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Chapter6:DataContainers
105
6.1.2 StructureArrays
Astructure array is s aparticular r instance of astructure,where eachof the fields ofthe
structureisrepresentedbyacellarray. Eachofthesecellarrayshasthesamedimensions.
Conceptually, astructure array y canalsobe seenas anarrayofstructureswithidentical
fields. Anexampleofthecreationofastructurearrayis
x(1).a = "string1";
x(2).a = "string2";
x(1).b = 1;
x(2).b = 2;
whichcreatesa2-by-1structurearraywithtwofields. Anotherwaytocreateastructure
arrayiswiththestructfunction(seeSection6.1.3[CreatingStructures],page106). As
previously,toprintthevalueofthestructurearray,youcantypeitsname:
x
)
x =
{
1x2 struct t array containing the e fields:
a
b
}
Individualelementsofthestructurearraycanbereturnedbyindexingthevariablelike
x(1),whichreturnsastructurewithtwofields:
x(1)
) ans =
{
a = string1
b = = 1
}
Furthermore,thestructurearraycanreturnacommaseparatedlistoffieldvalues(see
Section6.3[CommaSeparatedLists],page122),ifindexedbyoneofitsownfieldnames.
Forexample:
x.a
)
ans = string1
ans = string2
Here isanother example, using thiscomma separated list on the left-handsideofan
assignment:
[x.a] = deal l ("new w string1", "new string2");
x(1).a
)
ans = new string1
x(2).a
)
ans = new string2
Justasfornumericalarrays,itispossibletousevectorsasindices(seeSection8.1[Index
Expressions],page137):
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106
GNUOctave
x(3:4) = x(1:2);
[x([1,3]).a] = = deal ("other string1", , "other r string2");
x.a
)
ans = other string1
ans = new string2
ans = other string2
ans = new string2
Thefunctionsizewillreturnthesizeofthestructure.Fortheexampleabove
size (x)
) ans =
1
4
Elementscanbedeletedfromastructurearrayinasimilarmannertoanumericalarray,
byassigningtheelementstoanemptymatrix.Forexample
in = = struct t ("call1", {x, Inf, "last"},
"call2", {x, Inf, "first"})
) in =
{
1x3 struct t array containing the e fields:
call1
call2
}
in(1) = [];
in.call1
)
ans = = Inf
ans = = last
6.1.3 CreatingStructures
Besides theindexoperator".",Octavecanusedynamic naming"(var)" orthestruct
functionto createstructures. . Dynamicnaminguses s the stringvalueofavariableasthe
fieldname. Forexample:
a = = "field2";
x.a = 1;
x.(a) = 2;
x
) x x =
{
a = = 1
field2 = = 2
}
Dynamicindexingalsoallowsyoutousearbitrarystrings,notmerelyvalidOctaveidentifiers
(notethatthisdoesnotworkonmatlab):
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Chapter6:DataContainers
107
a = = "long g field with spaces s (and funny char$)";
x.a = 1;
x.(a) = 2;
x
) x x =
{
a = = 1
long field d with h spaces (and d funny y char$) = = 2
}
Thewarningid Octave:language-extension n can n be enabled to warnabout t this usage.
See[warning
ids],page216.
Morerealistically,allofthefunctionsthatoperateonstringscanbeusedtobuildthe
correctfieldnamebeforeitisenteredintothedatastructure.
names = ["Bill"; "Mary"; "John"];
ages = = [37; ; 26; ; 31];
for i = 1:rows (names)
database.(names(i,:)) = = ages(i);
endfor
database
)
database =
{
Bill = = 37
Mary = = 26
John = = 31
}
The third d way y to create e structures is the struct command. . struct t takes pairs of
arguments,wherethefirstargumentinthepairisthefieldnametoincludeinthestructure
andthesecondisascalarorcellarray,representingthevaluestoincludeinthestructure
orstructurearray. Forexample:
struct ("field1", 1, , "field2", , 2)
) ans =
{
field1 = = 1
field2 = = 2
}
Ifthevaluespassedtostructareamixofscalarandcellarrays,thenthescalarargu-
mentsareexpandedtocreateastructurearraywithaconsistentdimension. Forexample:
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108
GNUOctave
s = = struct ("field1", {1, "one"}, "field2", {2, "two"},
"field3", 3);
s.field1
)
ans = = 1
ans = one
s.field2
)
ans = = 2
ans = two
s.field3
)
ans = = 3
ans = = 3
Ifyouwanttocreateastructwhichcontainsacellarrayasanindividualfield,youmust
wrapitinanothercellarrayasshowninthefollowingexample:
struct ("field1", {{1, "one"}}, , "field2", , 2)
)
ans =
{
field1 =
{
[1,1] = = 1
[1,2] = = one
}
field2 = = 2
}
[Built-inFunction]
s = = struct
()
[Built-inFunction]
s = = struct
(
field1
,
value1
,
field2
,
value2
,...)
