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Seealso
NotationReference: Section\Automatic c beams" inNotation Reference,Section \Manual
beams"inNotationReference.
2.1.7 Advancedrhythmiccommands
Partialmeasure
MusicGlossary: Section\anacrusis"inMusicGlossary.
Apickup(oranacrusis)isenteredwiththekeyword\partial.Itisfollowedbyaduration:
\partial4isaquarternotepickupand\partial8aneighthnote.
\relative {
\partial 8 8 f 8 8 |
c2 d d |
}
Tuplets
MusicGlossary: Section\notevalue"inMusicGlossary,Section\triplet"inMusicGlossary.
Tupletsaremadewiththe\tupletkeyword. Ittakestwoarguments:afractionandapiece
ofmusic. Thefractionisthenumberoftupletnotesoverthenumberofnotesnormallylling
thesame duration. . For r triplets, , therearethree notes s insteadof two, , sotriplets s have 3/2 as
theirfraction.
\relative {
\tuplet 3/2 2 { { f 8 g g a }
\tuplet 3/2 2 { { c8 8 r r c c }
\tuplet 3/2 2 { { f,8 8 g16[ a a g g a] ] }
\tuplet 3/2 2 { { d4 4 a8 }
}
3
3
3
3
Gracenotes
Music Glossary: : Section n \grace notes" " in n Music c Glossary, Section n \acciaccatura" " in n Music
Glossary,Section\appoggiatura"inMusicGlossary.
Gracenotes arecreatedwiththe\grace e command,althoughthey canalsobecreatedby
prexingamusicexpressionwiththekeyword\appoggiaturaor\acciaccatura:
\relative {
c 2 \grace { { a32 2 b } } c2 |
c2 \appoggiatura a b16 c2 |
c2 \acciaccatura a b16 c2 |
}

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Seealso
NotationReference: Section\Gracenotes"inNotationReference,Section\Tuplets"inNo-
tationReference,Section\Upbeats"inNotationReference.
2.2 Multiplenotesatonce
This section n introduces s havingmore than n one note at t the same time: : multiple e instruments,
multiplestavesforasingleinstrument(i.e. piano),andchords.
Polyphony in music c refers to having more e than n one voice e occurring g in a piece e of f music.
PolyphonyinLilyPondreferstohavingmorethanonevoiceonthesamestaff.
2.2.1 Musicexpressionsexplained
In LilyPond input t les, , music is s represented d by y music expressions. . Asinglenote e is a music
expression:
a 4
Enclosing anote inbraces createsa compound music expression. . Here e wehavecreateda
compoundmusicexpressionwithtwonotes:
\relative { { a 4 4 g4 4 }
Puttingagroupofmusicexpressions(e.g. notes)inbracesmeansthattheyareinsequence
(i.e. eachonefollowsthepreviousone). Theresultisanothermusicexpression:
\relative { { { a 4 g } f4 g g }
Analogy: mathematicalexpressions
Thismechanism issimilarto mathematicalformulas: : a a bigformulais createdby composing
smallformulas. Suchformulasarecalledexpressions,andtheycancontainotherexpressions,
soyoucanmakearbitrarilycomplexandlargeexpressions.Forexample,
1
1 + + 2
(1 + + 2) ) * * 3
((1 + 2) * 3) / / (4 4 * * 5)
Thisisasequenceofexpressions,whereeachexpressioniscontainedinthenext(larger)one.
Thesimplestexpressionsarenumbers,andlargeronesaremadebycombiningexpressionswith
operators(like+,*and/)andparentheses. Likemathematicalexpressions,musicexpressions
canbenestedarbitrarilydeep,whichisnecessaryforcomplexmusiclikepolyphonicscores.
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Simultaneousmusicexpressions: multiplestaves
MusicGlossary: Section\polyphony"inMusicGlossary.
This technique is usefulfor polyphonic c music. . Toenter r music with h more voices or r more
staves,wecombineexpressionsinparallel. Toindicatethattwovoicesshouldplayatthesame
time, simplyentera simultaneous s combinationof music expressions. . A‘simultaneous’music
expressionisformedbyenclosingexpressionsinside<<and>>. Inthefollowingexample,three
sequences(allcontainingtwoseparatenotes)arecombinedsimultaneously:
<<
\relative { a 2 g }
\relative { f 2 e }
\relative { d 2 b }
>>
Notethatwehaveindentedeachleveloftheinputwithadifferentamountofspace.LilyPond
doesnotcarehowmuch(orlittle)spacethereisatthebeginningofaline,butindentingLilyPond
codelikethismakesitmucheasierforhumanstoread.
