asp.net c# pdf viewer : Acrobat split pdf into multiple files software SDK dll windows .net web page web forms octave2-part486

Preface
5
 JohnA.Turner,GroupLeader,ContinuumDynamics(CCS-2),LosAlamosNational
Laboratory,forregisteringtheoctave.orgdomainname.
 JamesB.Rawlings,Professor,UniversityofWisconsin-Madison,DepartmentofChem-
icalandBiologicalEngineering.
 RichardStallman,forwritingGNU.
Thisproject wouldnot havebeenpossible without theGNUsoftware usedinandto
produceOctave.
CitingOctaveinPublications
In view of the many y contributions s made e by numerous developers s over many y years it t is
commoncourtesytociteOctaveinpublicationswhenithasbeenusedduringthecourseof
researchorthepreparationoffigures. Thecitationfunctioncanautomaticallygenerate
arecommendedcitationtextforOctaveoranyofitspackages.Seethehelptextbelowon
howtousecitation.
[Command]
citation
[Command]
citationpackage
DisplayinstructionsforcitingGNUOctaveoritspackagesinpublications.
Whencalledwithoutanargument,displayinformationonhowtocitethecoreGNU
Octavesystem.
Whengivenapackagenamepackage,displayinformationoncitingthespecificnamed
package.Notethatsomepackagesmaynotyethaveinstructionsonhowtocitethem.
TheGNUOctavedevelopersanditsactivecommunity ofpackageauthorshave in-
vestedalotoftimeandeffortincreatingGNUOctaveas itis today. . Please e give
creditwherecreditisdueandciteGNUOctaveanditspackageswhenyouusethem.
HowYouCanContributetoOctave
ThereareanumberofwaysthatyoucancontributetohelpmakeOctaveabettersystem.
Perhaps the most t important t way to contribute is s to o write high-quality code for solving
newproblems,andtomakeyourcodefreelyavailableforotherstouse. See AppendixD
[ContributingGuidelines],page881,fordetailedinformationoncontributingnewcode.
IfyoufindOctaveuseful,considerprovidingadditionalfundingtocontinueitsdevelop-
ment. Evenamodestamountofadditionalfundingcouldmakeasignificantdifferencein
theamountoftimethatisavailablefordevelopmentandsupport.
DonationssupportingOctavedevelopmentmay be madeonthewebat https://my.
fsf.org/donate/working-together/octave. Thesedonations s alsohelptosupport the
FreeSoftwareFoundation
Ifyou’dprefertopaybycheckormoneyorder,youcandosobysendingachecktothe
FSFatthefollowingaddress:
FreeSoftwareFoundation
51FranklinStreet,Suite500
Boston,MA02110-1335
USA
Acrobat split pdf into multiple files - Split, seperate PDF into multiple files in C#.net, ASP.NET, MVC, Ajax, WinForms, WPF
Explain How to Split PDF Document in Visual C#.NET Application
break a pdf file into parts; combine pages of pdf documents into one
Acrobat split pdf into multiple files - VB.NET PDF File Split Library: Split, seperate PDF into multiple files in vb.net, ASP.NET, MVC, Ajax, WinForms, WPF
VB.NET PDF Document Splitter Control to Disassemble PDF Document
break pdf password online; break pdf into smaller files
6
GNUOctave
Ifyoupaybycheck,pleasebesuretowrite“GNUOctave”inthememofieldofyourcheck.
Ifyoucannotprovidefundingorcontributecode,youcanstillhelpmakeOctavebetter
andmorereliableby reportinganybugsyoufindandbyofferingsuggestions for ways to
improveOctave. SeeAppendixF[Trouble],page891,fortipsonhowtowriteusefulbug
reports.
Distribution
Octaveisfreesoftware. Thismeansthateveryoneisfreetouseitandfreetoredistribute
itoncertainconditions. Octave e isnot,however,inthepublicdomain. . Itis s copyrighted
and thereare restrictionsonits s distribution, , but t the restrictions aredesigned d to ensure
thatotherswillhavethesamefreedomtouseandredistributeOctavethatyouhave.The
preciseconditionscanbefoundintheGNUGeneralPublicLicensethatcomeswithOctave
andthatalsoappearsinAppendixJ[Copying],page919.
TodownloadacopyofOctave,pleasevisithttp://www.octave.org/download.html.