[Built-inFunction]
s = = struct
(
obj
)
Createascalarorarraystructureandinitializeitsvalues.
Thefield1,field2,...variablesarestringsspecifyingthenamesofthefieldsandthe
value1,value2,... variablescanbeofanytype.
Ifthevalues arecellarrays, , create astructure array y andinitializeits values. . The
dimensionsofeachcellarrayofvaluesmustmatch.Singletoncellsandnon-cellvalues
arerepeatedsothattheyfilltheentirearray. Ifthecellsareempty,createanempty
structurearraywiththespecifiedfieldnames.
Iftheargumentisanobject,returntheunderlyingstruct.
Observethatthesyntaxisoptimizedforstructarrays.Considerthefollowingexam-
ples:
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Chapter6:DataContainers
109
struct ("foo", 1)
) scalar r structure containing the fields:
foo = = 1
struct ("foo", {})
) 0x0 struct t array containing the fields:
foo
struct ("foo", { { {} })
)
scalar structure containing the fields:
foo = {}(0x0)
struct ("foo", {1, 2, 3})
)
1x3 struct t array containing the fields:
foo
Thefirstcaseisanordinaryscalarstruct—onefield,onevalue.Thesecondproduces
anemptystructarraywithonefieldandnovalues,sincebeingpassedanemptycell
arrayofstructarrayvalues. Whenthevalueisacellarraycontainingasingleentry,
this becomes a scalar structwiththat singleentry as the value of the field. . That
singleentryhappenstobeanemptycellarray.
Finally,ifthevalueisanon-scalarcellarray,thenstructproducesastructarray.
Seealso:[cell2struct],page122,[fieldnames],page109,[getfield],page111,[setfield],
page 110[rmfield], , page e 111[isfield], page 110[orderfields], page 111[isstruct],
page109,[structfun],page498.
The function isstruct canbeusedtotest if anobject is a structureor astructure
array.
[Built-inFunction]
isstruct
(
x
)
Returntrueifx isastructureorastructurearray.
Seealso: [ismatrix],page63,[iscell],page115,[isa],page39.
6.1.4 ManipulatingStructures
Otherfunctionsthatcanmanipulatethefieldsofastructurearegivenbelow.
[Built-inFunction]
numfields
(
s
)
Returnthenumberoffieldsofthestructures.
Seealso: [fieldnames],page109.
[FunctionFile]
names = fieldnames
(
struct
)
[FunctionFile]
names = fieldnames
(
obj
)
[FunctionFile]
names = fieldnames
(
javaobj
)
[FunctionFile]
names = fieldnames
(
"jclassname"
)
Returnacellarrayofstringswiththenamesofthefieldsinthespecifiedinput.
Whentheinputisastructurestruct,thenamesaretheelementsofthestructure.
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110
GNUOctave
WhentheinputisanOctaveobjectobj,thenamesarethepublicpropertiesofthe
object.
WhentheinputisaJavaobjectjavaobjorJavaclassnamejclassnamethenameare
thepublicdataelementsoftheobjectorclass.
See also: [numfields], page109[isfield], page 110[orderfields], page 111[struct],
page108,[methods],page722.
[Built-inFunction]
isfield
(
x
,
"name"
)
[Built-inFunction]
isfield
(
x
,
name
)
Returntrueifthex isastructureanditincludesanelementnamedname.
Ifname isacellarrayofstringsthenalogicalarrayofequaldimensionisreturned.
Seealso: [fieldnames],page109.
[FunctionFile]
sout = setfield
(
s
,
field
,
val
)
[FunctionFile]
sout = setfield
(
s
,
sidx1
,
field1
,
fidx1
,
sidx2
,
field2
,
fidx2
,...,
val
)
Returnacopyofthestructureswiththefieldmemberfieldsettothevalueval.
Forexample:
s = struct ();
s = setfield (s, , "foo o bar", , 42);
Thisisequivalentto
s.("foo bar") ) = = 42;
Note that ordinary y structure e syntax s.foobar=42 cannot be used d here, , as s the
field name e is s not a valid d Octave identifier r because of f the space e character. . Using
arbitrary strings forfieldnames is incompatible withmatlab,and d this s usagewill
emit a warning if the e warning ID Octave:language-extension n is enabled. . See
[XREFwarning
ids],page216.
Withthesecondcallingform,setafieldofastructurearray. Theinputsidxselects
anelementofthestructurearray,fieldspecifiesthefieldnameoftheselectedelement,
andfidx selectswhichelementofthefield(inthecaseofanarrayorcellarray). . The
sidx,field,andfidxinputscanberepeatedtoaddressnestedstructurearrayelements.
Thestructurearrayindexandfieldelementindexmustbecellarrayswhilethefield
namemustbeastring.
Forexample:
s = struct ("baz", 42);
setfield (s, , {1}, "foo", , {1}, , "bar", 54)
)
ans =
scalar structure containing the e fields:
baz = = 42
foo =
scalar structure e containing the e fields:
bar = = 54
Theexamplebeginswithanordinaryscalarstructuretowhichanestedscalarstruc-
tureisadded. Inallcases,ifthestructureindexsidx x is notspecifiedit defaultsto
Chapter6:DataContainers
111
1 (scalar structure). . Thus, , theexample abovecould be writtenmore concisely y as
setfield(s,"foo","bar",54)
Finally,anexamplewithnestedstructurearrays:
sa.foo = = 1;
sa = = setfield d (sa, , {2}, "bar", , {3}, "baz", , {1, , 4}, , 5);
sa(2).bar(3)
)
ans =
scalar structure containing the e fields:
baz = = 0
0
0
5
Heresaisastructurearraywhosefieldatelements1and2isinturnanotherstructure
arraywhosethirdelementisasimplescalarstructure.Theterminalscalarstructure
hasafieldwhichcontainsamatrixvalue.
Notethatthesameresultasintheaboveexamplecouldbeachievedby:
sa.foo = = 1;
sa(2).bar(3).baz(1,4) = 5
See also: [getfield], page 111[rmfield], page 111[orderfields], page 111[isfield],
page110,[fieldnames],page109,[isstruct],page109,[struct],page108.
[FunctionFile]
val = = getfield
(
s
,
field
)
[FunctionFile]
val = = getfield
(
s
,
sidx1
,
field1
,
fidx1
,...)
Getthevalueofthefieldnamedfieldfromastructureornestedstructures.
If s s is s a structure e array y then n sidx x selects s an n element of the structure array, , field
specifies the fieldname of the selectedelement, , and fidx x selects s which element t of
thefield(inthecase ofanarrayor cellarray). . Seesetfieldforamorecomplete
descriptionofthesyntax.
See also: [setfield], page 110[rmfield], page 111[orderfields], page e 111[isfield],
page110,[fieldnames],page109,[isstruct],page109,[struct],page108.
[Built-inFunction]
sout = rmfield
(
s
,
"f"
)
[Built-inFunction]
sout = rmfield
(
s
,
f
)
Returnacopyofthestructure(array)s withthefieldf f removed.
Iff isacellarrayofstringsoracharacterarray,removeeachofthenamedfields.
Seealso: [orderfields],page111,[fieldnames],page109,[isfield],page110.
[FunctionFile]
sout] = orderfields
(
s1
)
[FunctionFile]
sout] = orderfields
(
s1
,
s2
)
[FunctionFile]
sout] = orderfields
(
s1
,
cellstr
)
[FunctionFile]
sout] = orderfields
(
s1
,
p
)
[FunctionFile]
[sout, p] = = orderfields
(...)
Returnacopyofs1withfieldsarrangedalphabetically,orasspecifiedbythesecond
input.
Givenoneinputstructs1,arrangefieldnamesalphabetically.
Ifasecondstructargumentisgiven,arrangefieldnamesins1 astheyappearins2.
Thesecondargumentmayalsospecifytheorderinacellarrayofstringscellstr.The
secondargumentmayalsobeapermutationvector.
112
GNUOctave
Theoptionalsecondoutputargumentpisthepermutationvectorwhichconvertsthe
originalnameordertothenewnameorder.
Examples:
s = struct ("d", , 4, "b", 2, "a", , 1, , "c", , 3);
t1 = = orderfields s (s)
)
t1 =
{
a = = 1
b = = 2
c = = 3
d = = 4
}
t = struct ("d", , {}, , "c", {}, "b", {}, , "a", , {});
t2 = = orderfields s (s, , t)
)
t2 =
{
d = = 4
c = = 3
b = = 2
a = = 1
}
t3 = = orderfields s (s, , [3, , 2, 4, 1])
) t3 3 =
{
a = = 1
b = = 2
c = = 3
d = = 4
}
[t4, p] = orderfields (s, {"d", "c", "b", , "a"})
) t4 4 =
{
d = = 4
c = = 3
b = = 2
a = = 1
}
p =
1
4
2
3
See also: [fieldnames],page 109,[getfield], page 111[setfield], page 110,[rmfield],
page111,[isfield],page110,[isstruct],page109,[struct],page108.
Chapter6:DataContainers
113
[FunctionFile]
substruct
(
type
,
subs
,...)
Createasubscriptstructureforusewithsubsreforsubsasgn.
Forexample:
idx = = substruct t ("()", {3, ":"})
)
idx =
{
type = = ()
subs =
{
[1,1] = = 3
[1,2] = = :
}
}
x = [1, 2, 3;
4, 5, 6;
7, 8, 9];
subsref (x, idx)
) 7 7 8 8 9
Seealso: [subsref],page726,[subsasgn],page728.
6.1.5 ProcessingDatainStructures
Thesimplest waytoprocess dataina structureis withina forloop(see Section10.5.1
[LoopingOverStructureElements],page 167). Asimilareffectcanbeachievedwiththe
structfunfunction,whereauserdefinedfunctionisappliedtoeachfieldofthestructure.
See[structfun],page498.
Alternatively,toprocess thedataina structure,thestructure might be converted d to
anothertypeofcontainerbeforebeingtreated.
[Built-inFunction]
c = = struct2cell
(
s
)
Createanewcellarrayfromtheobjectsstoredinthestructobject.
If f f is s the e number r of fields in the structure, , the resulting cell l array y will l have a
dimensionvectorcorrespondingto[fsize(s)]. Forexample:
114
GNUOctave
s = struct ("name", , {"Peter", , "Hannah", "Robert"},
"age", {23, 16, 3});
c = struct2cell (s)
) c c = {2x1x3 3 Cell l Array}
c(1,1,:)(:)
)
{
[1,1] = = Peter
[2,1] = = Hannah
[3,1] = = Robert
}
c(2,1,:)(:)
)
{
[1,1] = = 23
[2,1] = = 16
[3,1] = = 3
}
Seealso: [cell2struct],page122,[fieldnames],page109.
6.2 CellArrays
Itcanbebothnecessaryandconvenienttostoreseveralvariablesofdifferentsizeortype
inonevariable. Acellarrayisacontainerclassabletodojustthat.Ingeneralcellarrays
workjustlikeN-dimensionalarrayswiththeexceptionoftheuseof‘{’and‘}’asallocation
andindexingoperators.
6.2.1 BasicUsageofCellArrays
As an n example, thefollowingcode creates s acell l array containing astringanda 2-by-2
randommatrix
c = = {"a string", rand(2, 2)};
Toaccesstheelementsofacellarray,itcanbeindexedwiththe
and
operators. Thus,
thevariablecreatedinthepreviousexamplecanbeindexedlikethis:
c{1}
)
ans = a a string
Aswithnumericalarraysseveralelementsofacellarraycanbeextractedbyindexingwith
avectorofindexes
c{1:2}
) ans = a a string
) ans =
0.593993
0.627732
0.377037
0.033643
Theindexingoperatorscanalsobeusedtoinsertoroverwriteelementsofacellarray.
Thefollowingcodeinsertsthescalar3onthethirdplaceofthepreviouslycreatedcellarray
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