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LilyPond
Themusictypesetter
LearningManual
TheLilyPonddevelopmentteam
ThisleprovidesanintroductiontoLilyPondversion2.19.40.
 
Formoreinformationabouthowthismanualtswiththeotherdocumentation,ortoreadthis
manualinotherformats,seeSection\Manuals"inGeneralInformation.
If you are missing any y manuals, , the e complete e documentation n can be found at
http://www.lilypond.org/.
 
Copyright
c
⃝1998{2015bytheauthors.
Permissionis grantedtocopy,distribute and/ormodify thisdocumentunder the
terms of the GNU U Free e DocumentationLicense, Version1.1or any later version
publishedbytheFreeSoftwareFoundation;withnoInvariantSections. Acopyof
thelicenseisincludedinthesectionentitled\GNUFreeDocumentationLicense".
ForLilyPondversion2.19.40
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TableofContents
1 Tutorial:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::1
1.1 Compilingale::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::1
1.1.1 Enteringinput::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::1
Producingoutput:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::1
1.1.2 MacOSX:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::2
1.1.3 Windows::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::6
1.1.4 Command-line:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::11
1.2 Howtowriteinputles:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::12
1.2.1 Simplenotation::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::12
Pitches::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::12
Durations(rhythms):::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::14
Rests::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::15
Timesignature:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 15
Tempomarks::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::15
Clef::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 16
Alltogether::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 16
1.2.2 Workingoninputles::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 16
1.3 Dealingwitherrors:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::18
1.3.1 Generaltroubleshootingtips:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::18
1.3.2 Somecommonerrors:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::18
1.4 Howtoreadthemanuals::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 18
1.4.1 Omittedmaterial::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::18
1.4.2 Clickableexamples:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::18
1.4.3 Overviewofmanuals:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::19
2 Commonnotation:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::20
2.1 Singlestaffnotation:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 20
2.1.1 Barlinesandbarchecks::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 20
Barlines:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 20
Barchecks:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::20
2.1.2 Pitchesandkeysignatures:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::20
Pitchalterations:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::21
Keysignatures:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::21
Warning:keysignaturesandpitches:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::21
2.1.3 Tiesandslurs::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::22
Ties:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::22
Slurs:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 23
Phrasingslurs:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::23
Warnings:slursvs.ties::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::23
2.1.4 Articulationanddynamics:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::23
Articulations:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 23
Fingerings:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::24
Dynamics::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::24
2.1.5 Addingtext::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::25
2.1.6 Automaticandmanualbeams::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::25
2.1.7 Advancedrhythmiccommands:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::26
Partialmeasure::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::26
Tuplets::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::26
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Gracenotes::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::26
2.2 Multiplenotesatonce::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::27
2.2.1 Musicexpressionsexplained::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::27
Analogy: mathematicalexpressions:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 27
Simultaneousmusicexpressions:multiplestaves::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::28
Simultaneousmusicexpressions:singlestaff::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::28
2.2.2 Multiplestaves:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::28
2.2.3 Staffgroups::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::29
2.2.4 Combiningnotesintochords:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::30
2.2.5 Singlestaffpolyphony::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::31
2.3 Songs:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::31
2.3.1 Settingsimplesongs::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 31
2.3.2 Aligninglyricstoamelody:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::31
2.3.3 Lyricstomultiplestaves:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::35
2.4 Finaltouches:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::36
2.4.1 Organizingpieceswithvariables::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::36
2.4.2 Addingtitles:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::37
2.4.3 Absolutenotenames:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::37
2.4.4 Afterthetutorial::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::39
3 Fundamentalconcepts::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::40
3.1 HowLilyPondinputleswork::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::40
3.1.1 IntroductiontotheLilyPondlestructure::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::40
3.1.2 Scoreisa(single)compoundmusicalexpression::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::42
3.1.3 Nestingmusicexpressions::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::44
3.1.4 Ontheun-nestednessofbracketsandties::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::45
3.2 Voicescontainmusic::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::47
3.2.1 I’mhearingVoices:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::47
3.2.2 Explicitlyinstantiatingvoices::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::51
3.2.3 Voicesandvocals::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::55
3.3 Contextsandengravers:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::58
3.3.1 Contextsexplained:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::58
3.3.2 Creatingcontexts::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::59
3.3.3 Engraversexplained::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::61
3.3.4 Modifyingcontextproperties:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::62
3.3.5 Addingandremovingengravers::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::66
3.4 Extendingthetemplates::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::69
3.4.1 Sopranoandcello::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::69
3.4.2 Four-partSATBvocalscore::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::72
3.4.3 Buildingascorefromscratch:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::78
3.4.4 Savingtypingwithvariablesandfunctions::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 83
3.4.5 Scoresandparts:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::85
4 Tweakingoutput::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::87
4.1 Tweakingbasics::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::87
4.1.1 Introductiontotweaks:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::87
4.1.2 Objectsandinterfaces::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 87
4.1.3 Namingconventionsofobjectsandproperties::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::88
4.1.4 Tweakingmethods:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::88
The\overridecommand::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::88
The\revertcommand::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::89
The\onceprex:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 90
The\overridePropertycommand::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::90
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The\tweakcommand:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::90
The\singleprex::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::93
4.2 TheInternalsReferencemanual:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::93
4.2.1 Propertiesoflayoutobjects::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::93
4.2.2 Propertiesfoundininterfaces:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 97
4.2.3 Typesofproperties:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 99
4.3 Appearanceofobjects:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 99
4.3.1 Visibilityandcolorofobjects::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::99
Thestencilproperty::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::100
Thebreak-visibilityproperty::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 101
Thetransparentproperty::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 102
Thecolorproperty:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 103
4.3.2 Sizeofobjects::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::104
4.3.3 Lengthandthicknessofobjects:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::108
4.4 Placementofobjects:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::109
4.4.1 Automaticbehavior:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::109
4.4.2 Within-staffobjects:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::110
Thedirectionproperty::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::110
Fingering:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::111
4.4.3 Outside-staffobjects::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::114
Theoutside-staff-priorityproperty::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::114
The\textLengthOncommand::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::117
Dynamicsplacement::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::118
Grobsizing:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::118
4.5 Verticalspacing::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 119
4.6 Collisionsofobjects::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 123
4.6.1 Movingobjects::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 123
4.6.2 Fixingoverlappingnotation:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::126
Thepaddingproperty::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::126
Theright-paddingproperty:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::127
Thestaff-paddingproperty:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::127
Theself-alignment-Xproperty::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 128
Thestaff-positionproperty::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::128
Theextra-offsetproperty::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::128
Thepositionsproperty::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::129
Theforce-hshiftproperty::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::130
4.6.3 Realmusicexample:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::131
4.7 Furthertweaking:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 139
4.7.1 Otherusesfortweaks:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::139
Tyingnotesacrossvoices::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 139
SimulatingafermatainMIDI:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::139
4.7.2 Usingvariablesforlayoutadjustments:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 141
4.7.3 Stylesheets:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::142
4.7.4 Othersourcesofinformation::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::146
4.7.5 AdvancedtweakswithScheme::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::147
AppendixA
Templates::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::149
A.1 Built-intemplates:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::149
A.1.1 SATBtemplate:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 149
A.1.2 SSAATTBBtemplate::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::154
A.2 Singlestafftemplates::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 157
A.2.1 Notesonly::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 157
A.2.2 Notesandlyrics::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::157
A.2.3 Notesandchords:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::158
A.2.4 Notes,lyrics,andchords::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 159
A.3 Pianotemplates:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::159
A.3.1 Solopiano::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 159
A.3.2 Pianoandmelodywithlyrics:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::160
A.3.3 Pianocenteredlyrics:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::161
A.4 Stringquartettemplates:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 162
A.4.1 Stringquartet::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::162
A.4.2 Stringquartetparts::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::163
A.5 Vocalensemblestemplates:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 166
A.5.1 SATBvocalscore:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 166
A.5.2 SATBvocalscoreandautomaticpianoreduction:::::::::::::::::::::::::::168
A.5.3 SATBwithalignedcontexts::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::170
A.5.4 SATBonfourstaves::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 171
A.5.5 Soloverseandtwo-partrefrain:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::173
A.5.6 Hymntunes::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::175
A.5.7 Psalms:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::177
A.6 Orchestraltemplates::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::180
A.6.1 Orchestra,choirandpiano::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 180
A.7 Ancientnotationtemplates::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::183
A.7.1 Transcriptionofmensuralmusic::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::183
A.7.2 Gregoriantranscriptiontemplate:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::188
A.8 Othertemplates:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::189
A.8.1 Jazzcombo:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 189
AppendixB
GNUFreeDocumentationLicense:::::::::::::196
AppendixC
LilyPondindex::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::203
1 Tutorial
ThischaptergivesabasicintroductiontoworkingwithLilyPond.
1.1 Compilingale
Thissectionintroduces\compiling"|theprocessingofLilyPondinputles(writtenbyyou)to
produceoutputles.
1.1.1 Enteringinput
\Compiling"isthetermusedforprocessinganinputleinLilyPondformattoproduceoutput
le(s). OutputlesaregenerallyPDF(forprintingorviewing),MIDI(forplaying),andPNG
(foronlineuse).LilyPondinputlesaresimpletextles.
Thisexampleshowsasimpleinputle:
\version "2.19.40"
{
c  e    g  e
}
Thegraphicaloutputis:
Note: Notesandlyrics s inLilyPondinput must alwaysbesurrounded
by
curlybraces
. Thebracesshouldalsobesurroundedbyaspace
unlesstheyareatthebeginningorendofalinetoavoidambiguities.
Theymaybeomittedinsomeexamplesinthismanual,butdon’tforget
them inyour r ownmusic! ! Formore e informationabout the display of
examples in the e manual, see Section 1.4 [How to read the manuals],
page18.
 
Inaddition,LilyPondinputiscasesensitive.‘{cde}’isvalidinput;‘{CDE}’willproduce
anerrormessage.
Producingoutput
Themethodof producingoutput dependsonyour operatingsystem andtheprogram(s) you
use.
 Section1.1.2[MacOSX],page2,Section1.1.2[MacOSX],page2,(graphical)
 Section1.1.3[Windows],page6,Section1.1.3[Windows],page6,(graphical)
 Section1.1.4[Command-line],page11,Section1.1.4[Command-line],page11,(command-
line)
Thereareseveralothertexteditors availablewithspecicsupportforLilyPond. . For r more
information,seeSection\Easierediting"inGeneralInformation.
Note: The e rst time youever runLilyPond,itmay takeaminuteor
twobecauseallofthesystemfontshavetobeanalyzedrst.Afterthis,
LilyPondwillbemuchfaster!
 
1.1.2 MacOSX
Note: Theseinstructionsassumethat t youareusingthe LilyPondap-
plication. If f you are using any ofthe programs s describedin Section
\Easierediting"inGeneralInformation,consultthedocumentationfor
thoseprogramsshouldyouhaveanyproblems.
 
Step1. Createyour.lyle
DoubleclicktheLilyPond.app,anexamplelewillopen.
Fromthemenusalongthetopleftofyourscreen,selectFile>Save.
Chooseanameforyourle,forexampletest.ly.
Step2. Compile(withLilyPad)
Fromthesamemenus,selectCompile>Typeset.
Anewwindowwillopenshowingaprogresslogofthecompilationoftheleyouhavejust
saved.
Step3. Viewoutput
Oncethecompilationhasnished,aPDFlewillbecreatedwiththesamenameastheoriginal
leandwillbeautomaticallyopenedinthedefaultPDFvieweranddisplayedonyourscreen.
Othercommands
TocreatenewlesforLilyPond,beginbyselectingFile>New
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