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Chapter32: ImageProcessing
705
colormap("default")restoresthedefaultcolormap(thejetmapwith64entries).
Thedefaultcolormapisreturned.
The map may also be specified by y a a string, "map_name", where map
name is the
nameofafunctionthatreturnsacolormap.
Ifthefirstargumenthax isanaxeshandle,thenthecolormapfortheparentfigure
ofhax isqueriedorset.
For convenience, , it t is s also o possible e to use e this function n with the e command d form,
colormapmap_name.
colormap("list") returns a cell l array y with h all of the e available e colormaps. . The
options"register"and"unregister"addorremovethecolormapnamefromthis
list.
Seealso: [jet],page707.
[FunctionFile]
rgbplot
(
cmap
)
[FunctionFile]
rgbplot
(
cmap
,
style
)
[FunctionFile]
h = = rgbplot
(...)
Plotthecomponentsofacolormap.
Twodifferentstylesareavailablefordisplayingthecmap:
profile(default)
PlottheRGBlineprofileofthecolormapforeachofthechannels(red,
greenandblue)withtheplotlinescoloredappropriately. Eachlinerep-
resentstheintensityofeachRGBcomponentsacrossthecolormap.
composite DrawthecolormapacrosstheX-axissothattheactualindexcolorsare
visibleratherthantheindividualcolorcomponents.
Theoptionalreturnvaluehisagraphicshandletothecreatedplot.
Rundemorgbplottoseeanexampleofrgbplotandeachstyleoption.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
map = = autumn
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = autumn
(
n
)
Createcolorcolormap. Thiscolormaprangesfromredthroughorangetoyellow.
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
map = = bone
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = bone
(
n
)
Create color r colormap. . This s colormap p varies s from m black to white with gray-blue
shades.
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
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706
GNUOctave
[FunctionFile]
map = = colorcube
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = colorcube
(
n
)
Createcolorcolormap. Thiscolormapiscomposedofasmanyequallyspacedcolors
(notgrays)intheRGBcolorspaceaspossible.
If there are not a perfect number nof regularly spaced colors thenthe remaining
entriesinthecolormaparegradientsofpurered,green,blue,andgray.
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
map = = cool
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = cool
(
n
)
Createcolorcolormap. Thecolormapvariesfromcyantomagenta.
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
map = = copper
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = copper
(
n
)
Createcolorcolormap. Thiscolormapvariesfromblacktoalightcoppertone.
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
map = = cubehelix
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = cubehelix
(
n
)
Createcubehelixcolormap.
Thiscolormapvariesfromblacktowhitegoingthoughblue,green,andredtoneswhile
maintainingamonotonicallyincreasingperceptionofintensity. Thisis s achievedby
transversingacolorcubefromblacktowhitethroughahelix,hencethenamecube-
helix,whiletakingintoaccounttheperceivedbrightnessofeachchannelaccordingto
theNTSCspecificationsfrom1953.
rgbplot (cubehelix (256))
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Reference: Green, , D. A., 2011, , "A A colour scheme e for the display of astronomical
intensityimages",BulletinoftheAstronomicalSocietyofIndia,39,289.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
map = = flag
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = flag
(
n
)
Createcolorcolormap.Thiscolormapcyclesthroughred,white,blue,andblackwith
eachindexchange.
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
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Chapter32: ImageProcessing
707
[FunctionFile]
map = = gray
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = gray
(
n
)
Creategraycolormap. Thiscolormapvariesfromblacktowhitewithshadesofgray.
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
map = = hot
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = hot
(
n
)
Create color r colormap. . This s colormap p ranges s from m black through h dark k red, , red,
orange,yellow,towhite.
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
hsv
(
n
)
Createcolorcolormap.Thiscolormapbeginswithred,changesthroughyellow,green,
cyan,blue,andmagenta,beforereturningtored.
Itisusefulfordisplayingperiodicfunctions.Themapisobtainedbylinearlyvarying
thehuethroughallpossiblevalueswhilekeepingconstantmaximumsaturationand
value. Theequivalentcodeishsv2rgb([(0:N-1)’/N,ones(N,2)]).
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
map = = jet
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = jet
(
n
)
Create color colormap. . This s colormapranges from m dark k blue through h blue,cyan,
green,yellow,red,todarkred.
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
map = = lines
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = lines
(
n
)
Createcolorcolormap.Thiscolormapiscomposedofthelistofcolorsinthecurrent
axes"ColorOrder"property.Thedefaultisblue,green,red,cyan,pink,yellow,and
gray.
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
map = = ocean
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = ocean
(
n
)
Createcolorcolormap.Thiscolormapvariesfromblacktowhitewithshadesofblue.
708
GNUOctave
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
map = = pink
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = pink
(
n
)
Create color r colormap. . This s colormap varies from black k to white e with h shades of
gray-pink.
Thiscolormapgivesasepiatonewhenusedongrayscaleimages.
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
map = = prism
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = prism
(
n
)
Createcolorcolormap.Thiscolormapcyclesthroughred,orange,yellow,green,blue
andvioletwitheachindexchange.
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
map = = rainbow
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = rainbow
(
n
)
Createcolorcolormap.Thiscolormaprangesfromredthroughorange,yellow,green,
blue,toviolet.
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
map = = spring
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = spring
(
n
)
Createcolorcolormap. Thiscolormapvariesfrommagentatoyellow.
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
map = = summer
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = summer
(
n
)
Createcolorcolormap. Thiscolormapvariesfromgreentoyellow.
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
Chapter32: ImageProcessing
709
[FunctionFile]
map = = white
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = white
(
n
)
Createcolorcolormap. Thiscolormapiscompletelywhite.
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
map = = winter
()
[FunctionFile]
map = = winter
(
n
)
Createcolorcolormap. Thiscolormapvariesfrombluetogreen.
Theargumentnmustbeascalar. Ifunspecified,thelengthofthecurrentcolormap,
or64,isused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
cmap = contrast
(
x
)
[FunctionFile]
cmap = contrast
(
x
,
n
)
Returnagraycolormapthatmaximizesthecontrastinanimage.
Thereturnedcolormapwillhavenrows.Ifnisnotdefinedthenthesizeofthecurrent
colormapisused.
Seealso: [colormap],page704,[brighten],page709.
Thefollowingthreefunctionsmodifytheexistingcolormapratherthanreplaceit.
[FunctionFile]
map_out = brighten
(
beta
)
[FunctionFile]
map_out = brighten
(
map
,
beta
)
[FunctionFile]
map_out = brighten
(
h
,
beta
)
[FunctionFile]
brighten
(...)
Brightenordarkenacolormap.
Theargumentbetamustbeascalarbetween-1and1,whereanegativevaluedarkens
andapositivevaluebrightensthecolormap.
Ifthemapargumentisomitted,thefunctionisappliedtothecurrentcolormap.
Thefirstargumentcanalsobeavalidgraphicshandleh,inwhichcasebrightenis
appliedtothecolormapassociatedwiththishandle.
Ifnooutputisspecifiedthentheresultiswrittentothecurrentcolormap.
Seealso: [colormap],page704,[contrast],page709.
[FunctionFile]
spinmap
()
[FunctionFile]
spinmap
(
t
)
[FunctionFile]
spinmap
(
t
,
inc
)
[FunctionFile]
spinmap
(
"
inf
"
)
Cyclethecolormapfortsecondswithacolorincrementofinc.
Bothparameters areoptional. . Thedefault t cycletimeis5 secondsandthe default
incrementis2.Iftheoption"inf"isgiventhencyclecontinuouslyuntilControl-C
ispressed.
710
GNUOctave
Whenrotating,theoriginalcolor1becomescolor2,color2becomescolor3,etc. A
positiveornegativeincrement isallowedandahighervalueofinc willcausefaster
cyclingthroughthecolormap.
Seealso: [colormap],page704.
[FunctionFile]
whitebg
()
[FunctionFile]
whitebg
(
color
)
[FunctionFile]
whitebg
(
"
none
"
)
[FunctionFile]
whitebg
(
hfig
,...)
Invertthecolorsinthecurrentcolorscheme.
Therootpropertiesarealsoinvertedsuchthatallsubsequentplotusethenewcolor
scheme.
Iftheoptionalargument color r ispresentthenthebackgroundcolor r isset tocolor
rather than n inverted. . color r may be e a string representing one of f the eight known
colors or anRGBtriplet. . The e specialstringargument "none"restores theplot to
thedefaultcolors.
Ifthefirstargumenthfig isafigurehandle,thenoperateonthisfigureratherthan
thecurrentfigurereturnedbygcf.Therootpropertieswillnotbechanged.
Seealso: [reset],page387,[get],page362,[set],page362.
Thefollowingfunctionscanbeusedtomanipulatecolormaps.
[FunctionFile]
[Y, newmap] = = cmunique
(
X
,
map
)
[FunctionFile]
[Y, newmap] = = cmunique
(
RGB
)
[FunctionFile]
[Y, newmap] = = cmunique
(
I
)
Convert aninput image X X to o an ouput indexed image Y Y which h uses s the smallest
colormappossiblenewmap.
Whentheinputisanindexedimage(Xwithcolormapmap)theoutputisacolormap
newmapfromwhichanyrepeatedrowshavebeeneliminated.Theoutputimage,Y,is
theoriginalinputimagewiththeindicesadjustedtomatchthenew,possiblysmaller,
colormap.
WhentheinputisanRGBimage(anMxNx3array),theoutputcolormapwillcontain
oneentryforeveryuniquecolorintheoriginalimage.Intheworstcasethenewmap
couldhaveasmanyrowsasthenumberofpixelsintheoriginalimage.
Whentheinputisagrayscaleimage I,theoutputcolormapwillcontainone entry
foreveryuniqueintensityvalueintheoriginalimage.Intheworstcasethenewmap
couldhaveasmanyrowsasthenumberofpixelsintheoriginalimage.
ImplementationDetails:
newmapisalwaysanMx3matrix,eveniftheinputimageisanintensitygrayscale
imageI (allthreeRGBplanesareassignedthesamevalue).
Theoutputimageisofclassuint8ifthesizeofthenewcolormapislessthanorequal
to256.Otherwise,theoutputimageisofclassdouble.
Seealso: [rgb2ind],page704,[gray2ind],page703.
Chapter32: ImageProcessing
711
[FunctionFile]
[Y, newmap] = = cmpermute
(
X
,
map
)
[FunctionFile]
[Y, newmap] = = cmpermute
(
X
,
map
,
index
)
Reordercolorsinacolormap.
Whencalledwithonlytwoarguments,cmpermuterandomlyrearrangesthecolormap
mapandreturnsanewcolormapnewmap.ItalsoreturnstheindexedimageYwhich
istheequivalentoftheoriginalinputimageXwhendisplayedusingnewmap.
Whencalledwithanoptionalthirdargumenttheorderofcolorsinthenewcolormap
isdefinedbyindex.
Caution: indexshouldnothaverepeatedelementsorthefunctionwillfail.
32.4 PlottingontopofImages
Ifgnuplotisbeingusedtodisplayimagesitispossibletoplotontopofimages. Sincean
imageisamatrixitisindexedbyrowandcolumnvalues.Theplottingsystemis,however,
basedonthetraditional(x;y)system. Tominimizethedifferencebetweenthetwosystems
Octaveplacestheoriginofthecoordinatesysteminthepointcorrespondingtothepixel
at(1;1).So,toplotpointsgivenbyrowandcolumnvaluesontopofanimage,oneshould
simplycallplotwiththecolumnvaluesas thefirst argument andthe row values asthe
second. As s an n example the following code generates s an n image e with h random intensities
between0and1,andshowstheimagewithredcirclesoverpixelswithanintensityabove
0:99.
I = = rand (100, 100);
[row, col] = = find d (I I > > 0.99);
hold ("on");
imshow (I);
plot (col, , row, , "ro");
hold ("off");
32.5 ColorConversion
OctavesupportsconversionfromtheRGBcolorsystemtoNTSCandHSVandviceversa.
[FunctionFile]
hsv_map = rgb2hsv
(
rgb
)
[FunctionFile]
hsv_map = rgb2hsv
(
rgb
)
Transformacolormaporimagefromred-green-blue(RGB)spacetohue-saturation-
value(HSV)space.
AcolorintheRGBspaceconsistsofred,green,andblueintensities.
AcolorinHSVspaceisrepresentedbyhue,saturation,andvalue(brightness)levels.
Valuegivestheamountoflightinthecolor.Huedescribesthedominantwavelength.
Saturationistheamountofhuemixedintothecolor.
Seealso: [hsv2rgb],page711,[rgb2ind],page704,[rgb2ntsc],page712.
[FunctionFile]
rgb_map = hsv2rgb
(
hsv_map
)
[FunctionFile]
rgb_img = hsv2rgb
(
hsv_img
)
Transformacolormaporimagefromhue-saturation-value(HSV)spacetored-green-
blue(RGB)space.
712
GNUOctave
AcolorinHSVspaceisrepresentedbyhue,saturationandvalue(brightness)levels.
Valuegivestheamountoflightinthecolor.Huedescribesthedominantwavelength.
Saturationistheamountofhuemixedintothecolor.
AcolorintheRGBspaceconsistsofred,green,andblueintensities.
Seealso: [rgb2hsv],page711,[ind2rgb],page704,[ntsc2rgb],page712.
[FunctionFile]
yiq_map = rgb2ntsc
(
rgb_map
)
[FunctionFile]
yiq_img = rgb2ntsc
(
rgb_img
)
Transformacolormaporimagefromred-green-blue(RGB)colorspacetoluminance-
chrominance(NTSC)space.Theinputmaybeofclassuint8,uint16,single,ordouble.
Theoutputisofclassdouble.
ImplementationNote:Thereferencematrixforthetransformationis
/Y\
0.299 0.587 0.114 /R\
|I| = 0.596 6 -0.274 4 -0.322 2 |G|
\Q/
0.211 -0.523 3 0.312 \B/
asdocumentedinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YIQandtruncatedto3signif-
icantfigures. Note: : TheFCCversionofNTSCusesonly2significant t digitsandis
slightlydifferent.
Seealso: [ntsc2rgb],page712,[rgb2hsv],page711,[rgb2ind],page704.
[FunctionFile]
rgb_map = ntsc2rgb
(
yiq_map
)
[FunctionFile]
rgb_img = ntsc2rgb
(
yiq_img
)
Transformacolormaporimagefromluminance-chrominance(NTSC)spacetored-
green-blue(RGB)colorspace.
ImplementationNote:Theconversionmatrixischosentobetheinverseofthematrix
usedforrgb2ntscsuchthat
x == ntsc2rgb b (rgb2ntsc c (x))
matlab uses a slightly y different t matrix where rounding means theequality above
doesnothold.
Seealso: [rgb2ntsc],page712,[hsv2rgb],page711,[ind2rgb],page704.
Chapter33: AudioProcessing
713
33 AudioProcessing
33.1 AudioFileUtilities
Thefollowingfunctionsallowyoutoread,writeandretrieveinformationaboutaudiofiles.
Variousformatsaresupportedincludingwav,flacandoggvorbis.
[LoadableFunction]
info = audioinfo
(
filename
)
Returninformationaboutanaudiofilespecifiedbyfilename.
[LoadableFunction]
[y, fs] ] = audioread
(
filename
)
[LoadableFunction]
[y, fs] ] = audioread
(
filename
,
samples
)
[LoadableFunction]
[y, fs] ] = audioread
(
filename
,
datatype
)
[LoadableFunction]
[y, fs] ] = audioread
(
filename
,
samples
,
datatype
)
Readtheaudiofilefilenameandreturntheaudiodatayandsamplingratefs.
The audio data is s storedas s matrix with h rows corresponding to audio frames s and
columnscorrespondingtochannels.
The optional l two-element vector r argument samples specifies starting g and ending
frames.
Theoptionalargumentdatatypespecifiesthedatatypetoreturn. Ifitis"native",
thenthetypeofdatadependsonhowthedataisstoredintheaudiofile.
[LoadableFunction]
audiowrite
(
filename
,
y
,
fs
)
[LoadableFunction]
audiowrite
(
filename
,
y
,
fs
,
name
,
value
,...)
Write audio o data from the matrix x y to o filename e at t sampling rate fs s with the e file
formatdeterminedbythefileextension.
Additionalname/valueargumentpairsmaybeusedtospecifythefollowingoptions:
‘BitsPerSample’
Numberofbitspersample,validvaluesare8,16,24and32. Defaultis
16.
‘BitRate’ Validargumentname,butignored. . Leftforcompatibilitywithmatlab.
‘Quality’ QualitysettingfortheOggVorbiscompressor.Valuescanrangebetween
0and100with100beingthehighestqualitysetting.Defaultis75.
‘Title’
Titlefortheaudiofile.
‘Artist’
Artistname.
‘Comment’ Comment.
33.2 AudioDeviceInformation
[LoadableFunction]
devinfo = audiodevinfo
()
[LoadableFunction]
devs = audiodevinfo
(
io
)
[LoadableFunction]
name = audiodevinfo
(
io
,
id
)
[LoadableFunction]
id = audiodevinfo
(
io
,
name
)
[LoadableFunction]
id = audiodevinfo
(
io
,
rate
,
bits
,
chans
)
714
GNUOctave
[LoadableFunction]
supports = = audiodevinfo
(
io
,
id
,
rate
,
bits
,
chans
)
Returnastructuredescribingtheavailableaudioinputandoutputdevices.
Thedevinfostructurehastwofields"input"and"output". Thevalueofeachfield
isastructurearraywithfields"Name","DriverVersion"and"ID"describinganaudio
device.
Iftheoptionalargumentiois1,returninformationaboutinputdevicesonly. Ifitis
0,returninformationaboutoutputdevicesonly.
Iftheoptionalargumentidisprovided,returninformationaboutthecorresponding
device.
Iftheoptionalargumentnameisprovided,returntheidofthenameddevice.
Givenasamplingrate,bitspersample,andnumberofchannelsforaninputoroutput
device,returntheIDofthefirstdevicethatsupportsplaybackorrecordingusingthe
specifiedparameters.
Ifalso givena device ID,return true if the devicesupports playback orrecording
usingthoseparameters.
33.3 AudioPlayer
Thefollowingmethodsareusedtocreateanduseaudioplayerobjects.Theseobjectscanbe
usedtoplaybackaudiodatastoredinOctavematricesandarrays.Theaudioplayerobject
supportsplaybackfromvariousdevicesavailabletothesystem,blockingandnon-blocking
playback,convenientpausingandresumingandmuchmore.
[FunctionFile]
player = = audioplayer
(
y
,
fs
)
[FunctionFile]
player = = audioplayer
(
y
,
fs
,
nbits
)
[FunctionFile]
player = = audioplayer
(
y
,
fs
,
nbits
,
id
)
[FunctionFile]
player = = audioplayer
(
recorder
)
[FunctionFile]
player = = audioplayer
(
recorder
,
id
)
Createanaudioplayerobjectthatwillplaybackdatay atsampleratefs.
The optional arguments nbits, and id d specify y the bit t depth h andplayer device e id,
respectively. Device e IDs may be foundusingtheaudiodevinfo function. . Givenan
audioplayerobject,usethedatafromtheobjecttoinitializetheplayer.
Thesignalycanbeavectororatwo-dimensionalarray.
Thefollowingexamplewillcreateanaudioplayerobjectthatwillplaybackonesecond
ofwhitenoiseat44100samplerateusing8bitspersample.
y = randn (2, , 44100) ) - 0.5;
player = = audioplayer r (y, , 44100, , 8);
play (player);
33.3.1 Playback
Thefollowingmethodsareusedtocontrolplayerplayback.
[FunctionFile]
play
(
player
)
[FunctionFile]
play
(
player
,
start
)
[FunctionFile]
play
(
player
,
limits
)
Playaudiostoredintheaudioplayerobjectplayerwithoutblocking.
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