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Recipe 9.3. Making an Initializer List Exception-Safe
Problem
You have to initialize your data members in the constructor's initializer list, and, therefore, cannot use the
approach described in Recipe 9.2
.
Solution
Use a special syntax for try and catch that catches exceptions thrown in the initializer list. Example 9-3
shows how.
Example 9-3. Handling exceptions in an initializer
#include <iostream>
#include <stdexcept>
using namespace std;
// Some device
class Device {
public:
Device(int devno) {
if (devno == 2)
throw runtime_error("Big problem");
}
~Device( ) {}
private:
Device( );
};
class Broker {
public:
Broker (int devno1, int devno2)
try : dev1_(Device(devno1)),   // Create these in the initializer
dev2_(Device(devno2)) {} // list.
catch (...) {
throw; // Log the message or translate the error here (see
// the discussion)
}
~Broker( ) {}
private:
Broker( );
Device dev1_;
Device dev2_;
};
int main( ) {
try {
Broker b(1, 2);
}
catch(exception& e) {
cerr << "Exception: " << e.what( ) << endl;
}
}
Discussion
The syntax for handling exceptions in initializers looks a little different from the traditional C++ syntax
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Recipe 9.4. Making Member Functions Exception-Safe
Problem
You are writing a member function and you need it to uphold the basic and strong exception-safety
guarantees, namely that it won't leak resources and it won't leave the object in an invalid state if an
exception is thrown.
Solution
Be aware of what operations can throw exceptions and do them first, usually in a try/catch block. Once
the code that can throw exceptions is done executing, then you can update the object state. Example 9-4
offers one way to make a member function exception-safe.
Example 9-4. An exception-safe member function
class Message {
public:
Message(int bufSize = DEFAULT_BUF_SIZE) :
bufSize_(bufSize),
initBufSize_(bufSize),
msgSize_(0),
buf_(NULL) {
buf_ = new char[bufSize];
}
~Message( ) {
delete[] buf_;
}
// Append character data
void appendData(int len, const char* data) {
if (msgSize_+len > MAX_SIZE) {
throw out_of_range("Data size exceeds maximum size.");
}
if (msgSize_+len > bufSize_) {
int newBufSize = bufSize_;
while ((newBufSize *= 2) < msgSize_+len);
char* p = new char[newBufSize];    // Allocate memory
// for new buffer
copy(buf_, buf_+msgSize_, p);      // Copy old data
copy(data, data+len, p+msgSize_);  // Copy new data
msgSize_ += len;
bufSize_ = newBufSize;
delete[] buf_;  // Get rid of old buffer and point to new
buf_ = p;
}
else {
copy(data, data+len, buf_+msgSize_);
msgSize_ += len;
}
}
// Copy the data out to the caller's buffer
int getData(int maxLen, char* data) {
if (maxLen < msgSize_) {
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Recipe 9.5. Safely Copying an Object
Problem
You need the basic class copy operationscopy construction and assignmentto be exception-safe.
Solution
Employ the tactics discussed in Recipe 9.4
by doing everything that might throw first, then changing the
object state with operations that can't throw only after the hazardous work is complete. Example 9-6
presents the Message class again, this time with the assignment operator and copy constructor defined.
Example 9-6. Exception-safe assignment and copy construction
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
const static int DEFAULT_BUF_SIZE = 3;
const static int MAX_SIZE         = 4096;
class Message {
public:
Message(int bufSize = DEFAULT_BUF_SIZE) :
bufSize_(bufSize),
initBufSize_(bufSize),
msgSize_(0),
key_("") {
buf_ = new char[bufSize]; // Note: now this is in the body
}
~Message( ) {
delete[] buf_;
}
// Exception-safe copy ctor
Message(const Message& orig) : 
bufSize_(orig.bufSize_),
initBufSize_(orig.initBufSize_),
msgSize_(orig.msgSize_),
key_(orig.key_) { // This can throw...
buf_ = new char[orig.bufSize_];  // ...so can this
copy(orig.buf_, orig.buf_+msgSize_, buf_); // This can't
}
// Exception-safe assignment, using the copy ctor
Message& operator=(const Message& rhs) {
Message tmp(rhs);   // Copy construct a temporary
swapInternals(tmp); // Swap members with it
return(*this);      // When we leave, tmp is destroyed, taking
// the original data with it
}
const char* data( ) {
return(buf_);
}
private:
void swapInternals(Message& msg) {
// Since key_ is not a built-in data type it can throw,
// so do it first.
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