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Chapter15: Plotting
335
[FunctionFile]
annotation
(
"
arrow
"
,
x
,
y
)
[FunctionFile]
annotation
(
"
doublearrow
"
,
x
,
y
)
[FunctionFile]
annotation
(
"
textarrow
"
,
x
,
y
)
[FunctionFile]
annotation
(
"
textbox
"
,
pos
)
[FunctionFile]
annotation
(
"
rectangle
"
,
pos
)
[FunctionFile]
annotation
(
"
ellipse
"
,
pos
)
[FunctionFile]
annotation
(...,
prop
,
val
)
[FunctionFile]
annotation
(
hf
,...)
[FunctionFile]
h = = annotation
(...)
Drawannotationstoemphasizepartsofafigure.
Youmaybuildadefaultannotationbyspecifyingonlythetypeoftheannotation.
Otherwiseyoucanselectthetypeofannotationandthensetitspositionusingeither
xandy coordinatesforline-basedannotationsorapositionvectorposforothers. . In
eithercase,coordinatesareinterpretedusingthe"units"propertyoftheannotation
object.Thedefaultis"normalized",whichmeansthelowerlefthandcornerofthe
figurehascoordinates‘[00]’andtheupperrighthandcorner‘[11]’.
Ifthefirstargumenthf isafigurehandle,thenplotintothisfigure,ratherthanthe
currentfigurereturnedbygcf.
Furtherarguments canbeprovidedintheformof prop/valpairs to customize the
annotationappearance.
Theoptionalreturnvaluehis agraphics handle tothe createdannotation n object.
Thiscanbeusedwiththesetfunctiontocustomizeanexistingannotationobject.
Allannotationobjectssharetwoproperties:
 "units":theunitsinwhichcoordinatesareinterpreted.
Its value e may y be one of f "centimeters" " | | "characters" " | | "inches" |
"{normalized}"|"pixels"|"points".
 "position":afour-elementvector[x0y0widthheight].
Thevectorspecifiesthecoordinates(x0,y0)oftheoriginoftheannotationobject,
itswidth,anditsheight. Thewidthandheightmaybenegative,dependingon
theorientationoftheobject.
Validannotationtypesandtheirspecificpropertiesaredescribedbelow:
"line"
Constructsaline. x x andy mustbetwo-elementvectorsspecifyingthex
andycoordinatesofthetwoendsoftheline.
The line e can n be customized using g "linewidth", "linestyle", and
"color"propertiesthesamewayasforlineobjects.
"arrow"
Constructanarrow. Thesecondpoint t invectors x x andy specifies s the
arrowheadcoordinates.
Besides line e properties, , the e arrowhead d can be customized using
"headlength","headwidth", and "headstyle" " properties. . Supported
values for "headstyle" property y are: : ["diamond" " | | "ellipse" " |
"plain"|"rectangle"|"vback1"|"{vback2}"|"vback3"]
"doublearrow"
Constructadoublearrow. Vectorsxandy y specifythearrowheadcoor-
dinates.
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336
GNUOctave
The line and the e arrowhead d can be e customized d as for ar-
row
annotations, but t some e property y names s are e duplicated:
"head1length"/"head2length", "head1width"/"head2width", etc.
Theindex1marksthepropertiesofthearrowheadatthefirstpointin
x andy coordinates.
"textarrow"
Constructanarrowwithatextlabelattheoppositeendfromthearrow-
head.
Usethe "string" property tochange the textstring. . Theline e andthe
arrowhead can n be customized d as for arrow w annotations, and the text
canbe customizedusingthe sameproperties as textgraphics objects.
Note,however,thatsometextpropertynamesareprefixedwith"text"
to distinguish them from arrow properties: : "textbackgroundcolor",
"textcolor", "textedgecolor", , "textlinewidth", "textmargin",
"textrotation".
"textbox"
Constructaboxwithtextinside. posspecifiesthe"position"property
oftheannotation.
Use the e "string" " property y to o change the e text string. . You u may y use
"backgroundcolor", "edgecolor", "linestyle", , and d "linewidth"
propertiestocustomizetheboxbackgroundcolorandedgeappearance.