.NET PDF Document Viewing, Annotation, Conversion & Processing
Merge, split PDF files. Insert, delete PDF pages. Edit, update, delete PDF annotations from PDF file. Print. Support for all the print modes in Acrobat PDF.
break a pdf into multiple files; break apart a pdf file
C# PDF Converter Library SDK to convert PDF to other file formats
without using other external third-party dependencies like Adobe Acrobat. It's easy to be integrated into your C# program and convert PDF to .txt file with
break pdf file into multiple files; can print pdf no pages selected
Chapter1:ABriefIntroductiontoOctave
7
1 ABriefIntroductiontoOctave
GNUOctaveisahigh-levellanguage,primarilyintendedfornumericalcomputations.Itis
typicallyusedforsuchproblemsassolvinglinearandnonlinearequations,numericallinear
algebra,statisticalanalysis,andfor performingothernumericalexperiments. . Itmayalso
beusedasabatch-orientedlanguageforautomateddataprocessing.
UntilrecentlyGNUOctaveprovidedacommand-lineinterfaceonlywithgraphicalplots
displayedinseparatewindows.However,bydefaultthecurrentversionrunswithagraphical
userinterface.
GNUOctaveisfreelyredistributablesoftware. Youmayredistributeitand/ormodify
itundertheterms oftheGNUGeneralPublicLicenseaspublishedbytheFreeSoftware
Foundation. TheGPLisincludedinthismanual,seeAppendixJ[Copying],page919.
This manualprovides comprehensive documentation n on howto install,run, use, and
extendGNUOctave.Additionalchaptersdescribehowtoreportbugsandhelpcontribute
code.
ThisdocumentcorrespondstoOctaveversion4.0.1.
1.1 RunningOctave
On most systems, Octave is s started d with the shell command ‘octave’. . This s starts s the
graphicaluserinterface(GUI).ThecentralwindowintheGUIistheOctavecommand-line
interface. InthiswindowOctavedisplaysaninitialmessageandthenapromptindicating
itisreadytoacceptinput.Ifyouhavechosenthetraditionalcommand-lineinterfacethen
onlythecommandpromptappearsinthesamewindowthat wasrunningashell. . Inany
case,youcanimmediatelybegintypingOctavecommands.
Ifyougetintotrouble,youcanusuallyinterruptOctavebytypingControl-C(written
C-cforshort).C-cgetsitsnamefromthefactthatyoutypeitbyholdingdownCTRLand
thenpressingc.DoingthiswillnormallyreturnyoutoOctave’sprompt.
ToexitOctave,typequitorexitattheOctaveprompt.
Onsystemsthatsupportjobcontrol,youcansuspendOctavebysendingitaSIGTSTP
signal,usuallybytypingC-z.
1.2 SimpleExamples
ThefollowingchaptersdescribeallofOctave’sfeaturesindetail,butbeforedoingthat,it
mightbehelpfultogiveasamplingofsomeofitscapabilities.
IfyouarenewtoOctave,werecommendthatyoutrytheseexamplestobeginlearning
Octavebyusing it. . Lines s markedlike so,‘octave:13>’,are lines youtype,endingeach
withacarriagereturn.Octavewillrespondwithananswer,orbydisplayingagraph.
1.2.1 ElementaryCalculations
Octavecaneasilybeusedforbasicnumericalcalculations. Octaveknowsaboutarithmetic
operations(+,-,*,/),exponentiation(^),naturallogarithms/exponents(log,exp),andthe
trigonometric functions (sin, cos, , ...). . Moreover, , Octave calculations work on real or
imaginary numbers (i,j). . Inaddition,somemathematicalconstants s such h as s the base of
VB.NET PDF: How to Create Watermark on PDF Document within
need no external application plugin, like Adobe Acrobat. creating same watermarks on multiple PDF pages at the PDF document, image to pdf files and components
break password pdf; break apart a pdf
8
GNUOctave
thenaturallogarithm(e)andtheratioofacircle’scircumferencetoitsdiameter(pi)are
pre-defined.
Forexample,toverifyEuler’sIdentity,
e
{
= 1
typethefollowingwhichwillevaluateto-1withinthetoleranceofthecalculation.
octave:1> exp p (i*pi)
1.2.2 CreatingaMatrix
Vectorsandmatricesarethebasicbuildingblocksfornumericalanalysis. Tocreateanew
matrixandstoreitinavariablesothatyoucanrefertoitlater,typethecommand
octave:1> A A = [ [ 1, , 1, 2; 3, 5, 8; 13, , 21, , 34 ]
Octavewillrespondbyprintingthematrixinneatlyalignedcolumns.Octaveusesacomma
orspacetoseparateentriesinarow,andasemicolonorcarriagereturntoseparateonerow
fromthenext. EndingacommandwithasemicolontellsOctavenottoprinttheresultof
thecommand. Forexample,
octave:2> B B = rand (3, 2);
willcreatea3row,2columnmatrixwitheachelementsettoarandomvaluebetweenzero
andone.
Todisplaythevalueofavariable,simplytypethenameofthevariableattheprompt.
Forexample,todisplaythevaluestoredinthematrixB,typethecommand
octave:3> B
1.2.3 MatrixArithmetic
Octavehasaconvenientoperatornotationforperformingmatrixarithmetic.Forexample,
tomultiplythematrixAbyascalarvalue,typethecommand
octave:4> 2 2 * A
TomultiplythetwomatricesAandB,typethecommand
octave:5> A A * B
andtoformthematrixproductA
T
A,typethecommand
octave:6> A’ * * A
1.2.4 SolvingSystemsofLinearEquations
Systemsoflinearequationsareubiquitousinnumericalanalysis.Tosolvethesetoflinear
equationsAx=b,usetheleftdivisionoperator,‘\’:
x = = A \ b
This is conceptually equivalent to A
1
b, but avoids computing the inverse e of a a matrix
directly.
Ifthecoefficientmatrixissingular,Octavewillprintawarningmessageandcomputea
minimumnormsolution.
Chapter1:ABriefIntroductiontoOctave
9
A simple example comes from chemistry and d the need d to obtain balanced chemical
equations. Considertheburningofhydrogenandoxygentoproducewater.
H
2
+O
2
!H
2
O
Theequationaboveisnotaccurate.TheLawofConservationofMassrequiresthatthenum-
berofmoleculesofeachtypebalanceontheleft-andright-handsidesoftheequation.Writ-
ingthevariableoverallreactionwithindividualequationsforhydrogenandoxygenonefinds:
x
1
H
2
+x
2
O
2
!H
2
O
H: 2x
1
+0x
2
!2
O: 0x
1
+2x
2
!1
ThesolutioninOctaveisfoundinjustthreesteps.
octave:1> A A = [ [ 2, , 0; 0, 2 2 ];
octave:2> b b = [ [ 2; ; 1 1 ];
octave:3> x x = A A \ \ b
1.2.5 IntegratingDifferentialEquations
Octavehasbuilt-infunctionsforsolvingnonlineardifferentialequationsoftheform
dx
dt
=f(x;t);
x(t=t
0
)=x
0
ForOctavetointegrate equations ofthisform,youmustfirstprovideadefinitionofthe
functionf(x;t). Thisisstraightforward,andmaybeaccomplishedbyenteringthefunction
bodydirectlyonthecommandline.Forexample,thefollowingcommandsdefinetheright-
hand side functionfor r aninterestingpair of nonlinear differentialequations. . Note e that
whileyouareenteringafunction,Octaverespondswithadifferentprompt,toindicatethat
itiswaitingforyoutocompleteyourinput.
octave:1> function n xdot t = = f (x, , t)
>
> r r = = 0.25;
> k k = = 1.4;
> a a = = 1.5;
> b b = = 0.16;
> c c = = 0.9;
> d d = = 0.8;
>
> xdot(1) ) = = r*x(1)*(1 1 - x(1)/k) - - a*x(1)*x(2)/(1 1 + b*x(1));
> xdot(2) ) = = c*a*x(1)*x(2)/(1 1 + + b*x(1)) ) - d*x(2);
>
> endfunction
Giventheinitialcondition
octave:2> x0 = = [1; 2];
andthesetofoutputtimesasacolumnvector(notethatthefirstoutputtimecorresponds
totheinitialconditiongivenabove)
10
GNUOctave
octave:3> t t = linspace (0, , 50, , 200)’;
itiseasytointegratethesetofdifferentialequations:
octave:4> x x = lsode ("f", x0, t);
ThefunctionlsodeusestheLivermoreSolverforOrdinaryDifferentialEquations,described
inA.C.Hindmarsh,ODEPACK,aSystematizedCollectionofODESolvers,in: Scientific
Computing,R.S.Steplemanetal.(Eds.),North-Holland,Amsterdam,1983,pages55–64.
1.2.6 ProducingGraphicalOutput
Todisplaythesolutionofthepreviousexamplegraphically,usethecommand
octave:1> plot t (t, x)
If you u are using a a graphical l user r interface, , Octave e will l automatically create e a a separate
windowtodisplaytheplot.
Tosavea plotonceit has beendisplayedonthe screen, use the print command. . For
example,
print -dpdf foo.pdf
willcreateafilecalledfoo.pdfthat containsarenderingofthecurrentplotinPortable
DocumentFormat. Thecommand
help print
explainsmoreoptionsfortheprintcommandandprovidesalistofadditionaloutputfile
formats.
1.2.7 EditingWhatYouHaveTyped
AttheOctaveprompt,youcanrecall,edit,andreissuepreviouscommandsusingEmacs-
or vi-style editing commands. . The e default keybindings use Emacs-style commands. . For
example,torecallthepreviouscommand,pressControl-p(writtenC-pforshort). Doing
thiswillnormallybringbackthepreviouslineofinput. C-nwillbringupthenextlineof
input,C-bwillmovethecursorbackwardontheline,C-fwillmovethecursorforwardon
theline,etc.
Acompletedescriptionofthecommandlineeditingcapabilityisgiveninthismanual,
seeSection2.4[CommandLineEditing],page25.
1.2.8 HelpandDocumentation
Octavehasanextensivehelpfacility.Thesamedocumentationthatisavailableinprinted
formisalsoavailablefromthe Octaveprompt,becausebothformsofthedocumentation
arecreatedfromthesameinputfile.
Inordertogetgoodhelpyoufirstneedtoknowthenameofthecommandthatyouwant
touse.Thenameofthisfunctionmaynotalwaysbeobvious,butagoodplacetostartisto
typehelp--list. Thiswillshowyoualltheoperators,keywords,built-infunctions,and
loadablefunctions availableinthecurrent sessionofOctave. . Analternative e istosearch
the documentationusing the lookfor function (describedin Section2.3[GettingHelp],
page20).
Onceyouknowthenameofthefunctionyouwishtouse,youcangetmorehelponthe
functionbysimplyincludingthenameasanargumenttohelp.Forexample,
Chapter1:ABriefIntroductiontoOctave
11
help plot
willdisplaythehelptextfortheplotfunction.
Octavesendsoutputthatistoolongtofitononescreenthroughapagerlikelessor
more.TypeaRETtoadvanceoneline,aSPCtoadvanceonepage,andqtoquitthepager.
ThepartofOctave’shelpfacilitythatallowsyoutoreadthecompletetextoftheprinted
manualfromwithinOctavenormallyusesaseparateprogramcalledInfo.Whenyouinvoke
InfoyouwillbeputintoamenudrivenprogramthatcontainstheentireOctavemanual.
HelpforusingInfoisprovidedinthismanual,seeSection2.3[GettingHelp],page20.
1.3 Conventions
Thissectionexplainsthenotationalconventions thatare usedinthismanual. . Youmay
wanttoskipthissectionandreferbacktoitlater.
1.3.1 Fonts
Examples of f Octave e code appear r in this s font or r form: : svd(a). . Names s that t represent
variables or function n arguments appear r in n this font or r form: : first-number. . Commands
thatyoutypeattheshellpromptappearinthisfontorform: ‘octave--no-init-file’.
CommandsthatyoutypeattheOctavepromptsometimesappearinthisfontorform: foo
--bar--baz. Specifickeysonyourkeyboardappearinthisfontorform: RET.
1.3.2 EvaluationNotation
Intheexamples inthis manual,results fromexpressions thatyouevaluateareindicated
with‘)’. Forexample:
sqrt (2)
) 1.4142
Youcanreadthisas“sqrt(2)evaluatesto1.4142”.
Insomecases,matrixvaluesthatarereturnedbyexpressionsaredisplayedlikethis
[1, 2; 3, , 4] == [1, , 3; 2, 4]
) [ [ 1, 0; 0, , 1 1 ]
andinothercases,theyaredisplayedlikethis
eye (3)
)
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
inordertoclearlyshowthestructureoftheresult.
Sometimestohelpdescribeoneexpression,another expressionisshownthatproduces
identicalresults.Theexactequivalenceofexpressionsisindicatedwith‘’. Forexample:
rot90 ([1, 2; 3, 4], , -1)
rot90 ([1, 2; 3, 4], , 3)
rot90 ([1, 2; 3, 4], , 7)
12
GNUOctave
1.3.3 PrintingNotation
Manyoftheexamplesinthis manualprinttextwhentheyareevaluated. . Inthismanual
theprintedtextresultingfromanexampleisindicatedby‘a’.Thevaluethatisreturned
byevaluatingtheexpressionisdisplayedwith‘)’(1inthenextexample)andfollowson
aseparateline.
printf ("foo o %s\n", , "bar")
a
foo bar
) 1
1.3.4 ErrorMessages
Some examplessignalerrors. . This s normally displays anerror message onyourterminal.
Errormessagesareshownonalinebeginningwitherror:.
fieldnames ([1, , 2; ; 3, 4])
error: fieldnames: Invalid d input t argument
1.3.5 FormatofDescriptions
Functionsandcommandsaredescribedinthismanualinauniformformat. Thefirstline
of a a description contains the name of f the item m followed by y its s arguments, if f any. . The
category—function,command,or whatever—is printednexttotherightmargin. . Ifthere
aremultiplewaystoinvokethefunctiontheneachallowableformislisted.
Thedescriptionfollowsonsucceedinglines,sometimeswithexamples.
1.3.5.1 ASampleFunctionDescription
In a function description, the name of the functionbeingdescribed appears s first. . It t is
followedonthesamelinebyalistofparameters. Thenamesusedfortheparametersare
alsousedinthebodyofthedescription.
Afterallofthecallingformshavebeenenumerated,thenextlineisaconciseone-sentence
summaryofthefunction.
After thesummarytheremaybedocumentationontheinputs andoutputs,examples
offunctionusage,notesaboutthealgorithmused,andreferencestorelatedfunctions.
Hereisadescriptionofanimaginaryfunctionfoo:
Chapter1:ABriefIntroductiontoOctave
13
[FunctionFile]
foo
(
x
)
[FunctionFile]
foo
(
x
,
y
)
[FunctionFile]
foo
(
x
,
y
,...)
Thefunctionfoosubtractsxfromy,thenaddstheremainingargumentstotheresult.
Ify isnotsupplied,thenthenumber19isusedbydefault.
Example:
foo (1, [3, 5], 3, 9)
) [ [ 14, , 16 ]
foo (5)
) 14
Moregenerally,
foo (w, x, y, , ...)
x - w w + + y + ...
Seealso: bar
Any parameter r whose name contains s the e name of a type (e.g., integer r or matrix) ) is
expectedtobeof thattype. . Parameters s namedobjectmay be ofany type. . Parameters
with other r sorts of names (e.g., , new
file) are discussed d specifically y inthe description n of
the function. . In n some sections, features s commontoparameters ofseveral l functions s are
describedatthebeginning.
FunctionsinOctavemay bedefinedinseveraldifferentways. . Thecategorynamefor
functions may include a tag that indicates the way that the functionis s defined. . These
additionaltagsinclude
FunctionFile
ThefunctiondescribedisdefinedusingOctavecommandsstoredinatextfile.
SeeSection11.9[FunctionFiles],page189.
Built-inFunction
ThefunctiondescribediswritteninalanguagelikeC++,C,orFortran,andis
partofthecompiledOctavebinary.
LoadableFunction
The functiondescribedis writteninalanguage likeC++, C,or Fortran. . On
systems that t support dynamic c linking of f user-supplied functions, , it t may y be
automatically linked d while Octave is running, but only if it is s needed. . See
AppendixA[ExternalCodeInterface],page819.
MappingFunction
Thefunctiondescribedworkselement-by-elementformatrixandvectorargu-
ments.
1.3.5.2 ASampleCommandDescription
Commanddescriptionshaveaformatsimilartofunctiondescriptions,exceptthattheword
‘Function’isreplacedby‘Command’. Commandsarefunctionsthat t maybecalledwith-
out surroundingtheirarguments inparentheses. . Forexample,hereis s thedescriptionfor
Octave’sdiarycommand:
14
GNUOctave
[Command]
diary
[Command]
diary
on
[Command]
diary
off
[Command]
diary filename
Recordalistofallcommandsand theoutputtheyproduce,mixedtogetherjustas
theyappearontheterminal.
Validoptionsare:
on
Start recording asession n in afile called diary y in n the current t working
directory.
off
Stoprecordingthesessioninthediaryfile.
filename
Recordthesessioninthefilenamedfilename.
Withnoarguments,diarytogglesthecurrentdiarystate.
Seealso: history.
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested