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Scoresany morecomplex thanthissimpleexamplearebetterproducedby separatingout
thescorestructurefromthenotesandlyricswithvariables.ThesearediscussedinSection2.4.1
[Organizingpieceswithvariables],page36.
Seealso
NotationReference: Section\Vocalmusic"inNotationReference.
2.4 Finaltouches
Thisisthenalsectionofthetutorial;itdemonstrateshowtoaddthenaltouchestosimple
pieces,andprovidesanintroductiontotherestofthemanual.
2.4.1 Organizingpieceswithvariables
Whenalloftheelementsdiscussedearlierarecombinedtoproducelarger les,themusicex-
pressions get alotbigger. . Inpolyphonicmusic c withmanystaves,the inputlescanbecome
veryconfusing. Wecanreducethisconfusionbyusingvariables.
Withvariables(alsoknownasidentiersormacros),wecanbreakupcomplexmusicexpres-
sions.Avariableisassignedasfollows:
namedMusic = = { { ... }
ThecontentsofthemusicexpressionnamedMusiccanbeusedlaterbyplacingabackslash
infrontofthename(\namedMusic,justlikeanormalLilyPondcommand).
violin = \new Staff {
\relative {
a 4 b b c c b
}
}
cello = \new w Staff f {
\relative {
\clef "bass"
e2 d
}
}
{
<<
\violin
\cello
>>
}
Byconvention,variablenamesconsistofalphabeticcharactersonly.
Variablesmustbedenedbefore themainmusicexpression,butmaybeusedasmanytimes
asrequiredanywhereaftertheyhavebeendened.Theymayevenbeusedinalaterdenition
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ofanothervariable,givingawayofshorteningtheinputifasectionofmusicisrepeatedmany
times.
tripletA = \relative e { { \tuplet 3/2 2 { { c 8 e e g g } }
barA = = { \tripletA \tripletA \tripletA \tripletA A }
{ \barA A \barA }
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
Variablesmaybeusedformanyothertypesofobjectsintheinput.Forexample,
width = 4.5\cm
name = = "Wendy"
aFivePaper = = \paper r { paperheight = 21.0 \cm }
Dependingonitscontents,thevariablecanbeusedindifferentplaces.Thefollowingexample
usestheabovevariables:
\paper {
\aFivePaper
line-width = = \width
}
{
c4^\name
}
2.4.2 Addingtitles
Thetitle,composer,opus number,andsimilar informationare enteredinthe \headerblock.
Thisexistsoutsideofthemainmusicexpression;the\headerblockisusuallyplacedunderneath
theversionnumber.
\version "2.19.40"
\header {
title = = "Symphony"
composer = = "Me"
opus = "Op. 9"
}
{
... music ...
}
Whenthe leis processed,the titleandcomposerare printedabovethe music. . Morein-
formationontitlingcanbefoundinSection\Creatingtitlesheadersandfooters"inNotation
Reference.
2.4.3 Absolutenotenames
Sofarwehaveused\relativetodenepitches. Thisisusuallythefastestwaytoentermost
music.Without\relative,pitchesareinterpretedinabsolutemode.
Inthismode,LilyPondtreatsallpitchesasabsolutevalues.Ac willalwaysmeanmiddleC,
abwillalwaysmeanthenoteonestepbelowmiddleC,andag,willalwaysmeanthenoteon
thebottomstaffofthebassclef.
