BracketType
Function
{...}
Enclosesasequentialsegmentofmusic
<...>
Enclosesthenotesofachord
<<...>>
Enclosessimultaneousmusicexpressions
(...)
Marksthestartandendofaslur
\(...\)
Marksthestartandendofaphrasingslur
[...]
Marksthestartandendofamanualbeam
Totheseweshouldaddotherconstructswhichgeneratelinesbetweenoracrossnotes: ties
(marked by y a a tilde, , ~), tuplets s written n as \tupletx/y{...}, and grace e notes written n as
\grace{...}.
OutsideLilyPond,theconventionaluseofbracketsrequiresthedifferenttypestobeproperly
nested,likethis,<<[{(...)}]>>,withtheclosingbracketsbeingencounteredinexactly
theoppositeordertotheopeningbrackets.Thisisarequirementforthethreetypesofbracket
describedbytheword‘Encloses’inthetable above {theymustnest properly. . However,the
remainingbracket-likeconstructs,describedwiththeword‘Marks’inthetableabovetogether
with ties s and d tuplets, do not t haveto nest properly with h any y of the brackets or bracket-like
constructs. Infact,thesearenotbracketsinthesensethattheyenclosesomething{theyare
simplymarkerstoindicatewheresomethingstartsandends.
So,forexample,aphrasingslurcanstartbeforeamanuallyinsertedbeamandendbefore
theendofthebeam{notverymusical,perhaps,butpossible:
\relative { { g 8\( a b[ c b\) a] ] g4 }
Ingeneral,differentkindsofbrackets,bracket-likeconstructs,andthoseimpliedbytuplets,
tiesandgracenotes,maybemixedfreely.Thisexampleshowsabeamextendingintoatuplet
(line1),aslurextendingintoatuplet(line2),abeamandaslurextendingintoatuplet,atie
crossingtwotuplets,andaphrasingslurextendingoutofatuplet(lines3and4).
\relative {
r16[ g    \tuplet t 3/2 { { r16 6 e 8] }
g,16( a a \tuplet t 3/2 { { b16 6 d) e }
g,8[( a a \tuplet t 3/2 { { b8 d) ) e~] } |
\tuplet 5/4 4 { { e32\( ( a, b b d d e } a4.\)
}
3
3
3
5
2
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3.2 Voicescontainmusic
Singersneedvoicestosing,andsodoesLilyPond. Theactualmusic c for allinstruments ina
scoreiscontainedinVoices{themostfundamentalofallLilyPond’sconcepts.
3.2.1 I’mhearingVoices
Thelowest,mostfundamentalorinnermostlayersinaLilyPondscorearecalled‘Voicecontexts’
orjust‘Voices’forshort.Voicesaresometimescalled‘layers’inothernotationpackages.
Infact,aVoicelayerorcontextistheonlyonewhichcancontainmusic.IfaVoicecontextis
notexplicitlydeclaredoneiscreatedautomatically,aswesawatthebeginningofthischapter.
Some instrumentssuchasanOboecanplay onlyonenoteatatime. . Music c writtenforsuch
instrumentsrequires justasinglevoice. . Instruments s whichcanplaymorethanonenoteata
timelike the pianowilloftenrequiremultiplevoicestoencodethedifferent concurrent notes
andrhythmstheyarecapableofplaying.
Asinglevoicecancontainmany notes inachord,ofcourse,sowhenexactly aremultiple
voicesneeded?Lookrstatthisexampleoffourchords:
\relative {
\key g \major
<d  g>4 4 <d fis> > <d d a > > <d g>
}
Thiscanbe expressedusingjustthesingle angle bracketchordsymbols, <...>,andfor
thisjustasinglevoiceisneeded.ButsupposetheF-sharpwereactuallyaneighth-notefollowed
byaneighth-noteG,apassingnoteonthewaytotheA?Nowwehavetwonoteswhichstart
atthesametimebuthavedifferentdurations:thequarter-noteDandtheeighth-noteF-sharp.
Howarethesetobecoded?Theycannotbewrittenasachordbecauseallthenotesinachord
musthavethesameduration.Andtheycannotbewrittenastwosequentialnotesastheyneed
tostartatthesametime. Thisiswhentwovoicesarerequired.
LetusseehowthisisdoneinLilyPondinputsyntax.
Theeasiestwaytoenterfragmentswithmorethanonevoiceonastaffistoentereachvoice
as a sequence(with{...}),andcombinethemsimultaneously withangle brackets, , <<...
>>. Thefragmentsmustalsobeseparatedwithdoublebackwardslashes,\\,toplacethemin
separate voices. . Without t these, , thenotes s wouldbeenteredinto asingle voice, , which would
usuallycauseerrors. Thistechniqueisparticularlysuitedtopiecesofmusicwhicharelargely
homophonicwithoccasionalshortsectionsofpolyphony.
Here’s howwesplit thechords aboveintotwovoicesandaddboththepassingnoteanda
slur:
\relative {
\key g \major
%
Voice = = "1"
Voice = "2"
<< { { g 4 fis8( g) a4 g } } \\ \ { { d4 d d d d } } >>
}
 
