1220,1231
scientific method,16,31
scintillators,1118,1141
screening,644,653
second,19,31
second law of motion,262,281
second law of thermodynamics,518,519,
522,541
second law of thermodynamics stated in
terms of entropy,541
second postulate of special relativity,999,
1022
self-inductance,837,850
semipermeable,418,420,718,723
series,734,763
shear deformation,178,181
shell,1098,1103
shielding,1156,1175
shock hazard,714,723,832,851
short circuit,714,723
shunt resistance,754,763
si unit of torque,293
si units,19,31
si units of torque,309
sievert,1154,1175
significant figures,27,31
simple circuit,701,723
simple harmonic motion,555,580
INDEX 1267
simple harmonic oscillator,555,580
simple pendulum,559,580
simplified theory of color vision,937,949
single-photon-emission computed
tomography (spect),1175
single-photon-emission computed
tomography(spect),1152
slope,69,76
solenoid,796,802
solid-state radiation detectors,1119,1141
sonic boom,601,620
sound,590,620
sound intensity level,596,620
sound pressure level,598,620
south magnetic pole,776,802
space quantization,1091,1103
special relativity,1022
special relativity.,998
specific gravity,374,389
specific heat,472,495
speed of light,880
spin projection quantum number,1095,1103
spin quantum number,1095,1103
spontaneous symmetry breaking,1218,1231
stable equilibrium,295,309
standard model,1202,1205
standing wave,575,865,880
static electricity,628,653
static equilibrium,290,298,309
static friction,164,181
statistical analysis,538,541
stefan-boltzmann law of radiation,492,495
step-down transformer,830,851
step-up transformer,830,851
stimulated emission,1084,1103
stokes’ law,172,181
strain,178,181
strange,1195,1205
strangeness,1193,1205
stress,178,181
sublimation,456,462,480,495
subshell,1098,1103
superconductors,1227,1231
supercriticality,1169,1175
superforce,1218,1231
superposition,573,580
superstring theory,1203,1205,1223,1231
surface tension,378,389
synchrotron,1187,1205
synchrotron radiation,1188,1205
system,126,154
systolic pressure,369,385,389
T
tagged,1150,1175
tail,89,114
tangential acceleration,319,347
tau family number,1205
television,869
temperature,430,462
temperature coefficient of resistivity,705,723
tensile strength,175,181
tension,137,154
terminal speed,415,420
terminal voltage,744,763
tesla,782,802
test charge ,639,653
the second law of thermodynamics stated in
terms of entropy,532
theory,15,31
theory of quark confinement,1200,1205
therapeutic ratio,1159,1175
thermal agitation,871,880
thermal conductivity,483,495
thermal energy,236,240,252,450,462
thermal equilibrium,435,462
thermal expansion,436,462
thermal hazard,714,723,832,851
thermal stress,440,462
thin film interference,974,989
thin lens,906
thin lens equations,909
thought experiment,1218,1231
three-wire system,832,851
thrust,132,154,154
timbre,609,620
time,39,76
time dilation,1001,1022
toe epoch,1218,1231
tone,609,620
top,1200,1205
torque,292,309,326,347
total energy ,1015,1022
total internal reflection,895
trajectory,101,114
transformer,851
transformer equation,830,851
transformers,828
transverse wave,572,580,865,880
triple point,456,462
tunneling,1139,1141
turbulence,407,420
tv,880
twin paradox,1022
U
ultra high frequency,869
ultra-high frequency (uhf),880
ultracentrifuge,193,212
ultrasound,609,620
ultraviolet (uv) microscopes,985,989
ultraviolet radiation,1038,1056
ultraviolet radiation (uv),873,880
uncertainty,26,31
uncertainty in energy,1052,1056
uncertainty in momentum,1051,1056
uncertainty in position,1051,1056
uncertainty in time,1052,1056
under damping,580
underdamped,566
uniform circular motion,188,212
units,18,32
unpolarized,978,989
unstable equilibrium,295,309
up,1195,1205
useful work,247,252
V
van de graaff,1187,1205
van de graaff generator,653
van de graaff generators,648
vapor,457,462
vapor pressure,457,462
vector,38,76,88,114,653,668,687
vector addition,108,114,641,653
vectors,87,640
velocity,108,114
vertically polarized,978,989
very high frequency,869
very high frequency (vhf),880
virtual image,911,921
virtual particles,1184,1205
viscosity,408,420
viscous drag,415,420
visible light,872,880,1039,1056
voltage,665,734,763
voltage drop,734,763
voltmeter,763
voltmeters,752
W
watt,244,252
wave,571,580
wave velocity,571,580
wavelength,571,580,864,880
wavelength in a medium,957,989
waves,550
weakly interacting massive particles,1225
weight,128,135,154
wheatstone bridge,758,763
wimps,1225,1231
work,222,252
work-energy theorem,226,252,331,348,
347
X
x ray,1056
x rays,1037,1077,1103
x-ray,875,880
x-ray diffraction,1080,1103
xerography,649,653
Y
y-intercept,69,76
Z
z-component of spin angular momentum,
1104
z-component of the angular momentum,1104
z-component of spin
angular momentum,1095
z-component of the
angular momentum,1093
zeeman effect,1090,1104
zeroth law of thermodynamics,435,462
zircon,922
1268 INDEX
This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11406/1.7
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