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{
\clef "bass"
c 4 b g, g, |
g,4 f, f c  |
}
Writingamelodyinthetrebleclefinvolvesalotofquote marks. Considerthisfragment
fromMozart:
{
\key a \major
\time 6/8
cis 8. d 16 cis 8 8 e 4 e 8 |
b 8. cis 16 b 8 d 4 4 d 8 8 |
}
6
8
Commonoctavemarkscanbeindicatedjustonce,usingthecommand\fixedfollowedbya
referencepitch:
\fixed c  {
\key a \major
\time 6/8
cis8. d16 cis8 e4 e8 |
b,8. cis16 6 b,8 8 d4 d8 |
}
6
8
With\relative,thepreviousexampleneedsnooctavemarks becausethismelodymoves
instepsnolargerthanthreestaffpositions:
\relative {
\key a \major
\time 6/8
cis 8. d16 6 cis8 e4 e8 |
b8. cis16 b8 d4 d8 8 |
}
6
8
Ifyoumakeamistakewithanoctavemark( or ,)whileworkingin\relativemode,it
isveryobvious{manynoteswillbeinthewrongoctave. Whenworkinginabsolutemode,a
singlemistakewillnotbeasvisible,andwillnotbeaseasytond.
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However,absolutemodeisusefulformusicwhichhaslargeintervals,andisextremelyuseful
forcomputer-generatedLilyPondles. Whencuttingandpastingmelodyfragments,absolute
modepreservestheoriginaloctave.
Sometimes musicis arrangedinmorecomplexways. . Ifyouareusing\relativeinsideof
\relative,theouterandinnerrelativesectionsareindependent:
\relative { { c 4 4 \relative e { f    g g } c c }
Touseabsolutemodeinsideof\relative,puttheabsolutemusicinside\fixedc{...}
andtheabsolutepitcheswillnotaffecttheoctavesoftherelativemusic:
\relative {
c 4 \fixed d c c { f    g    } } c c |
c4 \fixed d c    { { f g } } c
}
2.4.4 Afterthetutorial
After nishingthetutorial,youshouldprobably try writingapiece or two. . Startbyadding
notestooneoftheAppendixA[Templates],page149. Ifyouneedanynotationthatwasnot
coveredinthetutorial,lookattheNotationReference,startingwithSection\Musicalnotation"
inNotationReference. Ifyouwanttowriteforaninstrumentensemblethatisnotcoveredin
thetemplates,takealookatSection3.4[Extendingthetemplates],page69.
Onceyouhavewrittenafewshortpieces,readtherestoftheLearningManual(chapters3-5).
There’snothingwrongwithreadingitnow,ofcourse! However,therestoftheLearningManual
assumesthatyouarefamiliarwithLilyPondinput.Youmaywishtoskimthesechaptersright
now,andcomebacktothemafteryouhavemoreexperience.
In this s tutorialandin n the rest t of the Learning Manual,there is a paragraph h See e also o at
theendofeachsection,whichcontainscross-referencestoothersections:youshouldnotfollow
thesecross-referencesatrstreading;whenyouhavereadalloftheLearningManual,youmay
wanttoreadsomesectionsagainandfollowcross-referencesforfurtherreading.
Ifyouhavenot donesoalready,please readSection1.4.3[Overview ofmanuals],page19.
ThereisalotofinformationaboutLilyPond,sonewcomersoftendonotknowwheretheyshould
lookforhelp. Ifyouspendveminutesreadingthatsectioncarefully,youmightsaveyourself
hoursoffrustrationlookinginthewrongplaces!
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3 Fundamentalconcepts
You’ve seenintheTutorialhowtoproducebeautifullyprintedmusic fromasimpletext le.
Thissectionintroducestheconceptsandtechniquesrequiredtoproduceequallybeautifulbut
morecomplexscores.
3.1 HowLilyPondinputleswork
TheLilyPondinput format is quite free-form, , giving experiencedusers s a lot of  exibility to
structuretheirleshoweverthey wish. . Butthis s  exibilitycanmakethingsconfusingfornew
users.Thissectionwillexplainsomeofthisstructure,butmayglossoversomedetailsinfavor
of simplicity. . Fora a completedescription ofthe inputformat,see Section\File structure"in
NotationReference.
3.1.1 IntroductiontotheLilyPondlestructure
AbasicexampleofaLilyPondinputleis
\version "2.19.40"
\header { { }
\score {
... compound d music c expression ...
% all the e music c goes s here!