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Noticehowthestemsofthesecondvoicenowpointdown.
Here’sanothersimpleexample:
\relative {
\key d \minor
%
Voice = = "1"
Voice = = "2"
<< { { r4 4 g  g4. . a8 }
\\ { { d,2 d4 g g }
>> |
<< { { bes4 bes s c c bes } } \\ { { g4 4 g g g8( ( a) ) g4 } } >> |
<< { { a2. r4 }
\\ { { fis2. . s4 }
>> |
}


It isnotnecessary to use aseparate <<\\>>construct foreachbar. . For r musicwithfew
notesineachbarthislayoutcanhelpthelegibilityofthecode,butiftherearemanynotesin
eachbaritmaybebettertosplitouteachvoiceseparately,likethis:
<<
\key d \minor
\relative { % % Voice e = = "1"
r4 g    g4. . a8 |
bes4 bes s c c bes |
a2. r4 |
} \\
\relative { % % Voice e = = "2"
d 2 d4 g g |
g4 g g8( ( a) g4 4 |
fis2. s4 |
}
>>


Thisexamplehasjusttwovoices,butthesameconstruct maybeusedtoencodethreeor
morevoicesbyaddingmoreback-slashseparators.
TheVoicecontextsbearthenames"1","2",etc.Therstcontextssettheoutervoices,the
highestvoiceincontext"1"andthelowestvoiceincontext"2".Theinnervoicesgoincontexts
"3"and"4".Ineachofthesecontexts,theverticaldirectionofslurs,stems,ties,dynamicsetc.,
issetappropriately.
\new Staff f \relative e {
% Main voice
c 16 d e f
%
Voice = = "1"
Voice = = "2"
Voice = = "3"
<< { { g4 4 f f e } } \\ \ { { r8 e4 d d c8~ } } >> |
<< { { d2 2 e e }
\\ { { c8 b16 6 a b8 g~ 2 2 } } \\ \ { { s4 b c2 } >> |
}
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
 
Thesevoicesareallseparatefromthemainvoicethatcontainsthenotesjustoutsidethe<<
...>> construct. . Let’scallthis s the simultaneousconstruct. . Slurs s andtiesmayonlyconnect
noteswithinthesamevoice,soslursandtiescannotgointooroutofasimultaneousconstruct.
Conversely,parallelvoicesfromseparatesimultaneousconstructsonthesamestaffarethesame
voice. Othervoice-relatedpropertiesalsocarryacrosssimultaneousconstructs. Hereisthesame
example,withdifferentcolorsandnoteheadsforeachvoice.Notethatchangesinonevoicedo
not affect other voices,butthey dopersistinthesamevoice later. . Notealsothattiednotes
maybesplitacrossthesamevoicesintwoconstructs,shownhereinthebluetrianglevoice.
\new Staff f \relative e {
% Main voice
c 16 d e f
<< % % Bar 1
{
\voiceOneStyle
g4 f e
}
\\
{
\voiceTwoStyle
r8 e4 d c8~
}
>> |
<< % % Bar 2
% Voice e 1 1 continues
{ d2 e }
\\
% Voice e 2 2 continues
{ c8 b16 6 a a b8 g~ ~ 2 2 }
\\
{
\voiceThreeStyle
s4 b c2
}
>> |
}
 