A limited set t of text objects properties are also available; ; Besides
"font..." properties, youmay also o use e "horizontalalignment" and
"verticalalignment"topositionthetextinsidethebox.
Finally,the"fitboxtotext"propertycontrols the actualextentof the
box. If"on"(thedefault)theboxlimitsarefittedtothetextextent.
"rectangle"
Constructarectangle. posspecifiesthe"position"propertyofthean-
notation.
You may y use "facecolor", , "color", "linestyle", and "linewidth"
propertiestocustomizetherectanglebackgroundcolorandedgeappear-
ance.
"ellipse"
Constructanellipse. posspecifiesthe"position"propertyoftheanno-
tation.
See"rectangle"annotationsforcustomization.
See also: [xlabel],page 332,[ylabel],page332,[zlabel],page332,[title],page330,
[text],page332,[gtext],page353,[legend],page330,[colorbar],page333.
15.2.4 MultiplePlotsonOnePage
Octavecandisplaymorethanoneplotinasinglefigure.Thesimplestwaytodothisisto
usethesubplotfunctiontodividetheplotareaintoaseriesofsubplotwindowsthatare
indexedbyaninteger. Forexample,
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Chapter15: Plotting
337
subplot (2, 1, 1)
fplot (@sin, , [-10, , 10]);
subplot (2, 1, 2)
fplot (@cos, , [-10, , 10]);
createsafigurewithtwoseparateaxes,onedisplayingasinewaveandtheotheracosine
wave.Thefirstcalltosubplotdividesthefigureintotwoplottingareas(tworowsandone
column)andmakesthefirstplotareaactive. Thegridofplotareascreatedbysubplotis
numberedincolumn-majororder(toptobottom,lefttoright).
[FunctionFile]
subplot
(
rows
,
cols
,
index
)
[FunctionFile]
subplot
(
rcn
)
[FunctionFile]
subplot
(
hax
)
[FunctionFile]
subplot
(...,
"
align
"
)
[FunctionFile]
subplot
(...,
"
replace
"
)
[FunctionFile]
subplot
(...,
"
position
"
,
pos
)
[FunctionFile]
subplot
(...,
prop
,
val
,...)
[FunctionFile]
hax = = subplot
(...)
Setupaplotgridwithrowsbycolssubwindowsandsetthecurrentaxesforplotting
(gca)tothelocationgivenbyindex.
Ifonlyonenumericargumentissupplied,thenitmustbeathreedigitvaluespecifying
thenumberofrowsindigit1,thenumberofcolumnsindigit2,andtheplotindex
indigit3.
Theplotindexrunsrow-wise;First,allcolumnsinarowarenumberedandthenthe
nextrowisfilled.
Forexample,aplotwith2x3gridwillhaveplotindicesrunningasfollows:
1
2
3
4
5
6
index mayalsobeavector. . Inthiscase,thenewaxiswillenclosethegridlocations
specified. Thefirstdemoillustratesthis:
demo ("subplot", , 1)
Theindexofthesubplottomakeactivemayalsobespecifiedbyitsaxeshandle,hax,
returnedfromaprevioussubplotcommand.
Iftheoption"align"isgiventhentheplotboxesofthesubwindowswillalign,but
thismayleavenoroomforaxistickmarksorlabels.
Iftheoption"replace"isgiventhenthesubplotaxiswillbereset,ratherthanjust
switchingthecurrentaxisforplottingtotherequestedsubplot.
The "position" property canbe usedtoexactly positionthesubplot axes within
the current figure. . The e optionpos s isa a 4-element vector [x,y, width, height]that
determinesthelocationandsizeoftheaxes.Thevaluesinposarenormalizedinthe
range[0,1].
Anyproperty/valuepairsarepasseddirectlytotheunderlyingaxesobject.
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338
GNUOctave
Iftheoutputhax isrequested,subplotreturnstheaxishandleforthesubplot.This
isusefulformodifyingthepropertiesofasubplotusingset.
Seealso: [axes],page358,[plot],page274,[gca],page361,[set],page362.
15.2.5 MultiplePlotWindows
Youcanopenmultipleplotwindowsusingthefigurefunction. Forexample,
figure (1);
fplot (@sin, , [-10, , 10]);
figure (2);
fplot (@cos, , [-10, , 10]);
creates twofigures, , withthe first t displaying a sine wave and d the seconda cosine wave.
Figurenumbersmustbepositiveintegers.
[Command]
figure
[Command]
figuren
[FunctionFile]
figure
(
n
)
[FunctionFile]
figure
(...,
"property"
,
value
,...)
[FunctionFile]
h = = figure
(...)
Createanewfigurewindowforplotting.
Ifnoargumentsarespecified,anewfigurewiththenextavailablenumberiscreated.
Ifcalledwithanintegern,andnosuchnumberedfigureexists,thenanewfigurewith
thespecifiednumberis created. . Ifthefigure e already existsthenit is madevisible
andbecomesthecurrentfigureforplotting.
Multipleproperty-valuepairsmaybespecifiedforthefigureobject,but theymust
appearinpairs.
Theoptionalreturnvaluehisagraphicshandletothecreatedfigureobject.
Seealso: [axes],page358,[gcf],page360,[clf],page342,[close],page343.
15.2.6 ManipulationofPlotObjects
[Command]
pan
[Command]
pan
on
[Command]
pan
off
[Command]
pan
xon
[Command]
pan
yon
[FunctionFile]
pan
(
hfig
,
option
)
ControltheinteractivepanningmodeofafigureintheGUI.
Giventheoption"on"or"off",settheinteractivepanmodeonoroff.
Withnoarguments,togglethecurrentpanmodeonoroff.
Giventheoption"xon"or"yon",enablepanmodeforthexoryaxisonly.
Ifthefirstargumenthfigisafigure,thenoperateonthegivenfigureratherthanthe
currentfigureasreturnedbygcf.
Seealso: [rotate3d],page339,[zoom],page339.
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Chapter15: Plotting
339
[FunctionFile]
rotate
(
h
,
dir
,
alpha
)
[FunctionFile]
rotate
(...,
origin
)
Rotatetheplotobjecththroughalphadegreesaroundthelinewithdirectiondirand
originorigin.
Thedefaultvalueoforiginisthecenteroftheaxesobjectthatistheparentofh.
Ifhisavectorofhandles,theymustallhavethesameparentaxesobject.
Graphicsobjectsthatmayberotatedarelines,surfaces,patches,andimages.
[Command]
rotate3d
[Command]
rotate3d
on
[Command]
rotate3d
off
[FunctionFile]
rotate3d
(
hfig
,
option
)
Controltheinteractive3-DrotationmodeofafigureintheGUI.
Giventheoption"on"or"off",settheinteractiverotatemodeonoroff.
Withnoarguments,togglethecurrentrotatemodeonoroff.
Ifthefirstargumenthfigisafigure,thenoperateonthegivenfigureratherthanthe
currentfigureasreturnedbygcf.
Seealso: [pan],page338,[zoom],page339.
[Command]
zoom
[Command]
zoom
(
factor
)
[Command]
zoom
on
[Command]
zoom
off
[Command]
zoom
xon
[Command]
zoom
yon
[Command]
zoom
out
[Command]
zoom
reset
[Command]
zoom
(
hfig
,
option
)
Zoomthecurrentaxesobjectorcontroltheinteractivezoommodeofafigureinthe
GUI.
Givenanumericargumentgreaterthanzero,zoombythegivenfactor. Ifthezoom
factor isgreater thanone,zoominontheplot. . Ifthefactorislessthanone,zoom
out. Ifthezoomfactorisatwo-orthree-elementvector,thentheelementsspecify
thezoomfactorsforthex,y,andzaxesrespectively.
Giventheoption"on"or"off",settheinteractivezoommodeonoroff.
Withnoarguments,togglethecurrentzoommodeonoroff.
Giventheoption"xon"or"yon",enablezoommodeforthexory-axisonly.