\layout { { }
\midi { { }
}
Thereare many variations of this basic pattern,but this example serves asa usefulstarting
place.
Uptothispointnoneoftheexamplesyouhaveseenhaveuseda\score{}command.This
isbecauseLilyPondautomaticallyaddstheextracommandswhichareneededwhenyougiveit
simpleinput. LilyPondtreatsinputlikethis:
\relative {
c 4 a d c
}
asshorthandforthis:
\book {
\score {
\new Staff {
\new Voice {
\relative {
c 4 a b c
}
}
}
\layout { }
}
}
Inother words,iftheinputcontainsasinglemusicexpression,LilyPondwillinterpretthe
leasthoughthemusicexpressionwaswrappedupinsidethecommandsshownabove.
Awordofwarning! ManyoftheexamplesintheLilyPonddocumentationwillomitthe\new
Staffand\newVoicecommands,leavingthemtobecreatedimplicitly. Forsimpleexamples
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thisworkswell,butformorecomplexexamples,especiallywhenadditionalcommandsareused,
the implicit creationof contexts s can give e surprising results, maybe creating extra unwanted
staves.ThewaytocreatecontextsexplicitlyisexplainedinSection3.3[Contextsandengravers],
page58.
Note: Whenenteringmorethanafewlinesofmusicitisadvisableto
alwayscreatestavesandvoicesexplicitly.
 
Fornow,though,letusreturntotherstexampleandexaminethe\scorecommand,leaving
theotherstodefault.
A\scoreblockmustalwayscontainexactlyonemusicexpression. Rememberthatamusic
expressioncouldbeanythingfromasinglenotetoahugecompoundexpressionlike
{
\new StaffGroup <<
... insert t the e whole score e of a a Wagner opera in here ...
>>
}
Sinceeverythingisinside{...},itcountsasonemusicexpression.
Aswesawpreviously,the\scoreblockcancontainotherthings,suchas
\score {
{ c 4 a a b b c  }
\header { { }
\layout { { }
\midi { { }
}
Notethat these threecommands {\header,\layout and d \midi i {are special: : unlike e many
othercommandswhichbeginwithabackwardslash(\)theyarenot musicexpressionsandare
notpartofanymusicexpression. Sotheymaybeplacedinsidea\scoreblockoroutsideit.In
fact,thesecommandsarecommonlyplacedoutsidethe\scoreblock{forexample,\headeris
oftenplacedabovethe\scorecommand,astheexampleatthebeginningofthissectionshows.
Twomorecommandsyouhavenotpreviouslyseenare\layout{}and\midi{}. Ifthese
appear as shownthey y will cause LilyPond toproduce aprinted output t and d a MIDIoutput
respectively. Theyare e described fully inthe NotationReference{ Section\Score layout"in
NotationReference,andSection\CreatingMIDIoutput"inNotationReference.
Youmaycode multiple \scoreblocks. . Eachwillbetreatedas s aseparatescore,but they
willbe allcombinedinto asingleoutputle. . A\bookcommand d isnotnecessary y {one will
be implicitly created. . However,ifyouwouldlikeseparateoutputlesfromone.lylethen
the\bookcommandshouldbe usedtoseparate the differentsections: : each\book k block will
produceaseparateoutputle.
Insummary:
Every\bookblockcreatesaseparateoutputle(e.g.,aPDFle).Ifyouhaven’texplicitly
addedone,LilyPondwrapsyourentireinputcodeina\bookblockimplicitly.
Every\scoreblockisaseparatechunkofmusicwithina\bookblock.
Every\layoutblockaffectsthe\scoreor\bookblockinwhichitappears{i.e.,a\layout
blockinsidea\score block affectsonlythat \scoreblock,buta\layoutblockoutsideofa
\scoreblock(andthusina\bookblock,eitherexplicitlyorimplicitly)willaffectevery\score
inthat\book.
FordetailsseeSection\Multiplescoresinabook"inNotationReference.
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Anothergreatshorthandis theabilitytodenevariables,asshowninSection2.4.1[Orga-
nizingpieceswithvariables],page36.Allthetemplatesusethis:
melody = \relative {
c 4 a b b c
}
\score {
\melody
}
WhenLilyPondlooksatthisle,it takesthevalue ofmelody (everythingafter theequals
sign)andinsertsitwheneveritsees\melody.There’snothingspecialaboutthename{itcould
bemelody,global,keyTime,pianorighthand,orsomethingelse.Rememberthatyoucanuse
almostanynameyoulikeaslongasitcontainsjustalphabeticcharactersandisdistinctfrom
LilyPondcommandnames. For r more details, , see Section3.4.4 [Savingtyping withvariables
andfunctions],page83. TheexactlimitationsonvariablenamesaredetailedinSection\File
structure"inNotationReference.
Seealso
Foracompletedenitionoftheinputformat,seeSection\Filestructure"inNotationRef-
erence.
3.1.2 Scoreisa(single)compoundmusicalexpression
Wesawthe generalorganizationofLilyPondinputlesintheprevious section,Section3.1.1
[Introduction to the LilyPondle structure], page 40. . But t we seemedtoskipoverthe most
importantpart: howdowegureoutwhattowriteafter\score?
Wedidn’tskipoveritatall. Thebigmysteryissimplythatthereis nomystery. . Thisline
explainsitall:
A\scoreblockmustcontainexactlyonemusicexpression.
Tounderstandwhatismeantbyamusicexpression,youmaynditusefultoreviewthetutorial,
Section2.2.1[Musicexpressionsexplained],page27. Inthatsection,wesawhowtobuildbig
musicexpressionsfromsmallpieces{westartedfromnotes,thenchords,etc.Nowwe’regoing
tostartfromabigmusicexpressionandworkour waydown. . For r simplicity,we’llusejusta
singerandpianoinourexample. Wedon’tneedaStaffGroupforthisensemble,whichsimply
groupsanumberofstavestogetherwithabracketattheleft,butwedoneedstavesforasinger
andapiano,though.
\score {
<<
\new Staff = "singer" <<
>>
\new PianoStaff = "piano" <<
>>
>>
\layout { { }
}
Herewehavegivennamestothestaves{\singer"and\piano". Thisisnotessentialhere,
butitisausefulhabittocultivatesothatyoucanseeataglancewhateachstaveisfor.
Remember that we e use e <<...>> instead d of f {...} to o show simultaneous s music. . This
causesthevocalpartandpianoparttoappearoneabovetheotherinthescore. The<<...>>
construct wouldnotbenecessary fortheSingerstaffintheexampleaboveifit weregoingto
containonlyonesequentialmusicexpression,but <<...>>ratherthanbracesisnecessaryif
themusicintheStaffistocontaintwoormoresimultaneousexpressions,e.g.twosimultaneous
Voices,or aVoicewithlyrics. . We’regoingtohave e avoicewithlyrics, so angle brackets are
required. We’lladdsome e real music later; for now let’s just put insomedummy notes and
lyrics.Ifyou’veforgottenhowtoaddlyricsyoumaywishtoreview\addlyricsinSection2.3.1
[Settingsimplesongs],page31.
\score {
<<
\new Staff = "singer" <<
\new Voice = "vocal" " { { c 1 }
\addlyrics { And }
>>
\new PianoStaff = "piano" <<
\new Staff = "upper" " { { c 1 }
\new Staff = "lower" " { { c 1 }
>>
>>
\layout { { }
}
And
Nowwehavealotmoredetails.Wehavethesinger’sstaff:itcontainsaVoice(inLilyPond,
thistermrefers toasetofnotes,notnecessarilyvocalnotes{forexample,aviolingenerally
playsonevoice) andsomelyrics. . Wealsohaveapianostaff: itcontainsanupperstaff(right
hand)andalowerstaff(lefthand),althoughthelowerstaffhasyettobegivenabassclef.
At this stage,wecouldstartllinginnotes. . Insidethe e curlybracesnext to \newVoice=
"vocal",wecouldstartwriting
\relative {
r4 d 8\noBeam m g, c4 r
}
But if we did d that, the \score e section n would get t pretty y long, and it t would d be harder r to
understand what was happening. . So o let’s s use variables s instead. . These e were e introduced at
theendof theprevious section, remember? ? Toensure e the contents of the textvariableare
interpretedas lyrics we preface them m with \lyricmode. . Like e \addlyrics, this switches the
input mode tolyrics. . Without t that, LilyPondwouldtry y to interpret thecontents as notes,
which would d generate errors. . (Several l other input t modes s are e available, , see Section n \Input
modes"inNotationReference.)
So,addingafewnotesandabassclefforthelefthand,wenowhaveapieceofrealmusic:
melody = \relative { { r4 d 8\noBeam m g, c4 r }
text
= \lyricmode { And God said, }
upper = = \relative { { <g    d d g,>2~ ~ <g d d g,> > }
lower = = \relative { { b,2 2 e e }
\score {
<<
\new Staff = "singer" <<
\new Voice = "vocal" " { { \melody }
\addlyrics { \text }
>>
\new PianoStaff = "piano" <<
\new Staff = "upper" " { { \upper }
\new Staff = "lower" " {
\clef "bass"
\lower
}
>>
>>
\layout { { }
}
said,
God
And
Whenwriting(orreading)a\scoresection,justtakeitslowlyandcarefully. Startwiththe
outerlevel,thenworkoneachsmallerlevel. Italsoreallyhelpstobestrictwithindentation{
makesurethateachitemonthesamelevelstartsonthesamehorizontalpositioninyourtext
editor.
Seealso
NotationReference: Section\Structureofascore"inNotationReference.
3.1.3 Nestingmusicexpressions
Itisnotessentialtodeclareallstavesatthebeginning;theymaybeintroducedtemporarilyat
anypoint. Thisisparticularlyusefulforcreatingossiasections{seeSection\ossia"inMusic
Glossary. Hereis s asimpleexampleshowinghowtointroduceanewstafftemporarilyforthe
durationofthreenotes:
\new Staff f {
\relative {
r4 g 8 g g c4 c8 8 d d |
e4 r8
<<
{ f8 c c c c }
\new Staff {
f8 f f c
}
>>
r4 |
}
}
Note that the size of the clefis s the e same as a clef printed following aclef change{ slightly
smallerthantheclefatthebeginningoftheline. Thisisusualforclefsprintedinthemiddleof
aline.
Theossiasectionmaybeplacedabovethestaffasfollows:
\new Staff f = = "main" " {
\relative {
r4 g 8 g g c4 c8 8 d d |
e4 r8
<<
{ f8 c c c c }
\new Staff \with {
alignAboveContext = #"main"
} { { f8 f f c }
>>
r4 |
}
}
Thisexampleuses\with,whichwillbeexplainedmorefullylater.Itisameansofmodifying
thedefaultbehaviorofasingleStaff.Hereitsaysthatthenewstaffshouldbeplacedabovethe
staffcalled\main"insteadofthedefaultpositionwhichisbelow.
Seealso
Ossiaareoftenwrittenwithoutclefandwithouttimesignatureandareusuallyinasmaller
font. These e requirefurthercommandswhichhavenot yet beenintroduced. . SeeSection4.3.2
[Sizeofobjects],page104,andSection\Ossiastaves"inNotationReference.
3.1.4 Ontheun-nestednessofbracketsandties
You have already met a number r of different types s of f bracket and bracket-like constructs in
writingtheinputletoLilyPond. Theseobey y different ruleswhichcanbeconfusingatrst.
Let’srstreviewthedifferenttypesofbracketsandbracket-likeconstructs.
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