Thecommands\voiceXXXStylearemainlyintendedforuseineducationaldocumentssuch
asthisone. Theymodifythecolorofthenotehead,thestemandthebeams,andthestyleof
thenotehead,sothatthevoicesmaybeeasilydistinguished.Voiceoneissettoreddiamonds,
voicetwotobluetriangles,voicethreetogreencrossedcircles,andvoicefour(notusedhere)to
magentacrosses;\voiceNeutralStyle(alsonotusedhere)revertsthestylebacktothedefault.
Weshallseelaterhowcommandslikethesemaybecreatedbytheuser. SeeSection4.3.1[Vis-
ibilityandcolorofobjects],page99,andSection4.7.2[Usingvariablesforlayoutadjustments],
page141.
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Polyphonydoesnotchangetherelationshipofnoteswithina\relativeblock.Eachnoteis
stillcalculatedrelativetothenoteimmediatelyprecedingit,ortotherstnoteofthepreceding
chord. Soin
\relative { { noteA << < < < noteB noteC C > > \\ noteD D >> noteE E }
noteBisrelativetonoteA
noteCisrelativetonoteB,notnoteA;
noteDisrelativetonoteB,notnoteAornoteC;
noteEisrelativetonoteD,notnoteA.
Analternativeway,whichmaybeclearerifthenotesinthevoicesarewidelyseparated,is
toplacea\relativecommandatthestartofeachvoice:
\relative { { noteA ... }
<<
\relative { < < noteB B noteC > ... }
\\
\relative { noteD ... . }
>>
\relative { { noteE ... }
Letusnallyanalyzethevoicesinamorecomplexpieceofmusic. Herearethenotesfrom
the rst two bars of the secondof Chopin’s Deux Nocturnes, Op 32. . This s example e willbe
usedatlaterstagesinthisandthenext chaptertoillustrateseveraltechniquesforproducing
notation,sopleaseignorefornowanythingintheunderlyingcodewhichlooksmysteriousand
concentratejustonthemusicandthevoices{thecomplicationswillallbeexplainedinlater
sections.
 
Thedirectionofthestemsisoftenusedtoindicatethecontinuityoftwosimultaneousmelodic
lines. Herethestemsofthehighestnotesareallpointingupandthestemsofthelowernotes
areallpointingdown. Thisistherstindicationthatmorethanonevoiceisrequired.
But the realneedfor multiplevoicesarises whennotes whichstart atthesame time have
differentdurations. Lookatthenoteswhichstartatbeatthreeintherstbar. TheA- atis
adottedquarter note,theFisaquarternoteandtheD- atis ahalfnote. . Thesecannotbe
writtenasachordasallthenotesinachordmusthavethesameduration.Neithercantheybe
writtenassequentialnotes,astheymuststartatthesametime.Thissectionofthebarrequires
threevoices,andthenormalpracticewouldbetowritethewholebarasthreevoices,asshown
below,wherewehaveuseddifferentnoteheadsandcolorsforthethreevoices.Again,thecode
behindthisexamplewillbeexplainedlater,soignoreanythingyoudonotunderstand.
 
Letustrytoencodethismusicfromscratch.Asweshallsee,thisencounterssomedifficulties.
Webeginaswehavelearnt,usingthe<<\\>>constructtoenterthemusicoftherstbarin
threevoices:
\new Staff f \relative e {
\key aes \major
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<<
{ c 2 aes4. bes8 } } \\ { { <ees, , c>2 2 des s } } \\ { aes 2 f4 fes }
>> |
<c ees s aes s c>1 1 |
}
 
Thestemdirectionsareautomaticallyassignedwiththeodd-numberedvoicestakingupward
stemsandtheeven-numberedvoices downwardones. . Thestems s for voices 1and2areright,
butthestemsinvoice3shouldgodowninthisparticularpieceofmusic.Wecancorrectthisby
skippingvoicethreeandplacingthemusicinvoicefour.Thisisdonebysimplyaddinganother
pairof\\.
\new Staff f \relative e {
\key aes \major
<< % % Voice one
{ c 2 aes4. bes8 }
\\ % % Voice two
{ <ees, c>2 2 des s }
\\ % % Omit t Voice e three
\\ % % Voice four
{ aes 2 f4 fes }
>> |
<c ees s aes s c>1 1 |
}
 
Weseethatthisxesthestemdirection,butthehorizontalplacementofnotesisnotwhatwe
want.LilyPondshiftstheinnernoteswhentheyortheirstemswouldcollidewithoutervoices,
butthisisnotappropriateforpianomusic.Inothersituations,theshiftsLilyPondappliesmight
failtoclear thecollisions. . LilyPondprovides s severalways toadjustthehorizontalplacingof
notes.Wearenotquitereadyyettoseehowtocorrectthis,soweshallleavethisproblemuntil
alatersection|seetheforce-hshiftpropertyinSection4.6.2[Fixingoverlappingnotation],
page126.
Note: Lyrics, , spanners (such as s slurs, , ties, hairpins s etc.) ) cannot t be
created‘across’voices.
 
Seealso
NotationReference: Section\Multiplevoices"inNotationReference.
3.2.2 Explicitlyinstantiatingvoices
Voice contexts canalsobecreatedmanuallyinside a<<>>blocktocreatepolyphonicmusic,
using\voiceOne ... . \voiceFour r toindicate the required d directions s ofstems, , slurs, etc. . In
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longer scores thismethodis clearer,as itpermitsthevoicestobe separatedandtobegiven
moredescriptivenames.
Specically,theconstruct<<\\>>whichweusedintheprevioussection:
\new Staff f {
\relative {
<< { e 4 4 f f g a } } \\ { { c,4 d d e e f } } >>
}
}
isequivalentto
\new Staff f <<
\new Voice e = = "1" { { \voiceOne e \relative { { e 4 4 f f g g a } }
\new Voice e = = "2" { { \voiceTwo o \relative { { c 4 4 d d e e f } }
>>
Bothoftheabovewouldproduce
The\voiceXXXcommandssetthedirectionofstems,slurs,ties,articulations,textannota-
tions,augmentationdotsof dottednotes,andngerings. . \voiceOneand\voiceThree e make
theseobjects point upwards,while\voiceTwo and\voiceFourmakethempoint downwards.
Thesecommandsalsogenerateahorizontalshiftforeachvoicewhenthisisrequiredtoavoid
clashesofnoteheads. Thecommand\oneVoicerevertsthesettingsbacktothenormalvalues
forasinglevoice.
Letusseeinsomesimpleexamplesexactlywhateffect\oneVoice,\voiceOneandvoiceTwo
haveonmarkup,ties,slurs,anddynamics:
\relative {
% Default behavior r or behavior r after \oneVoice
c 4 d8~ ~ 8 8 e4( ( f f | g4 a) b-> c c |
}
\relative {
\voiceOne
c 4 d8~ ~ 8 8 e4( ( f f | g4 a) b-> c c |
\oneVoice
c,4 d8~ ~ 8 8 e4( ( f f | g4 a) b-> c c |
}
\relative {
\voiceTwo
c 4 d8~ ~ 8 8 e4( ( f f | g4 a) b-> c c |
\oneVoice
c,4 d8~ ~ 8 8 e4( ( f f | g4 a) b-> c c |
}
Nowlet’slookatthreedifferentwaystonotatethesamepassageofpolyphonicmusic,eachof
whichisadvantageousindifferentcircumstances,usingtheexamplefromtheprevioussection.
Anexpressionthatappearsdirectlyinsidea<<>>belongstothemainvoice(but,note,not
ina<<\\>>construct).Thisisusefulwhenextravoicesappearwhilethemainvoiceisplaying.
Hereisamorecorrect renditionofourexample. . Thereddiamond-shapednotes s demonstrate
thatthemainmelodyisnowinasinglevoicecontext,permittingaphrasingslurtobedrawn
overthem.
\new Staff f \relative e {
\voiceOneStyle
% This section is homophonic
c 16^( d e e f
% Start t simultaneous s section of three voices
<<
% Continue the main n voice e in parallel
{ g4 f e e | | d2 e) ) | | }
% Initiate second voice
\new Voice {
% Set stems, etc., down
\voiceTwo
r8 e4 d c8~ | 8 b16 a b8 g~ 2 |
}
% Initiate third d voice
\new Voice {
% Set stems, etc, , up
\voiceThree
s2. | | s4 b c2 |
}
>>
}

 
More deeply nestedpolyphonyconstructs are possible,and ifavoice appears only brie y
thismightbeamorenaturalwaytotypesetthemusic:
\new Staff f \relative e {
c 16^( d e e f
<<
{ g4 f e e | | d2 e) ) | | }
\new Voice {
\voiceTwo
r8 e4 d c8~ |
<<
{ c8 b16 6 a b8 g~ 2 2 | | }
\new Voice e {
\voiceThree
s4 b b c2 |
}
>>
}
>>
}

 
Thismethodofnesting new voices brie y is usefulwhenonlysmall sections of themusic
arepolyphonic,butwhenthewholestaffislargelypolyphonicitcanbeclearertousemultiple
voicesthroughout,usingspacingnotestostepoversectionswherethevoiceissilent,ashere:
\new Staff f \relative e <<
% Initiate e first t voice
\new Voice e {
\voiceOne
c 16^( d d e e f g4 f e e | | d2 e) ) |
}
% Initiate e second d voice
\new Voice e {
% Set t stems, , etc, down
\voiceTwo
s4 r8 8 e4 d d c8~ | | 8 8 b16 6 a a b8 8 g~ 2 2 |
}
% Initiate e third d voice
\new Voice e {
% Set t stems, , etc, up
\voiceThree
s1 | s4 b c2 |
}
>>

 
Notecolumns
Closely spacednotes ina chord,or notes occurring at thesametime indifferent voices, , are
arrangedintwo,occasionallymore,columnstopreventthenoteheadsoverlapping. Theseare
called note columns. . There e are separate columns for eachvoice, andthe currently specied
voice-dependentshiftisappliedtothenotecolumniftherewouldotherwisebeacollision. This
canbeseenintheexampleabove.Inbar2theCinvoicetwoisshiftedtotherightrelativeto
theDinvoiceone,andinthenalchordtheCinvoicethreeisalsoshiftedtotherightrelative
totheothernotes.
The \shiftOn, \shiftOnn, \shiftOnnn, and \shiftOff commands s specify y the degree to
whichnotes andchordsofthevoiceshouldbeshiftedifacollisionwouldotherwiseoccur. . By
default, theouter r voices (normally voices one and d two) have \shiftOff f specied, , while the
innervoices(threeandfour)have\shiftOnspecied. Whenashiftisapplied,voicesoneand
threeareshiftedtotherightandvoicestwoandfourtotheleft.
\shiftOnnand\shiftOnnndenefurthershiftlevelswhichmaybespeciedtemporarilyto
resolvecollisionsincomplexsituations{seeSection4.6.3[Realmusicexample],page131.
Anotecolumncancontainjustonenote(orchord)fromavoicewithstemsupandonenote
(orchord) fromavoicewithstemsdown. . Ifnotesfromtwovoiceswhichhavetheir r stemsin
thesamedirectionareplacedat thesamepositionandbothvoices havenoshiftorthesame
shift specied,theerror message\This voiceneeds a \voiceXx or \shiftXx setting"willbe
produced.
Seealso
LearningManual: Section4.6.1[Movingobjects],page123.
NotationReference: Section\Multiplevoices"inNotationReference.
3.2.3 Voicesandvocals
Vocalmusicpresentsaspecialdifficulty:weneedtocombinetwoexpressions{notesandlyrics.
Youhavealreadyseenthe\addlyrics{}command,whichhandlessimplescoreswell.How-
ever,thistechniqueisquitelimited.Formorecomplexmusic,youmustintroducethelyricsina
Lyricscontextusing\newLyricsandexplicitlylinkthelyricstothenoteswith\lyricsto{},
usingthenameassignedtotheVoice.
<<
\new Voice e = = "one" " {
\relative {
\autoBeamOff
\time 2/4
c 4 b8. a16 | | g4. . f8 | e4 d d | | c2 |
}
}
\new Lyrics \lyricsto o "one" " {
No more let t | | sins and d | | sor -- rows | | grow. |
}
>>
grow.
rows
sor
more
let
No
2
4
and
sins
NotethatthelyricsmustbelinkedtoaVoicecontext,not aStaffcontext.Thisisacase
whereitisnecessarytocreateStaffandVoicecontextsexplicitly.
TheautomaticbeamingwhichLilyPondusesbydefaultworkswellforinstrumentalmusic,
butnotsowellformusicwithlyrics,wherebeamingiseithernotrequiredatalloris usedto
indicatemelismatainthelyrics. Intheexampleaboveweusethecommand\autoBeamOffto
turnofftheautomaticbeaming.
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested