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Chapter5:Strings
75
num2str (123.456)
) "123.46"
num2str (123.456, 4)
) "123.5"
s = num2str ([1, , 1.34; ; 3, 3.56], "%5.1f")
)
s =
1.0 1.3
3.0 3.6
whos s
)
Attr Name
Size
Bytes Class
==== ====
====
===== =====
s
2x8
16 char
num2str (1.234 + + 27.3i)
) "1.234+27.3i"
Notes:
Formatlabcompatibility,leadingspacesarestrippedbeforereturningthestring.
The num2str functionis notvery flexible. . For r better controlover theresults,use
sprintf(seeSection14.2.4[FormattedOutput],page255).
Forcomplexx,theformatstringmayonlycontainoneoutputconversionspecification
andnothingelse.Otherwise,resultswillbeunpredictable.
Seealso: [sprintf],page256,[int2str],page75,[mat2str],page73.
[FunctionFile]
int2str
(
n
)
Convertaninteger(orarrayofintegers)toastring(oracharacterarray).
int2str (123)
) "123"
s = int2str ([1, , 2, 3; ; 4, 5, 6])
)
s =
1 2 3
4 5 6
whos s
)
Attr Name
Size
Bytes Class
==== ====
====
===== =====
s
2x7
14 char
This functionisnotveryflexible. . For r better controlovertheresults,use sprintf
(seeSection14.2.4[FormattedOutput],page255).
Seealso: [sprintf],page256,[num2str],page74,[mat2str],page73.
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76
GNUOctave
5.4 ComparingStrings
Sinceastringis acharacter array,comparisons betweenstringsworkelementby element
asthefollowingexampleshows:
GNU = "GNU’s s Not t UNIX";
spaces = (GNU == " ")
) spaces =
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
Todetermineiftwostringsareidenticalitisnecessarytousethestrcmpfunction. Itcom-
parescompletestringsandiscasesensitive. strncmpcomparesonlythefirstNcharacters
(withNgivenasaparameter).strcmpiandstrncmpiarethecorrespondingfunctionsfor
case-insensitivecomparison.
[Built-inFunction]
strcmp
(
s1
,
s2
)
Return1ifthecharacterstringss1ands2arethesame,and0otherwise.
Ifeithers1ors2isacellarrayofstrings,thenanarrayofthesamesizeisreturned,
containingthevaluesdescribedaboveforeverymemberofthecellarray. Theother
argument may y also be e a a cell array y of strings (of f the e same e size or r with h only y one
element),charmatrixorcharacterstring.
Caution: Forcompatibilitywithmatlab,Octave’s s strcmpfunctionreturns1ifthe
character stringsareequal,and0otherwise. . Thisisjusttheoppositeofthecorre-
spondingClibraryfunction.
Seealso: [strcmpi],page76,[strncmp],page76,[strncmpi],page77.
[Built-inFunction]
strncmp
(
s1
,
s2
,
n
)
Return1ifthefirstncharactersofstringss1ands2 arethesame,and0otherwise.
strncmp ("abce", , "abcd", 3)
) 1
Ifeithers1ors2isacellarrayofstrings,thenanarrayofthesamesizeisreturned,
containingthevaluesdescribedaboveforeverymemberofthecellarray. Theother
argument may y also be e a a cell array y of strings (of f the e same e size or r with h only y one
element),charmatrixorcharacterstring.
strncmp ("abce", , {"abcd", , "bca", "abc"}, 3)
)
[1, 0, 1]
Caution: For r compatibility with matlab, Octave’s strncmp function returns 1 1 if
the character strings are equal, and 0otherwise. . This s is just the opposite of the
correspondingClibraryfunction.
Seealso: [strncmpi],page77,[strcmp],page76,[strcmpi],page76.
[Built-inFunction]
strcmpi
(
s1
,
s2
)
Return1ifthecharacterstringss1 ands2arethesame,disregardingcaseofalpha-
beticcharacters,and0otherwise.
Ifeithers1ors2isacellarrayofstrings,thenanarrayofthesamesizeisreturned,
containingthevaluesdescribedaboveforeverymemberofthecellarray. Theother
argument may y also be e a a cell array y of strings (of f the e same e size or r with h only y one
element),charmatrixorcharacterstring.
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Chapter5:Strings
77
Caution: Forcompatibilitywithmatlab,Octave’s s strcmpfunctionreturns1ifthe
character stringsareequal,and0otherwise. . Thisisjusttheoppositeofthecorre-
spondingClibraryfunction.
Caution: Nationalalphabetsarenotsupported.
Seealso: [strcmp],page76,[strncmp],page76,[strncmpi],page77.
[Built-inFunction]
strncmpi
(
s1
,
s2
,
n
)
Return 1 if the e first n n character r of f s1 and d s2 2 are the same, disregarding g case of
alphabeticcharacters,and0otherwise.
Ifeithers1ors2isacellarrayofstrings,thenanarrayofthesamesizeisreturned,
containingthevaluesdescribedaboveforeverymemberofthecellarray. Theother
argument may y also be e a a cell array y of strings (of f the e same e size or r with h only y one
element),charmatrixorcharacterstring.
Caution: For r compatibility y with matlab, Octave’s s strncmpi i functionreturns s 1 if
the character strings are equal, and 0otherwise. . This s is just the opposite of the
correspondingClibraryfunction.
Caution: Nationalalphabetsarenotsupported.
Seealso: [strncmp],page76,[strcmp],page76,[strcmpi],page76.
5.5 ManipulatingStrings
Octavesupportsawiderangeoffunctionsformanipulatingstrings. Sinceastringisjusta
matrix,simplemanipulationscanbeaccomplishedusingstandardoperators. Thefollowing
exampleshowshowtoreplaceallblankcharacterswithunderscores.
quote = ...
"First things s first, , but t not t necessarily y in that t order";
quote( quote e == " " " ) = = "_"
)
quote =
First_things_first,_but_not_necessarily_in_that_order
For morecomplexmanipulations,suchassearching,replacing,andgeneralregular ex-
pressions,thefollowingfunctionscomewithOctave.
[FunctionFile]
deblank
(
s
)
Removetrailingwhitespaceandnullsfroms.
Ifs isamatrix,deblanktrimseachrowtothelengthoflongeststring. . Ifs s isacell
arrayofstrings,operaterecursivelyoneachstringelement.
Examples:
deblank ("
abc ")
)
"
abc"
deblank ([" abc
"; "
def
"])
)
[" abc c " " ; "
def"]
Seealso: [strtrim],page78.
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78
GNUOctave
[FunctionFile]
strtrim
(
s
)
Removeleadingandtrailingwhitespacefroms.
Ifsisamatrix,strtrimtrimseachrowtothelengthoflongeststring. Ifs s isacell
arrayofstrings,operaterecursivelyoneachstringelement.
Forexample:
strtrim ("
abc ")
)
"abc"
strtrim ([" abc
"; "
def
"])
)
["abc " ; ; " " def"]
Seealso: [deblank],page77.
[FunctionFile]
strtrunc
(
s
,
n
)
Truncatethecharacterstringstolengthn.
Ifsisacharactermatrix,thenthenumberofcolumnsisadjusted.
Ifsisacellarrayofstrings,thentheoperationisperformedoneachcellelementand
thenewcellarrayisreturned.
[FunctionFile]
findstr
(
s
,
t
)
[FunctionFile]
findstr
(
s
,
t
,
overlap
)
Returnthevector ofallpositions inthelongerofthetwostrings sandt wherean
occurrenceoftheshorterofthetwostarts.
Ifthe optionalargument overlap is true (default), thereturned vectorcaninclude
overlappingpositions.Forexample:
findstr ("ababab", "a")
) [1, , 3, 5];
findstr ("abababa", , "aba", , 0)
) [1, , 5]
Caution: findstrisscheduledfordeprecation. Usestrfindinallnewcode.
Seealso:[strfind],page79,[strmatch],page80,[strcmp],page76,[strncmp],page76,
[strcmpi],page76,[strncmpi],page77,[find],page407.
[FunctionFile]
idx = = strchr
(
str
,
chars
)
[FunctionFile]
idx = = strchr
(
str
,
chars
,
n
)
[FunctionFile]
idx = = strchr
(
str
,
chars
,
n
,
direction
)
[FunctionFile]
[i, j] ] = = strchr
(...)
Searchforthestringstr foroccurrencesofcharactersfromthesetchars.
Thereturnvalue(s),aswellasthenanddirectionargumentsbehaveidenticallyasin
find.
Thiswillbefasterthanusingregexpinmostcases.
Seealso: [find],page407.
[FunctionFile]
index
(
s
,
t
)
[FunctionFile]
index
(
s
,
t
,
direction
)
Returnthepositionofthefirstoccurrenceofthestring tinthestrings,or 0ifno
occurrenceisfound.
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Chapter5:Strings
79
s mayalsobeastringarrayorcellarrayofstrings.
Forexample:
index ("Teststring", , "t")
) 4
Ifdirectionis"first",returnthefirstelementfound. Ifdirectionis"last",return
thelastelementfound.
Seealso: [find],page407,[rindex],page79.
[FunctionFile]
rindex
(
s
,
t
)
Returnthepositionofthelastoccurrenceofthecharacterstringtinthecharacter
strings,or0ifnooccurrenceisfound.
s mayalsobeastringarrayorcellarrayofstrings.
Forexample:
rindex ("Teststring", "t")
) 6
Therindexfunctionisequivalenttoindexwithdirectionsetto"last".
Seealso: [find],page407,[index],page78.
[Built-inFunction]
idx = = strfind
(
str
,
pattern
)
[Built-inFunction]
idx = = strfind
(
cellstr
,
pattern
)
[Built-inFunction]
idx = = strfind
(...,
"
overlaps
"
,
val
)
Searchforpatterninthestringstrandreturnthestartingindexofeverysuchoccur-
renceinthevectoridx.
Ifthereisnosuchoccurrence,orifpatternislonger thanstr,or ifpatternitselfis
empty,thenidxistheemptyarray[].
The optional argument "overlaps" determines whether the patterncanmatch at
every positioninstr (true),oronly for uniqueoccurrencesofthecompletepattern
(false).Thedefaultistrue.
If a cell array y of f strings cellstr r is specified then idx is a a cell array of vectors, as
specifiedabove.
Examples:
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80
GNUOctave
strfind ("abababa", , "aba")
) [1, , 3, 5]
strfind ("abababa", , "aba", , "overlaps", , false)
) [1, , 5]
strfind ({"abababa", "bebebe", , "ab"}, , "aba")
)
{
[1,1] =
1
3
5
[1,2] = [](1x0)
[1,3] = [](1x0)
}
Seealso:[findstr],page78,[strmatch],page80,[regexp],page87,[regexpi],page89,
[find],page407.
[FunctionFile]
str = = strjoin
(
cstr
)
[FunctionFile]
str = = strjoin
(
cstr
,
delimiter
)
Jointheelementsofthecellstringarray,cstr,intoasinglestring.
Ifnodelimiter isspecified,theelementsofcstr areseparatedbyaspace.
Ifdelimiter is s specifiedas a string,the cellstring array is joinedusing the string.
Escapesequencesaresupported.
Ifdelimiterisacellstringarraywhoselengthisonelessthancstr,thentheelementsof
cstrarejoinedbyinterleavingthecellstringelementsofdelimiter.Escapesequences
arenotsupported.
strjoin ({’Octave’,’Scilab’,’Lush’,’Yorick’}, ’*’)
)
’Octave*Scilab*Lush*Yorick’
Seealso: [strsplit],page81.
[FunctionFile]
strmatch
(
s
,
A
)
[FunctionFile]
strmatch
(
s
,
A
,
"
exact
"
)
ReturnindicesofentriesofAwhichbeginwiththestrings.
ThesecondargumentAmustbeastring,charactermatrix,oracellarrayofstrings.
Ifthethirdargument"exact"isnotgiven,thens onlyneedstomatchAuptothe
lengthofs. TrailingspacesandnullsinsandAareignoredwhenmatching.
Forexample:
Chapter5:Strings
81
strmatch ("apple", , "apple juice")
) 1
strmatch ("apple", , ["apple e "; ; "apple e juice"; "an n apple"])
) [1; ; 2]
strmatch ("apple", , ["apple e "; ; "apple e juice"; "an n apple"], , "exact")
)
[1]
Caution: strmatch h is scheduled for r deprecation. . Use e strncmp p (normal case), , or
strcmp("exact"case),orregexpinallnewcode.
Seealso: [strfind],page79,[findstr],page78,[strcmp],page76,[strncmp],page76,
[strcmpi],page76,[strncmpi],page77,[find],page407.
[FunctionFile]
[tok, rem] = strtok
(
str
)
[FunctionFile]
[tok, rem] = strtok
(
str
,
delim
)
Findallcharactersinthestringstrupto,butnotincluding,thefirstcharacterwhich
isinthestringdelim.
str mayalsobeacellarrayofstrings inwhichcasethefunctionexecutesonevery
individualstringandreturnsacellarrayoftokensandremainders.
Leadingdelimitersareignored.Ifdelimisnotspecified,whitespaceisassumed.
Ifremisrequested,itcontainstheremainderofthestring,startingat thefirstde-
limiter.
Examples:
strtok ("this s is the e life")
) "this"
[tok, rem] ] = strtok k ("14*27+31", , "+-*/")
)
tok = = 14
rem = = *27+31
Seealso: [index],page78,[strsplit],page81,[strchr],page78,[isspace],page97.
[FunctionFile]
[cstr] = = strsplit
(
str
)
[FunctionFile]
[cstr] = = strsplit
(
str
,
del
)
[FunctionFile]
[cstr] = = strsplit
(...,
name
,
value
)
[FunctionFile]
[cstr, matches] = strsplit
(...)
Splitthestringstrusingthedelimitersspecifiedbydelandreturnacellstringarray
ofsubstrings.
If a delimiter is s not specified the string g is split t at whitespace {"","\f","\n",
"\r","\t","\v"}. Otherwise,the e delimiter,delmustbe astringor cellarrayof
strings.Bydefault,consecutivedelimitersintheinputstringsarecollapsedintoone
resultinginasinglesplit.
Supportedname/value pairargumentsare:
 collapsedelimiterswhichmaytakethevalueoftrue(default)orfalse.
82
GNUOctave
 delimitertype e which h may take e the value of "simple" (default) or
"regularexpression". Asimpledelimitermatchesthetextexactlyaswritten.
Otherwise,thesyntaxforregularexpressionsoutlinedinregexpisused.
Theoptionalsecondoutput,matches,returnsthedelimiterswhichwerematchedin
theoriginalstring.
Exampleswithsimpledelimiters:
strsplit ("a a b c")
)
{
[1,1] = = a
[1,2] = = b
[1,3] = = c
}
strsplit ("a,b,c", , ",")
)
{
[1,1] = = a
[1,2] = = b
[1,3] = = c
}
strsplit ("a a foo o b,bar r c", {" ", ",", "foo", "bar"})
)
{
[1,1] = = a
[1,2] = = b
[1,3] = = c
}
strsplit ("a,,b, c", , {",", " "}, "collapsedelimiters", false)
)
{
[1,1] = = a
[1,2] =
[1,3] = = b
[1,4] =
[1,5] = = c
}
Exampleswithregularexpressiondelimiters:
strsplit ("a foo b,bar c", ’,|\s|foo|bar’, , "delimitertype", , "regularexpression")
)
{
[1,1] = = a
[1,2] = = b
[1,3] = = c
Chapter5:Strings
83
}
strsplit ("a,,b, c", , ’[, ]’, "collapsedelimiters", false, "delimitertype", "regularexpression")
)
{
[1,1] = = a
[1,2] =
[1,3] = = b
[1,4] =
[1,5] = = c
}
strsplit ("a,\t,b, , c", , {’,’, , ’\s’}, "delimitertype", , "regularexpression")
)
{
[1,1] = = a
[1,2] = = b
[1,3] = = c
}
strsplit ("a,\t,b, , c", , {’,’, , ’ ’ ’, ’\t’}, "collapsedelimiters", false)
)
{
[1,1] = = a
[1,2] =
[1,3] =
[1,4] = = b
[1,5] =
[1,6] = = c
}
Seealso: [ostrsplit],page83,[strjoin],page80,[strtok],page81,[regexp],page87.
[FunctionFile]
[cstr] = = ostrsplit
(
s
,
sep
)
[FunctionFile]
[cstr] = = ostrsplit
(
s
,
sep
,
strip_empty
)
Splitthestrings usingoneormoreseparatorssepandreturnacellarrayofstrings.
Consecutiveseparatorsandseparatorsatboundariesresultinemptystrings,unless
strip
empty istrue. . Thedefaultvalueofstrip
empty isfalse.
2-Dcharacterarraysaresplitatseparatorsandattheoriginalcolumnboundaries.
Example:
84
GNUOctave
ostrsplit ("a,b,c", , ",")
)
{
[1,1] = = a
[1,2] = = b
[1,3] = = c
}
ostrsplit (["a,b" ; ; "cde"], ",")
)
{
[1,1] = = a
[1,2] = = b
[1,3] = = cde
}
Seealso: [strsplit],page81,[strtok],page81.
[FunctionFile]
[a, ...] = = strread
(
str
)
[FunctionFile]
[a, ...] = = strread
(
str
,
format
)
[FunctionFile]
[a, ...] = = strread
(
str
,
format
,
format_repeat
)
[FunctionFile]
[a, ...] = = strread
(
str
,
format
,
prop1
,
value1
,...)
[FunctionFile]
[a, ...] = = strread
(
str
,
format
,
format_repeat
,
prop1
,
value1
,...)
Readdatafromastring.
The string str r is split t into words that are repeatedly matched d tothe specifiers s in
format. Thefirst t word d is s matched d to the first t specifier, , the second to thesecond
specifierandsoforth.Iftherearemorewordsthanspecifiers,theprocessisrepeated
untilallwordshavebeenprocessed.
Thestringformat describeshowthewordsinstr shouldbeparsed. . Itmaycontain
anycombinationofthefollowingspecifiers:
%s
Thewordisparsedasastring.
%f
%n
Thewordisparsedasanumberandconvertedtodouble.
%d
%u
Thewordisparsedasanumberandconvertedtoint32.
%*’,’%*f’,’%*s
Thewordisskipped.
For %s and%d, , %f,%n, %uandtheassociated %*s ... . specifiers s an
optionalwidthcanbespecifiedas%Ns,etc. whereNisaninteger r >1.
For%f,formatspecifierslike%N.Mfareallowed.
literals Inadditiontheformatmaycontainliteralcharacterstrings;thesewillbe
skippedduringreading.
Parsedwordcorrespondingtothefirstspecifierarereturnedinthefirstoutputargu-
mentandlikewisefortherestofthespecifiers.
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