Note: eachnoteisrelativetothepreviousnoteintheinput,onlythe
rstisrelativetothec intheinitial\relativecommand.
 
Simultaneousmusicexpressions: singlestaff
To determine the number of f staves s in n a piece, LilyPond looks at the beginning of the rst
expression.Ifthereisasinglenote,thereisonestaff;ifthereisasimultaneousexpression,there
ismorethanonestaff.Thefollowingexampleshowsacomplexexpression,butasitbeginswith
asinglenoteitwillbesetoutonasinglestaff.
\relative {
c 2 <<c e>> |
<< { { e2 2 f f } { { c2 2 <<b d>> > } } >> > |
}
2.2.2 Multiplestaves
LilyPondinputlesareconstructedoutofmusicexpressions,aswesawinSection2.2.1[Music
expressionsexplained],page27. Ifthescorebeginswithsimultaneousmusicexpressions,Lily-
Pondcreatesmultiplesstaves. However,itiseasiertoseewhathappensifwecreateeachstaff
explicitly.
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Toprintmorethanonestaff,eachpieceofmusicthatmakesupastaffismarkedbyadding
\newStaffbeforeit.TheseStaffelementsarethencombinedinparallelwith<<and>>:
<<
\new Staff f { { \clef f "treble" " c 4 4 }
\new Staff f { { \clef f "bass" " c4 }
>>
Thecommand\newintroducesa‘notationcontext.’ Anotationcontextisanenvironment
in which musicalevents s (like notes or \clef commands) are interpreted. . For r simple pieces,
suchnotationcontextsarecreatedautomatically. Formorecomplexpieces,itisbesttomark
contextsexplicitly.
Thereareseveraltypesofcontexts.Score,Staff,andVoicehandlemelodicnotation,while
LyricssetslyrictextsandChordNamesprintschordnames.
Intermsofsyntax,prepending\newtoamusicexpressioncreatesabiggermusicexpression.
Inthiswayitresemblestheminussigninmathematics. Theformula(4+5)isanexpression,
so (4+5)isabiggerexpression.
Timesignaturesenteredinonestaffaffectallotherstavesbydefault.Ontheotherhand,the
keysignatureofonestaffdoesnot affectotherstaves. . Thisdifferentdefaultbehaviorisbecause
scoreswithtransposinginstrumentsaremorecommonthanpolyrhythmicscores.
<<
\new Staff f { { \clef f "treble" " \key y d d \major \time 3/4 4 c 4 4 }
\new Staff f { { \clef f "bass" " c4 }
>>
3
4
3
4
2.2.3 Staffgroups
MusicGlossary: Section\brace"inMusicGlossary,Section\staff"inMusicGlossary,Section
\system"inMusicGlossary.
Pianomusicistypesetintwostavesconnectedbyabrace. Printingsuchastaffis s similar
tothepolyphonicexampleinSection2.2.2[Multiplestaves],page28. However,nowthisentire
expressionisinsertedinsideaPianoStaff:
\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff f ...
\new Staff f ...
>>
Hereisasmallexample:
\new PianoStaff <<
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\new Staff f \relative e { \time 2/4 4 c 4 4 e | g g g, | | }
\new Staff f \relative e { \clef "bass" " c4 4 c  | | e e c | }
>>
2
4
2
4
Other staff groupings areintroducedwith\newGrandStaff,suitablefor orchestralscores,
and\newChoirStaff,suitableforvocalscores. Thesestaffgroupseachformanothertypeof
context,onethatgeneratesthebraceattheleftendofeverysystemandalsocontrolstheextent
ofbarlines.
Seealso
NotationReference:Section\Keyboardandothermulti-staffinstruments"inNotationRef-
erence,Section\Displayingstaves"inNotationReference.