Giventheoption"out",zoomtotheinitialzoomsetting.
Giventheoption"reset",storethecurrentzoomsettingsothatzoomoutwillreturn
tothiszoomlevel.
Ifthefirstargumenthfigisafigure,thenoperateonthegivenfigureratherthanthe
currentfigureasreturnedbygcf.
Seealso: [pan],page338,[rotate3d],page339.
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340
GNUOctave
15.2.7 ManipulationofPlotWindows
By default,Octaverefreshestheplot windowwhenapromptisprinted,orwhenwaiting
forinput. Thedrawnowfunctionisusedtocauseaplotwindowtobeupdated.
[Built-inFunction]
drawnow
()
[Built-inFunction]
drawnow
(
"
expose
"
)
[Built-inFunction]
drawnow
(
term
,
file
,
mono
,
debug_file
)
Updatefigurewindowsandtheirchildren.
Theeventqueueisflushedandanycallbacksgeneratedareexecuted.
Withtheoptionalargument"expose",onlygraphicobjectsareupdatedandnoother
eventsorcallbacksareprocessed.
Thethirdcallingformofdrawnowisfordebuggingandisundocumented.
Seealso: [refresh],page340.
Onlyfiguresthataremodifiedwillbeupdated. Therefreshfunctioncanalsobeused
tocauseanupdateofthecurrentfigure,evenifitisnotmodified.
[FunctionFile]
refresh
()
[FunctionFile]
refresh
(
h
)
Refreshafigure,forcingittoberedrawn.
Whencalledwithoutanargumentthecurrentfigureisredrawn.Otherwise,thefigure
withgraphichandlehisredrawn.
Seealso: [drawnow],page340.
Normally,high-levelplotfunctionslikeplotormeshcallnewplottoinitializethestate
ofthecurrentaxessothatthenextplotisdrawninablankwindowwithdefaultproperty
settings. To o have twoplots superimposedoveroneanother,use the hold function. . For
example,
hold on;
x = = -10:0.1:10;
plot (x, , sin n (x));
plot (x, , cos s (x));
hold off;
displayssineandcosinewavesonthesameaxes.Iftheholdstateisoff,consecutiveplotting
commandslikethiswillonlydisplaythelastplot.
[FunctionFile]
newplot
()
[FunctionFile]
newplot
(
hfig
)
[FunctionFile]
newplot
(
hax
)
[FunctionFile]
hax = = newplot
(...)
Preparegraphicsenginetoproduceanewplot.
Thisfunctioniscalledatthebeginningofallhigh-levelplottingfunctions. Itisnot
normally requiredinuser programs. . newplot t queries the "NextPlot" field d of the
currentfigureandaxistodeterminewhattodo.
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Chapter15: Plotting
341
FigureNextPlot
Action
"new"
Createanewfigureandmakeitthecurrentfigure.
"add"(default)
Addnewgraphicobjectstothecurrentfigure.
"replacechildren"
Delete child objects whose HandleVisibility is s set t to "on". . Set
NextPlot property to"add". . This s typically clears afigure,but
leavesinplacehiddenobjectssuchasmenubars. Thisisequivalent
toclf.
"replace"
Deleteallchildobjectsofthefigureandresetallfigureproperties
totheir defaults. . However,thefollowingfour r properties arenot
reset: Position,Units,PaperPosition,PaperUnits. Thisisequiva-
lenttoclfreset.
AxisNextPlot
Action
"add"
Addnewgraphicobjects tothecurrentaxes. . Thisis s equivalent
toholdon.
"replacechildren"
Delete child objects whose HandleVisibility y is set t to o "on", but
leaveaxispropertiesunmodified.Thistypicallyclearsaplot,but
preserves special l settings s such h as s log scaling for axes. . This s is
equivalenttocla.
"replace"(default)
Delete all childobjects of the axis and reset allaxis properties
totheirdefaults. However,thefollowingpropertiesarenotreset:
Position,Units. Thisisequivalenttoclareset.
Iftheoptionalinputhfig or hax is given thenprepare the specifiedfigure or axes
ratherthanthecurrentfigureandaxes.
