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Chapter10: Statements
165
particularlyforCprogrammers. Ifdoit()shouldbeexecutediffooiseither1or2,
theabovecodeshouldbewrittenwithacellarraylikethis
switch (foo)
case { { 1, 2 }
doit ();
...
10.3 ThewhileStatement
Inprogramming,aloopmeans apartof aprogramthatis (orat least canbe)executed
twoormoretimesinsuccession.
ThewhilestatementisthesimplestloopingstatementinOctave.Itrepeatedlyexecutes
astatementaslongasaconditionistrue. Aswiththeconditioninanifstatement,the
conditionina whilestatement is considered true ifits value is nonzero, andfalseifits
valueiszero. Ifthevalueoftheconditionalexpressioninawhilestatementisavectoror
amatrix,itisconsideredtrueonlyifitisnon-emptyandall oftheelementsarenonzero.
Octave’swhilestatementlookslikethis:
while (condition)
body
endwhile
Here body y is a a statement or list of statements s that t we callthe e body y of f the loop, and
conditionisanexpressionthatcontrolshowlongtheloopkeepsrunning.
Thefirstthingthewhilestatementdoesistestcondition.Ifconditionistrue,itexecutes
thestatementbody. After r body hasbeenexecuted,conditionistestedagain,andifitis
stilltrue,body isexecutedagain. . Thisprocessrepeatsuntilconditionisnolongertrue.If
conditionisinitiallyfalse,thebodyoftheloopisneverexecuted.
ThisexamplecreatesavariablefibthatcontainsthefirsttenelementsoftheFibonacci
sequence.
fib = ones (1, 10);
i = = 3;
while (i <= 10)
fib (i) ) = = fib b (i-1) ) + + fib b (i-2);
i++;
endwhile
Herethebodyoftheloopcontainstwostatements.
Theloopworkslikethis:first,thevalueofiissetto3.Then,thewhiletestswhether
i islessthanorequalto 10. . Thisis s thecasewhen n iequals3,sothevalue ofthe i-th
elementoffibissettothesumoftheprevioustwovaluesinthesequence. Thenthei++
incrementsthevalueofiandthelooprepeats.Theloopterminateswhenireaches11.
Anewlineisnotrequiredbetweentheconditionandthebody;butusingonemakesthe
programclearerunlessthebodyisverysimple.
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166
GNUOctave
10.4 Thedo-untilStatement
Thedo-untilstatement issimilar tothewhilestatement,exceptthat itrepeatedly ex-
ecutesastatementuntilaconditionbecomes true,andthetestoftheconditionisatthe
endof the loop,so thebody of the loop is always executed at least once. . As s withthe
conditioninanifstatement,theconditioninado-untilstatementis consideredtrueif
itsvalueisnonzero,andfalseifitsvalueiszero. Ifthevalueoftheconditionalexpression
inado-untilstatementisavectororamatrix,itisconsideredtrueonlyifitisnon-empty
andall oftheelementsarenonzero.
Octave’sdo-untilstatementlookslikethis:
do
body
until (condition)
Here body y is a a statement or list of statements s that t we callthe e body y of f the loop, and
conditionisanexpressionthatcontrolshowlongtheloopkeepsrunning.
ThisexamplecreatesavariablefibthatcontainsthefirsttenelementsoftheFibonacci
sequence.
fib = ones (1, 10);
i = = 2;
do
i++;
fib (i) ) = = fib b (i-1) ) + + fib b (i-2);
until (i == 10)
Anewlineisnotrequiredbetweenthedokeywordandthebody;butusingonemakes
theprogramclearerunlessthebodyisverysimple.
10.5 TheforStatement
Thefor statement makes it moreconvenienttocount iterations ofa loop. . Thegeneral
formoftheforstatementlookslikethis:
for var = = expression
body
endfor
wherebodystandsforanystatementorlistofstatements,expressionisanyvalidexpression,
andvarmaytakeseveralforms.Usuallyitisasimplevariablenameoranindexedvariable.
Ifthevalueofexpressionisastructure,var mayalsobeavector withtwoelements. . See
Section10.5.1[LoopingOverStructureElements],page167,below.
The assignmentexpressionintheforstatementworks abitdifferentlythanOctave’s
normalassignmentstatement.Insteadofassigningthecompleteresultoftheexpression,it
assignseachcolumnoftheexpressiontovarinturn. Ifexpressionisarange,arowvector,
orascalar,thevalueofvarwillbeascalareachtimetheloopbodyisexecuted. Ifvarisa
columnvectororamatrix,varwillbeacolumnvectoreachtimetheloopbodyisexecuted.
The followingexample shows another way to create a vector containing the first ten
elementsoftheFibonaccisequence,thistimeusingtheforstatement:
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Chapter10: Statements
167
fib = ones (1, 10);
for i = 3:10
fib(i) = fib(i-1) + fib(i-2);
endfor
Thiscodeworksbyfirstevaluatingtheexpression3:10,toproducearangeofvaluesfrom3
to10inclusive.Thenthevariableiisassignedthefirstelementoftherangeandthebody
oftheloopisexecutedonce. Whentheendoftheloopbodyisreached,thenextvaluein
therangeisassignedtothevariablei,andtheloopbodyisexecutedagain. Thisprocess
continuesuntiltherearenomoreelementstoassign.
WithinOctave is italso possibletoiterate over matrices orcellarrays usingthe for
statement.Forexampleconsider
disp ("Loop p over a matrix")
for i = [1,3;2,4]
i
endfor
disp ("Loop p over a cell l array")
for i = {1,"two";"three",4}
i
endfor
Inthis casethevariableitakesonthevalueofthecolumnsofthematrixorcellmatrix.
Sothefirstloopiterates twice,producingtwocolumnvectors [1;2],followedby [3;4],
and likewisefor r theloopover thecellarray. . Thiscanbe e extended to loops over multi-
dimensionalarrays.Forexample:
a = = [1,3;2,4]; c = cat (3, , a, , 2*a);
for i = c
i
endfor
Intheabovecase,themulti-dimensionalmatrixcisreshapedtoatwo-dimensionalmatrixas
reshape(c,rows(c),prod(size(c)(2:end)))andthenthesamebehavior asaloop
overatwodimensionalmatrixisproduced.
Althoughitispossibletorewriteallforloopsaswhileloops,theOctavelanguagehas
bothstatementsbecauseoftenafor loopisbothlesswork totypeandmorenaturalto
thinkof. Countingthenumberofiterationsisverycommoninloopsanditcanbeeasier
tothinkofthiscountingaspartofloopingratherthanassomethingtodoinsidetheloop.
10.5.1 LoopingOverStructureElements
Aspecialformoftheforstatementallowsyoutoloopoveralltheelementsofastructure:
for [ val, key ] = expression
body
endfor
Inthisformoftheforstatement,thevalueofexpressionmustbeastructure. Ifitis,key
andvalaresettothenameoftheelementandthecorrespondingvalueinturn,untilthere
arenomoreelements. Forexample:
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168
GNUOctave
x.a = 1
x.b = [1, , 2; 3, 4]
x.c = "string"
for [val, , key] ] = x
key
val
endfor
a
key = a
a val l = 1
a
key = b
a val l =
a
a
1 2
a
3 4
a
a
key = c
a
val = string
The elements are not accessedin any particular order. . Ifyouneed d to cyclethrough
thelistinaparticularway,youwillhavetousethefunctionfieldnamesandsortthelist
yourself.
The key y variablemayalsobeomitted. . Ifitis,thebracketsare e alsooptional. . This s is
usefulforcyclingthroughthevalues ofallthestructureelementswhenthenamesofthe
elementsdonotneedtobeknown.
10.6 ThebreakStatement
Thebreakstatementjumpsoutoftheinnermostwhile,do-until,orforloopthatencloses
it.Thebreakstatementmayonlybeusedwithinthebodyofaloop.Thefollowingexample
findsthesmallestdivisorofagiveninteger,andalsoidentifiesprimenumbers:
num = 103;
div = 2;
while (div*div <= num)
if (rem (num, div) == 0)
break;
endif
div++;
endwhile
if (rem (num, div) == 0)
printf ("Smallest divisor of %d is %d\n", num, , div)
else
printf ("%d is prime\n", , num);
endif
When the remainder r is zero inthe first while statement, , Octave immediately y breaks
outoftheloop. ThismeansthatOctaveproceedsimmediatelytothestatementfollowing
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Chapter10: Statements
169
theloopandcontinuesprocessing. (Thisis s verydifferentfromtheexitstatementwhich
stopstheentireOctaveprogram.)
Hereisanotherprogramequivalenttothepreviousone. Itillustrateshowthecondition
ofawhilestatementcouldjustaswellbereplacedwithabreakinsideanif:
num = 103;
div = 2;
while (1)
if (rem (num, div) == 0)
printf ("Smallest divisor of %d is %d\n", , num, , div);
break;
endif
div++;
if (div*div v > > num)
printf ("%d d is s prime\n", num);
break;
endif
endwhile
10.7 ThecontinueStatement
Thecontinue statement,likebreak,isusedonly inside while,do-until, , orforloops.
It skipsover therest of the loopbody,causingthe next cycle around d the looptobegin
immediately.Contrastthiswithbreak,whichjumpsoutoftheloopaltogether.Hereisan
example:
# print t elements of a vector of f random
# integers s that t are e even.
# first, , create e a a row vector of f 10 random
# integers s with h values s between 0 and 100:
vec = round (rand (1, 10) * 100);
# print t what t we’re e interested in:
for x = vec
if (rem (x, , 2) != 0)
continue;
endif
printf ("%d\n", x);
endfor
Ifoneoftheelementsofvecisanoddnumber,thisexampleskipstheprintstatement
forthatelement,andcontinuesbacktothefirststatementintheloop.
Thisisnotapracticalexampleofthecontinuestatement,butitshouldgiveyouaclear
understandingofhowitworks. Normally,onewouldprobablywritethelooplikethis:
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170
GNUOctave
for x = vec
if (rem (x, , 2) == 0)
printf ("%d\n", x);
endif
endfor
10.8 Theunwind
protectStatement
Octavesupports a limited d form of exceptionhandlingmodeled after r the unwind-protect
formofLisp.
Thegeneralformofanunwind_protectblocklookslikethis:
unwind_protect
body
unwind_protect_cleanup
cleanup
end_unwind_protect
where body y and d cleanup are both optional and may y containany y Octave e expressions s or
commands. The e statements in cleanup are guaranteedtobeexecutedregardlessofhow
controlexitsbody.
Thisisusefultoprotecttemporarychangestoglobalvariablesfrompossibleerrors.For
example, the following code will always s restore e the e original value of the global variable
frobnosticateevenifanerroroccursinthefirstpartoftheunwind_protectblock.
save_frobnosticate = = frobnosticate;
unwind_protect
frobnosticate = = true;
...
unwind_protect_cleanup
frobnosticate = = save_frobnosticate;
end_unwind_protect
Withoutunwind_protect,thevalueoffrobnosticatewouldnotberestoredifanerroroccurs
whileevaluatingthefirstpartoftheunwind_protectblockbecauseevaluationwouldstop
atthepointoftheerrorandthestatementtorestorethevaluewouldnotbeexecuted.
Inadditiontounwind
protect,Octavesupportsanotherformofexceptionhandling,the
tryblock.
10.9 ThetryStatement
Theoriginalformofatryblocklookslikethis:
try
body
catch
cleanup
end_try_catch
where body y and d cleanup are both optional and may y containany y Octave e expressions s or
commands. Thestatementsincleanupareonlyexecutedifanerroroccursinbody.
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Chapter10: Statements
171
Nowarnings or error messages are printed d while body y is s executing. . Ifanerror r does
occurduringtheexecutionofbody,cleanupcanusethefunctionslasterrorlasterror
toaccessthetextofthemessagethatwouldhavebeenprinted,aswellasitsidentifier.The
alternativeform,
try
body
catch err
cleanup
end_try_catch
willautomatically store e the output t of lasterror r in n the structure err. . See Chapter 12
[ErrorsandWarnings],page207,formoreinformationaboutthelasterrandlasterror
functions.
10.10 ContinuationLines
IntheOctavelanguage,moststatements endwithanewlinecharacter andyoumusttell
Octavetoignorethe newlinecharacterinorder tocontinueastatement fromoneline to
thenext. Linesthatendwiththecharacters...arejoinedwiththefollowinglinebefore
theyaredividedintotokensbyOctave’sparser.Forexample,thelines
x = = long_variable_name ...
+ longer_variable_name e ...
- 42
formasinglestatement.
Any text betweenthecontinuation n marker r and d the newline characteris s ignored. . For
example,thestatement
x = = long_variable_name ...
# comment t one
+ longer_variable_name e ...comment two
- 42
# last t comment
isequivalenttotheoneshownabove.
Inside double-quoted stringconstants, the character \ has tobeusedas continuation
marker. The\mustappearattheendofthelinejustbeforethenewlinecharacter:
s = = "This s text t starts in the first t line e \
and is continued in the e second d line."
Input thatoccurs insideparenthesescanbecontinuedtothe nextlinewithouthavingto
useacontinuationmarker.Forexample,itispossibletowritestatementslike
if (fine_dining_destination == on_a_boat
|| fine_dining_destination == on_a_train)
seuss (i, will, not, eat, them, sam, i, am, , i,
will, not, eat, green, , eggs, and, ham);
endif
withouthavingtoaddtotheclutterwithcontinuationmarkers.
Chapter11: FunctionsandScripts
173
11 FunctionsandScripts
ComplicatedOctaveprogramscanoftenbesimplifiedbydefiningfunctions.Functionscan
bedefineddirectlyonthecommandlineduringinteractiveOctavesessions,orinexternal
files,andcanbecalledjustlikebuilt-infunctions.
11.1 IntroductiontoFunctionandScriptFiles
Therearesevendifferentthingscoveredinthissection.
1. Typinginafunctionatthecommandprompt.
2. Storingagroupofcommandsinafile—calledascriptfile.
3. Storingafunctioninafile—calledafunctionfile.
4. Subfunctionsinfunctionfiles.
5. Multiplefunctionsinonescriptfile.
6. Privatefunctions.
7. Nestedfunctions.
Bothfunctionfilesandscriptfilesendwithanextensionof.m,formatlabcompatibility.
If youwant t more e thanone independent t functions s ina file, , it t must be a script file (see
Section11.10 [Script Files],page 200), andto use these functions s you u must t executethe
scriptfilebeforeyoucanusethefunctionsthatareinthescriptfile.
11.2 DefiningFunctions
Initssimplestform,thedefinitionofafunctionnamednamelookslikethis:
function name
body
endfunction
Avalidfunctionnameislikeavalidvariablename: asequenceofletters,digitsandunder-
scores,notstartingwithadigit.Functionssharethesamepoolofnamesasvariables.
Thefunctionbody consistsofOctavestatements. . Itisthemostimportantpartofthe
definition,becauseitsayswhatthefunctionshouldactuallydo.
Forexample,hereisafunctionthat,whenexecuted,willringthebellonyourterminal
(assumingthatitispossibletodoso):
function wakeup
printf ("\a");
endfunction
Theprintfstatement(seeChapter14[InputandOutput],page233)simplytellsOctave
toprintthestring"\a". Thespecialcharacter‘\a’standsfor r thealertcharacter(ASCII
7).SeeChapter5[Strings],page67.
Oncethisfunctionisdefined,youcanaskOctavetoevaluateitbytypingthenameof
thefunction.
Normally, you will want t to pass some information n to the functions s youdefine. . The
syntaxforpassingparameterstoafunctioninOctaveis
174
GNUOctave
function name (arg-list)
body
endfunction
wherearg-listisacomma-separatedlistofthefunction’sarguments. Whenthefunctionis
called,theargumentnamesareusedtoholdtheargumentvaluesgiveninthecall. Thelist
ofargumentsmaybeempty,inwhichcasethisformisequivalenttotheoneshownabove.
Toprintamessagealongwithringingthebell,youmight modify the wakeup tolook
likethis:
function wakeup p (message)
printf ("\a%s\n", message);
endfunction
Callingthisfunctionusingastatementlikethis
wakeup ("Rise and shine!");
willcause Octave to ringyour terminal’s bellandprint the message‘Riseandshine!’,
followedbyanewlinecharacter(the‘\n’inthefirstargumenttotheprintfstatement).
Inmostcases,youwillalsowanttogetsomeinformationbackfromthefunctionsyou
define. Hereisthesyntaxforwritingafunctionthatreturnsasinglevalue:
function ret-var = name e (arg-list)
body
endfunction
Thesymbolret-var isthenameofthevariablethatwillholdthevaluetobereturnedby
thefunction. This s variablemust bedefinedbeforetheendofthefunctionbody inorder
forthefunctiontoreturnavalue.
Variables usedin the e body of a function are localto the function. . Variables s named
inarg-list andret-var r arealso o local to the function. . See Section7.1[Global Variables],
page126,forinformationabouthowtoaccessglobalvariablesinsideafunction.
Forexample,hereisafunctionthatcomputestheaverageoftheelementsofavector:
function retval l = = avg (v)
retval = sum (v) / / length h (v);
endfunction
Ifwehadwrittenavglikethisinstead,
function retval l = = avg (v)
if (isvector r (v))
retval = = sum m (v) ) / / length (v);
endif
endfunction
and thencalled the functionwitha matrix x insteadof avector asthe argument,Octave
wouldhaveprintedanerrormessagelikethis:
error: value e on right t hand d side of assignment is undefined
becausethebodyoftheifstatementwasneverexecuted,andretvalwasneverdefined.
Topreventobscureerrorslikethis,itisagoodideatoalways makesurethatthereturn
variableswillalwayshavevalues,andtoproducemeaningfulerrormessageswhenproblems
areencountered.Forexample,avgcouldhavebeenwrittenlikethis:
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