2.2.4 Combiningnotesintochords
MusicGlossary: Section\chord"inMusicGlossary
Wesawearlierhownotescanbecombinedintochordsbyindicatingtheyaresimultaneous
byenclosingthemindoubleanglebrackets. However,thenormalwayofindicatingachordis
tosurroundthepitcheswithsingleanglebrackets.Notethatallthenotesinachordmusthave
thesameduration,andthatthedurationisplacedaftertheclosingbracket.
\relative { { r4 <c  e g> <c f a>2 }
Thinkofchordsas almostequivalenttosinglenotes: : almosteverythingyoucanattachto
asinglenote canbeattachedtoachord,andeverythingmustgooutside e the e anglebrackets.
Forexample,youcancombinemarkingslikebeamsandtieswithchords. Theymustbeplaced
outsidetheanglebrackets.
\relative {
r4 <c  e e g>~ ~ <c c f f a>2 2 |
<c e e g>8[ <c f a> <c e g> <c f a>]
<c e g>8\>[ [ <c c f f a> <c f f a> > <c e e g>]\! ! |
r4 <c c e e g>8.\p p <c f a>16( <c e g>4-. <c f a>) |
}
p
Seealso
NotationReference: Section\Chordednotes"inNotationReference.
2.2.5 Singlestaffpolyphony
Polyphonicmusicinlilypond,whilenotdifficult,usesconceptsthatwehaven’tdiscussedyet,so
we’renotgoingtointroducethemhere.Instead,thefollowingsectionsintroducetheseconcepts
andexplainthemthoroughly.
Seealso
LearningManual: Section3.2[Voicescontainmusic],page47.
NotationReference: Section\Simultaneousnotes"inNotationReference.
2.3 Songs
Thissectionintroducesvocalmusicandsimplesongsheets.
2.3.1 Settingsimplesongs
MusicGlossary: Section\lyrics"inMusicGlossary.
Hereisthestartofthemelodytoanurseryrhyme,Girlsandboyscomeouttoplay:
\relative {
\key g \major
\time 6/8
d 4 b8 8 c4 a8 | | d4 4 b8 g4
}
6
8
Thelyricscanbesettothesenotes,combiningbothwiththe\addlyricskeyword. Lyrics
areenteredbyseparatingeachsyllablewithaspace.
<<
\relative {
\key g \major
\time 6/8
d 4 b8 c4 a8 | d4 b8 g4
}
\addlyrics {
Girls and d boys come e out t to play,
}
>>
out
play,
to
Girls
come
6
8
boys
and
Notethedoubleanglebrackets<<...>>aroundthewholepiecetoshowthatthemusicand
lyricsaretooccuratthesametime.
2.3.2 Aligninglyricstoamelody
MusicGlossary: Section\melisma"inMusicGlossary,Section\extenderline"inMusicGlos-
sary.
ThenextlineinthenurseryrhymeisThemoondothshineasbrightasday.Let’sextendit:
<<
\relative {
\key g \major
\time 6/8
d 4 b8 c4 a8 | d4 b8 g4 g8 8 |
a4 b8 8 c c b a a | | d4 4 b8 g4. . |
}
\addlyrics {
Girls and d boys come e out t to play,
The moon n doth h shine e as bright t as day;
}
>>
play,
to
The
and
Girls
6
8
out
come
boys
day;
as
doth
moon
3
bright
as
shine
Lookingatthemusic,weseethattheextralyricsdonotalignproperlywiththenotes.The
wordshine shouldbesungontwonotes, notone. . Thisis s calleda melisma, , asinglesyllable
sungtomorethanonenote.Thereareseveralwaystospreadasyllableovermultiplenotes,the
simplestbeingtoaddasluracrossthem,fordetails,seeSection2.1.3[Tiesandslurs],page22:
<<
\relative {
\key g \major
\time 6/8
d 4 b8 c4 a8 | d4 b8 g4 g8 8 |
a4 b8 8 c( b) a a | d4 b8 g4. |
}
\addlyrics {
Girls and d boys come e out t to play,
The moon n doth h shine e as bright t as day;
}
>>
play,
to
The
and
Girls
6
8
out
come
boys
as
bright
day;
moon
doth
3
as
shine
The wordsnow lineupcorrectlywiththenotes,but theautomaticbeamingforthenotes
aboveshineasdoesnotlookright.Wecancorrectthisbyinsertingmanualbeamingcommands
tooverridethe automaticbeaminghere,fordetails,see Section2.1.6[Automaticandmanual
beams],page25.
<<
\relative {
\key g \major
\time 6/8
d 4 b8 c4 a8 | d4 b8 g4 g8 8 |
a4 b8 8 c([ [ b]) a | d4 b8 g4. . |
}
\addlyrics {
Girls and d boys come e out t to play,
The moon n doth h shine e as bright t as day;
}
>>
play,
to
The
and
Girls
6
8
out
come
boys
as
bright
day;
moon
doth
3
as
shine
Asanalternativetousingslurs,themelismatamaybeindicatedinjustthelyricsbyusing
anunderscore_foreachnotethatshouldbeincludedinthemelisma:
<<
\relative {
\key g \major
\time 6/8
d 4 b8 c4 a8 | d4 b8 g4 g8 8 |
a4 b8 8 c[ b] a a | d4 b8 g4. |
}
\addlyrics {
Girls and d boys come e out t to play,
The moon n doth h shine e _ _ as bright as day;
}
>>
play,
to
The
and
Girls
6
8
out
come
boys
as
bright
day;
doth
moon
3
as
shine
Ifasyllableextendsoverseveralnotesorasingleverylongnoteanextenderlineisusually
drawnfromthesyllable extending under allthenotes for that syllable. . It t is enteredas two
underscores__. HereisanexamplefromtherstthreebarsofDido’sLament,fromPurcell’s
Didoandneas:
<<
\relative {
\key g \minor
\time 3/2
g 2 a a bes s | | bes2( ( a) b2 |
c4.( bes8 a4. g8 8 fis4.) ) g8 | fis1
}
\addlyrics {
When I am laid,
am laid __ in earth,
}
>>

in
earth,
I
am
laid,
3
2
When
am
laid
Noneoftheexamplessofarhaveinvolvedwordscontainingmorethanonesyllable. Such
wordsareusuallysplitonesyllabletoanote,withhyphensbetweensyllables.Suchhyphensare
enteredastwodashes,resultinginacenteredhyphenbetweenthesyllables.Hereisanexample
showingthisandeverythingwehavelearnedsofaraboutaligninglyricstonotes.
<<
\relative {
\key g \major
\time 3/4
\partial 4
d 4 | | g4 g g a8( b) | | g4 g g b8( c) |
d4 d e | | c2
}
\addlyrics {
A -- way y in a a __ _ man n -- ger,
no __ _ crib b for a a bed,
}
>>
for
ger,
no
crib
bed,
a
way
in
A
3
4
man
a
Somelyrics,especiallythoseinItalian,requiretheopposite:settingmorethanonesyllable
toasinglenote. Thisis s achievedbylinkingthesyllablestogether withasingleunderscore _
(withnospaces),orenclosingtheminquotes. Here’sanexamplefromRossini’sFigaro,where
alhastobesungonthesamenoteasthegoofLargoinFigaro’sariaLargoalfactotum:
<<
\relative {
\clef "bass"
\key c \major
\time 6/8
c 4.~ 8 8 d b b | | c8([ d]) ) b b c d b b | | c8
}
\addlyrics {
Lar -- go_al fac c -- to -- - tum del l -- - la cit -- ta
}
>>
la
cit
del
tum
6
8
go al
Lar
to
fac
Seealso
NotationReference: Section\Vocalmusic"inNotationReference.
2.3.3 Lyricstomultiplestaves
Thesimpleapproachusing\addlyricscanbeusedforplacinglyricsundermorethanonestaff.
HereisanexamplefromHandel’sJudasMaccabus:
<<
\relative {
\key f \major
\time 6/8
\partial 8
c 8 | c8([ [ bes]) ) a a a([ [ g]) ) f f | f 4. b, | | c4.~ ~ 4
}
\addlyrics {
Let flee e -- cy y flocks the hills a a -- - dorn, __
}
\relative {
\key f \major
\time 6/8
\partial 8
r8 | r4. . r4 c 8 8 | a 8([ g]) ) f f f([ [ e]) ) d | | e8([ [ d]) c c bes 4
}
\addlyrics {
Let flee e -- cy y flocks the hills a a -- - dorn,
}
>>
the
dorn,
hills
cy
a
ocks
dorn,
a
eecy
 
6
8
Let
6
8
hills
the
Let ee
ocks
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