Theoptionalreturnvalue hax is agraphicshandletothe createdaxesobject(not
figure).
Caution: Callingnewplotmaychangethecurrentfigureandcurrentaxis.
[Command]
hold
[Command]
hold
on
[Command]
hold
off
[Command]
hold
all
[FunctionFile]
hold
(
hax
,...)
Toggleorsetthe"hold"stateoftheplottingenginewhichdetermineswhethernew
graphicobjectsareaddedtotheplotorreplacetheexistingobjects.
holdon
Retain plot t data a and settings s so that subsequent plot commands are
displayedonasinglegraph.
holdall
Retainplotline color,linestyle,data,andsettingssothat subsequent
plotcommandsaredisplayedonasinglegraphwiththenextlinecolor
andstyle.
342
GNUOctave
holdoff
Restore default graphics s settings which clear the e graphandreset axis
propertiesbeforeeachnewplotcommand. (default).
hold
Togglethecurrentholdstate.
When giventhe additional argument hax, the hold state is modified for r this axis
ratherthanthecurrentaxesreturnedbygca.
Toquerythecurrentholdstateusetheisholdfunction.
Seealso: [ishold],page342,[cla],page342,[clf],page342,[newplot],page340.
[Command]
ishold
[FunctionFile]
ishold
(
hax
)
[FunctionFile]
ishold
(
hfig
)
Returntrueif the next plot willbe addedto the current plot, or false if theplot
devicewillbeclearedbeforedrawingthenextplot.
Ifthefirstargumentisanaxeshandlehax orfigurehandlehfig thenoperateonthis
plotratherthanthecurrentone.
Seealso: [hold],page341,[newplot],page340.
Toclearthecurrentfigure,calltheclffunction.Toclearthecurrentaxis,callthecla
function. Tobringthecurrentfiguretothetopofthewindowstack,calltheshgfunction.
Todeleteagraphicsobject,calldeleteonitsindex. Toclosethefigurewindow,callthe
closefunction.
[Command]
clf
[Command]
clf
reset
[FunctionFile]
clf
(
hfig
)
[FunctionFile]
clf
(
hfig
,
"
reset
"
)
[FunctionFile]
h = = clf
(...)
Clearthecurrentfigurewindow.
clfoperatesbydeletingchildgraphicsobjectswithvisiblehandles(HandleVisibility
="on").
Iftheoptionalargument"reset"isspecified,deleteallchildobjectsincludingthose
withhiddenhandles andresetallfigureproperties to their defaults. . However,the
followingpropertiesarenotreset: Position,Units,PaperPosition,PaperUnits.
Ifthefirstargumenthfig isafigurehandle,thenoperateonthisfigureratherthan
thecurrentfigurereturnedbygcf.
The optionalreturnvalue h is the graphics handle of the figure window that was
cleared.
Seealso: [cla],page342,[close],page343,[delete],page343,[reset],page387.
[Command]
cla
[Command]
cla
reset
[FunctionFile]
cla
(
hax
)
[FunctionFile]
cla
(
hax
,
"
reset
"
)
Clearthecurrentaxes.
Chapter15: Plotting
343
claoperatesbydeletingchildgraphicobjectswithvisiblehandles(HandleVisibility
="on").
Iftheoptionalargument"reset"isspecified,deleteallchildobjectsincludingthose
withhidden handles s and d reset t allaxis s properties s to their defaults. . However, , the
followingpropertiesarenotreset: Position,Units.
Ifthefirstargumenthaxisanaxeshandle,thenoperateonthisaxisratherthanthe
currentaxesreturnedbygca.
Seealso: [clf],page342,[delete],page343,[reset],page387.
[Command]
shg
Showthegraphwindow.
Currently,thisisthesameasexecutingdrawnow.
Seealso: [drawnow],page340,[figure],page338.
[FunctionFile]
delete
(
file
)
[FunctionFile]
delete
(
file1
,
file2
,...)
[FunctionFile]
delete
(
handle
)
Deletethenamedfileorgraphicshandle.
file maycontainglobbingpatterns suchas‘*’. . Multiplefiles s tobedeletedmay be
specifiedinthesamefunctioncall.
handlemaybeascalarorvectorofgraphichandlestodelete.
ProgrammingNote: Deletinggraphicsobjectsistheproperwaytoremovefeatures
fromaplotwithoutclearingtheentirefigure.
Seealso: [clf],page342,[cla],page342,[unlink],page761,[rmdir],page762.
[Command]
close
[Command]
close
(
h
)
[Command]
close h
[Command]
close
all
[Command]
close
allhidden
[Command]
close
allforce
Closefigurewindow(s).
Whencalledwithnoarguments,closethecurrentfigure.Thisisequivalenttoclose
(gcf). Iftheinputhisagraphichandle,or r vectorofgraphicshandles,thenclose
eachfigureinh.
Iftheargument"all"isgiventhenallfigureswithvisiblehandles(HandleVisibility
="on")areclosed.
Ifthe argument "allhidden" is giventhen allfigures, includinghiddenones,are
closed.
If the argument "allforce" " is s given n then all figures are closed even when
"closerequestfcn"hasbeenalteredtopreventclosingthewindow.
Implementation Note: : close e operates s by y calling the function n specified by y the
"closerequestfcn"propertyforeachfigure. Bydefault,thefunctionclosereqis
used.Itispossiblethatthefunctioninvokedwilldelayorabortremovingthefigure.
344
GNUOctave
To remove e a a figure without t executing any callback functions s use e delete. . When
writingacallbackfunctiontocloseawindowdonotuseclosetoavoidrecursion.
Seealso: [closereq],page344,[delete],page343.
[FunctionFile]
closereq
()
Closethecurrentfigureanddeleteallgraphicsobjectsassociatedwithit.
By default, the "closerequestfcn" property of f a a new plot t figure e points to o this
function.
Seealso: [close],page343,[delete],page343.
15.2.8 UseoftheinterpreterProperty
All text objects—such as s titles, , labels, , legends, , and d text—include e the property
"interpreter"thatdeterminesthemannerinwhichspecialcontrolsequencesinthetext
arerendered.
Theinterpreterproperty cantakethreevalues: : "none","tex","latex". . Iftheinter-
preterissetto"none"thennospecialrenderingoccurs—thedisplayedtextisaverbatim
copy of the specifiedtext. . Currently,the"latex" " interpreter is not implementedandis
equivalentto"none".
The"tex"optionimplementsasubsetofT
E
Xfunctionalitywhenrenderingtext. This
allowstheinsertionof specialglyphs suchasGreek characters or mathematicalsymbols.
Thespecialcharactersareinsertedwithacodefollowingabackslash(\)character,asshown
inTable15.1.
Notethatforon-screendisplaytheinterpreterpropertyishonoredbyallgraphicstoolk-
its. Howeverforprinting,onlythe"gnuplot"toolkitrendersT
E
Xinstructions.
Besidesspecialglyphs,theformattingoftextcanbechangedwithinthestringbyusing
thecodes
\bf
Boldfont
\it
Italicfont
\sl
ObliqueFont
\rm
Normalfont
Thesecodesmaybeusedinconjunctionwiththe
and
characterstolimitthechange
tojustapartofthestring. Forexample,
xlabel (’{\bf H} = a a {\bf f V}’)
wherethecharacter’a’willnotappearinaboldfont. NotethattoavoidhavingOctave
interpretthebackslashcharactersinthestrings,thestringsshouldbeinsinglequotes.
Itisalsopossibletochangethefontnameandsizewithinthetext
\fontname
fontname
Specifythefonttouse
\fontsize
size
Specifythesizeofthefonttouse
Finally,superscriptingandsubscriptingcanbecontrolledwiththe’^’and’_’charac-
ters.Ifthe’^’or’_’isfollowedbya
character,thenalloftheblocksurroundedbythe
pairis super-or sub-scripted. . Without t the
pair,onlythecharacter immediately
followingthe’^’or’_’issuper-orsub-scripted.
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested