LetusreusetheearlierexamplefromJudasMaccabustoillustratethismore exibletech-
nique. Werstrecastittousevariablessothemusicandlyricscanbeseparatedfromthestaff
structure. WealsointroduceaChoirStaff ff bracket. . Thelyricsthemselves s must beintroduced
with\lyricmodetoensuretheyareinterpretedaslyricsratherthanmusic.
global = { \key y f f \major \time 6/8 8 \partial l 8 8 }
SopOneMusic = \relative e {
c 8 | c8([ bes)] a a([ g)] f f | | f 4. b, | c4.~ ~ 4
}
SopOneLyrics = = \lyricmode {
Let | flee e -- cy y flocks the | | hills a a -- - dorn, __
}
SopTwoMusic = \relative e {
r8 | | r4. r4 c 8 | a 8([ g)] f f f([ [ e)] d | e8([ [ d)] ] c bes
}
SopTwoLyrics = = \lyricmode {
Let | flee e -- cy y flocks the | | hills a a -- - dorn,
}
\score {
\new ChoirStaff <<
\new Staff <<
\new Voice = "SopOne" {
\global
\SopOneMusic
}
\new Lyrics \lyricsto "SopOne" {
\SopOneLyrics
}
>>
\new Staff <<
\new Voice = "SopTwo" {
\global
\SopTwoMusic
}
\new Lyrics \lyricsto "SopTwo" {
\SopTwoLyrics
}
>>
>>
}
the
dorn,
hills
a
ocks

cy
dorn,
a
ee
Let
6
8
6
8
the
cy
Let
ee
hills
ocks
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Thisisthebasicstructureofallvocalscores. Morestavesmaybeaddedasrequired,more
voices maybeaddedtothestaves,moreversesmay beaddedtothelyrics,andthevariables
containingthemusiccaneasilybeplacedinseparatelesshouldtheybecometoolong.
Hereis anexampleoftherstline ofahymnwithfourverses,setforSATB.Inthiscase
thewords for allfour parts are the same. . Note e howweuse variables to separate the music
notation andwords s from m the staff structure. . See e too how a variable,which we have chosen
tocall‘keyTime’,is usedtoholdseveralcommands for use within n the two staves. . Inother
examplesthisisoftencalled‘global’.
keyTime = = { { \key c \major \time e 4/4 4 \partial 4 }
SopMusic
= \relative e { c 4 | e4. . e8 g4 4 g
| a4
a
g }
AltoMusic = = \relative e { c 4 | c4. . c8 e4 4 e
| f4
f
e }
TenorMusic = = \relative e { { e4 4 | g4. . g8 c4.
b8 | | a8 8 b b c c d e4 }
BassMusic = = \relative e { { c4 4 | c4. . c8 c4 4 c
| f8 8 g g a a b c4 }
VerseOne =
\lyricmode { { E -- | ter -- nal fa -- ther, | strong g to save, , }
VerseTwo
=
\lyricmode { { O | Christ, , whose e voice the e | | wa -- ters heard, }
VerseThree =
\lyricmode { { O | Ho -- ly Spi i -- rit, , | who o didst t brood }
VerseFour =
\lyricmode { { O | Tri -- ni -- - ty of | | love and d pow r r }
\score {
\new ChoirStaff <<
\new Staff <<
\clef "treble"
\new Voice = "Sop" " { { \voiceOne e \keyTime e \SopMusic c }
\new Voice = "Alto" { \voiceTwo o \AltoMusic }
\new Lyrics \lyricsto "Sop" { \VerseOne
}
\new Lyrics \lyricsto "Sop" { \VerseTwo
}
\new Lyrics \lyricsto "Sop" { \VerseThree }
\new Lyrics \lyricsto "Sop" { \VerseFour r }
>>
\new Staff <<
\clef "bass"
\new Voice = "Tenor" " { { \voiceOne \keyTime \TenorMusic c }
\new Voice = "Bass" " { { \voiceTwo \BassMusic }
>>
>>
}
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and
didst
ters
to
wa
strong
who
love
pow'r
brood
heard,
save,
ter
Tri
Ho
Christ,
O
O
O
E

ty
Spi
voice
fa
of
rit,
the
ther,
ni
ly
whose
nal
Seealso
NotationReference: Section\Vocalmusic"inNotationReference.
3.3 Contextsandengravers
Contextsandengravershavebeenmentionedinformallyinearliersections;wenowmust look
attheseconceptsinmoredetail,astheyareimportantinthene-tuningofLilyPondoutput.
3.3.1 Contextsexplained
Whenmusicisprinted,manynotationalelementswhichdonotappearexplicitlyintheinput
lemustbeaddedtotheoutput. Forexample,comparetheinputandoutputofthefollowing
example:
\relative { { cis 4 cis2. | | a4 4 a2. | }

Theinputisrathersparse,butintheoutput,barlines,accidentals,clef,andtimesignature
havebeenadded.WhenLilyPondinterpretstheinputthemusicalinformationisparsedfromleft
toright,similartothewayaperformerreadsthescore. Whilereadingtheinput,theprogram
rememberswheremeasureboundariesare,andwhichpitchesrequireexplicitaccidentals. This
informationmustbeheldonseverallevels.Forexample,anaccidentalaffectsonlyasinglestaff,
whileabarlinemustbesynchronizedacrosstheentirescore.
WithinLilyPond, these rules and bits s of information n are grouped in Contexts. . We e have
alreadyintroducedtheVoicecontext.OthersaretheStaffandScorecontexts. Contextsare
hierarchicaltore ectthehierarchicalnatureofamusicalscore. Forexample: aStaffcontext
cancontainmanyVoicecontexts,andaScorecontextcancontainmanyStaffcontexts.
Eachcontext has the responsibilityforenforcingsome notationrules,creating somenota-
tionobjects andmaintainingtheassociatedproperties. . For r example,theVoicecontextmay
introduceanaccidentalandthentheStaffcontextmaintainstheruletoshoworsuppressthe
accidentalfortheremainderofthemeasure.
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As another example,the synchronizationof bar lines is,bydefault, , handledinthe Score
context. However,insomemusicwemaynotwantthebarlinestobesynchronized{consider
apolymetricscorein4/4and3/4time. Insuchcases,wemustmodifythedefaultsettingsof
theScoreandStaffcontexts.
Forverysimplescores,contextsarecreatedimplicitly,andyouneednotbeawareofthem.
Forlargerpieces,suchasanythingwithmore thanonestaff, theymustbecreatedexplicitly
tomakesurethatyougetasmanystavesasyouneed,andthattheyareinthecorrectorder.
Fortypesettingpieceswithspecializednotation,itisusualtomodifyexisting,oreventodene
totallynew,contexts.
InadditiontotheScore,StaffandVoicecontextstherearecontextswhichtbetweenthe
scoreandstafflevelstocontrolstaffgroups,suchasthePianoStaffandChoirStaffcontexts.
There are e also o alternative e staff ff and voice contexts, and contexts s for lyrics, percussion, , fret
boards,guredbass,etc.
The namesof allcontexttypesare formedfromoneormorewords,eachwordbeingcap-
italized and d joined d immediately to the e preceding g word d with h no hyphen n or r underscore, e.g.,
GregorianTranscriptionStaff.
Seealso
NotationReference: Section\Contextsexplained"inNotationReference.
3.3.2 Creatingcontexts
Inaninputleascoreblock,introducedwitha\scorecommand,containsasinglemusicex-
pressionandanassociatedoutputdenition(eithera\layoutora\midiblock). The e Score
contextisusuallylefttobecreatedautomaticallywhentheinterpretationofthatmusicexpres-
sionstarts.
For scores s with h only y onevoiceandone staff, , the Voice e andStaff contexts may also be
lefttobecreatedautomatically,butformorecomplexscoresitisnecessarytocreatethemby
hand. Thesimplestcommandthatdoesthisis\new.Itisprependedtoamusicexpression,for
example
\new type music-expression
wheretypeisacontextname(likeStafforVoice).Thiscommandcreatesanewcontext,and
startsinterpretingthemusic-expressionwithinthatcontext.
Note: \newScore e shouldnotbeusedastheessentialtop-levelScore
contextiscreatedautomaticallywhenthemusicexpressionwithinthe
\scoreblockisinterpreted.Score-widedefaultvaluesofcontextprop-
ertiescanbechangedwithinthe\layoutblock. SeeSection3.3.4[Mod-
ifyingcontextproperties],page62,
 
Youhave seen many practicalexamples s which creatednew w Staff and Voice e contexts in
earliersections,buttoremindyouhowthesecommandsareusedinpractice,here’sanannotated
real-musicexample:
\score { { % % start of f single e compound music c expression
<< % % start of simultaneous staves section
\time 2/4
\new Staff { { % % create e RH H staff
\clef "treble"
\key g g \minor
\new Voice { { % % create voice e for r RH notes
\relative { { % % start of f RH notes
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d 4 ees16 6 c8. . |
d4 ees16 6 c8. |
} % % end d of RH notes
} % % end of RH H voice
} % % end d of RH H staff
\new Staff << < % % create e LH staff; ; needs s two simultaneous voices
\clef "bass"
\key g g \minor
\new Voice { { % % create LH H voice one
\voiceOne
\relative { { % % start of f LH voice e one notes
g8 <bes s d> > ees, , <g c> > |
g8 <bes s d> > ees, , <g c> > |
} % % end d of LH voice one notes
} % % end of LH H voice one
\new Voice { { % % create LH H voice two
\voiceTwo
\relative { { % % start of f LH voice e two notes
g4 ees s |
g4 ees s |
} % % end d of LH voice two notes
} % % end of LH H voice two
>> % % end d of LH staff
>> % % end of simultaneous staves s section
} % % end d of single compound music expression

2
4
2
4


(Notehow allthestatementswhichopenablock witheitheracurlybracket, {,or double
anglebrackets,<<,areindentedbytwofurtherspaces,andthecorrespondingclosingbracket
is indentedby exactly the same amount. . While e this is not t required, following g this practice
willgreatlyreducethenumberof‘unmatchedbracket’errors,andisstronglyrecommended.It
enablesthestructureofthemusictobeseenataglance,andanyunmatchedbracketswillbe
obvious.NotetoohowtheLHstaffiscreatedusingdoubleanglebracketsbecauseitrequirestwo
voicesforitsmusic,whereastheRHstaffiscreatedwithasinglemusicexpressionsurrounded
bycurlybracketsbecauseitrequiresonlyonevoice.)
The\newcommandmayalsogiveanidentifyingnametothecontexttodistinguishitfrom
othercontextsofthesametype,
\new type = = id music-expression
Note the distinction between the e name of the context type, Staff, , Voice, , etc, and d the
identifying name of a particular instance of that type, which canbe any y sequence e ofletters
inventedbytheuser. Digitsandspaces s canalsobeusedintheidentifyingname,but thenit
hastobeplacedinquotes,i.e.\newStaff="MyStaff1"music-expression. Theidentifying
nameis usedtoreferback tothatparticularinstanceofacontext. . Wesawthisinuseinthe
sectiononlyrics,seeSection3.2.3[Voicesandvocals],page55.
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Seealso
NotationReference: Section\Creatingandreferencingcontexts"inNotationReference.
3.3.3 Engraversexplained
EverymarkontheprintedoutputofascoreproducedbyLilyPondisproducedbyanEngraver.
Thusthereisanengravertoprintstaves,onetoprintnoteheads,oneforstems,oneforbeams,
etc, etc. . In n total there are over r 120 such h engravers! ! Fortunately, , for r most t scores it is s not
necessarytoknowaboutmorethanafew,andforsimplescoresyoudonotneedtoknowabout
any.
EngraversliveandoperateinContexts. EngraverssuchastheMetronome_mark_engraver,
whoseactionandoutputapply tothescoreasawhole,operateinthehighestlevelcontext{
theScorecontext.
TheClef_engraverandKey_engraveraretobefoundineveryStaffContext,asdifferent
stavesmayrequiredifferentclefsandkeys.
TheNote_heads_engraverandStem_engraverliveineveryVoicecontext,thelowestlevel
contextofall.
Eachengraver processes the particular objectsassociatedwithits function,andmaintains
thepropertiesthatrelatetothatfunction.Theseproperties,likethepropertiesassociatedwith
contexts,maybemodiedtochangetheoperationoftheengraverortheappearanceofthose
elementsintheprintedscore.
Engraversallhavecompoundnamesformedfromwordswhichdescribetheirfunction.Just
the rst wordis capitalized, and theremainder arejoinedtoit withunderscores. . Thus s the
Staff_symbol_engraveris responsible for creatingthelines of the staff,theClef_engraver
determinesandsetsthepitchreferencepointonthestaffbydrawingaclefsymbol.
Herearesomeofthemostcommonengraverstogetherwiththeirfunction.Youwillseeitis
usuallyeasytoguessthefunctionfromthename,orviceversa.
Engraver
Function
Accidental
engraver
Makesaccidentals,cautionaryandsuggestedaccidentals
Beam
engraver
Engravesbeams
Clef
engraver
Engravesclefs
Completion
heads
engraver
Splitsnoteswhichcrossbarlines
Dynamic
engraver
Createshairpinsanddynamictexts
Forbid
line
break
engraver
Preventslinebreaksifamusicalelementisstillactive
Key
engraver
Createsthekeysignature
Metronome
mark
engraver
Engravesmetronomemarking
Note
heads
engraver
Engravesnoteheads
Rest
engraver
Engravesrests
Staff
symbol
engraver
Engravestheve(bydefault)linesofthestaff
Stem
engraver
Createsstemsandsingle-stemtremolos
Time
signature
engraver
Createstimesignatures
Weshallseelaterhowtheoutput ofLilyPondcanbechangedbymodifyingtheactionof
Engravers.
Seealso
Internalsreference:Section\EngraversandPerformers"inInternalsReference.
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3.3.4 Modifyingcontextproperties
Contextsareresponsibleforholdingthevaluesofanumberofcontextproperties.Manyofthem
canbechangedtoin uencetheinterpretationoftheinputandsochangetheappearanceofthe
output.Theyarechangedbythe\setcommand. Thistakestheform
\set ContextName.propertyName e = = #value
WheretheContextNameisusuallyScore,StafforVoice.Itmaybeomitted,inwhichcase
thecurrentcontext(typicallyVoice)isassumed.
Thenamesofcontextpropertiesconsistofwordsjoinedtogetherwithnohyphensorunder-
scores,allexceptthersthavingacapitalletter. Hereareafewexamplesofsomecommonly
usedones.Therearemanymore.
propertyName
Type
Function
Example
Value
extraNatural
Boolean
If true, set extra natural l signs before
accidentals
#t,#f
currentBarNumber
Integer
Setthecurrentbarnumber
50
doubleSlurs
Boolean
Iftrue,printslursbothaboveandbelow
notes
#t,#f
instrumentName
Text
Setthenametobeplacedatthestartof
thestaff
"CelloI"
fontSize
Real
Increaseordecreasethefontsize
2.4
stanza
Text
Set the text toprintbeforethestartof
averse
"2"
whereaBooleaniseitherTrue(#t)orFalse(#f),anIntegerisapositivewholenumber,aReal
isapositiveornegativedecimalnumber,andtextisenclosedindoubleapostrophes. Notethe
occurrenceofhashsigns,(#),intwodifferentplaces{aspartoftheBooleanvaluebeforethet
orf,andbeforevalue inthe\setstatement. . SowhenaBooleanisbeingenteredyouneedto
codetwohashsigns,e.g.,##t.
Beforewecansetany ofthesepropertieswe needtoknowinwhichcontexttheyoperate.
Sometimesthisisobvious,butoccasionallyitcanbetricky. Ifthewrongcontextisspecied,
noerror messageis produced, , butthe expectedactionwillnot t takeplace. . For r example,the
instrumentNameclearlylivesintheStaffcontext,sinceitisthestaffthatistobenamed. In
thisexampletherststaffislabeled,butnotthesecond,becauseweomittedthecontextname.
<<
\new Staff f \relative e {
\set Staff.instrumentName = = #"Soprano"
c 2 c
}
\new Staff f \relative e {
\set instrumentName e = = #"Alto" " % % Wrong!
d 2 d
}
>>
Soprano
RememberthedefaultcontextnameisVoice,sothesecond\setcommandsettheproperty
instrumentName intheVoicecontextto\Alto",but asLilyPonddoesnotlookforanysuch
propertyintheVoicecontext,nofurtheractiontookplace. Thisisnotanerror,andnoerror
messageisloggedinthelogle.
Similarly,if the property name ismis-spelt noerror message is produced, andclearly the
expectedactioncannotbeperformed. Infact,youcansetany(ctitious)‘property’usingany
nameyoulikeinanycontextthatexistsbyusingthe\setcommand. But t ifthenameis not
knownto LilyPond itwillnot cause any action to be taken. . Sometext t editors with h special
support for LilyPondinputlesdocumentpropertynameswithbulletswhenyouhoverthem
withthemouse,likeJEditwithLilyPondTool,orhighlightunknownpropertynamesdifferently,
likeConTEXT.Ifyoudonotuseaneditorwithsuchfeatures,itisrecommendedtocheckthe
propertynameintheInternalsReference: seeSection\Tunablecontextproperties"inInternals
Reference,orSection\Contexts"inInternalsReference.
TheinstrumentNamepropertywilltakeeffectonlyifitissetintheStaffcontext,butsome
propertiescanbeset inmorethanonecontext. . For r example,theproperty extraNatural is
bydefault setto##t(true)forallstaves. . Ifitis s setto##f(false)inoneparticular Staff
contextitappliesjusttotheaccidentalsonthatstaff. Ifitissettofalseinthe Scorecontext
itappliestoallstaves.
Sothisturnsoffextranaturalsinonestaff:
<<
\new Staff f \relative e {
aeses 2 aes
}
\new Staff f \relative e {
\set Staff.extraNatural = ##f
aeses 2 aes
}
>>

andthisturnsthemoffinallstaves:
<<
\new Staff f \relative e {
aeses 2 aes
}
\new Staff f \relative e {
\set Score.extraNatural = ##f
aeses 2 aes
}
>>
As another example, , if clefTransposition is s set in n the Score e context t this immediately
changesthevalueofthetranspositioninallcurrentstavesandsetsanewdefaultvaluewhich
willbeappliedtoallstaves.
The opposite command,\unset,effectivelyremoves the propertyfromthe context, which
causesmostpropertiestoreverttotheirdefaultvalue.Usually\unsetisnotrequiredasanew
\setcommandwillachievewhatiswanted.
The\setand\unsetcommandscanappearanywhereintheinputleandwilltakeeffect
fromthetimetheyareencountereduntiltheendofthescoreoruntilthepropertyis \setor
\unsetagain.Let’strychangingthefontsize,whichaffectsthesizeofthenoteheads(among
other things) severaltimes. . The e changeis from the default value, not the most recently set
value.
\relative {
c 4 d
% make note heads smaller
\set fontSize e = = #-4
e4 f f |
% make note heads larger
\set fontSize e = = #2.5
g4 a
% return to default size
\unset fontSize
b4 c c |
}
Wehave now seenhow toset thevalues ofseveraldifferent types of property. . Note e that
integers and numbers are e always s preceded by a a hash sign, , #, , while a a true e or false value e is
speciedby##tand##f,withtwohashsigns. Atextpropertyshouldbeenclosedindouble
quotationsigns,asabove,althoughweshallseelaterthat text canactually bespeciedina
muchmoregeneralwaybyusingtheverypowerful\markupcommand.
Settingcontextpropertieswith\with
Thedefaultvalueofcontextpropertiesmaybesetatthetimethecontextiscreated.Sometimes
thisisaclearerway ofsettingapropertyvalueifitistoremainxedfor thedurationofthe
context. Whenacontextis s createdwitha\newcommanditmaybefollowedimmediatelyby
a\with{...}blockinwhichthedefaultpropertyvaluesareset. Forexample,ifwewishto
suppresstheprintingofextranaturalsforthedurationofastaffwewouldwrite:
\new Staff f \with { extraNatural l = = ##f f }
likethis:
<<
\new Staff f {
\relative {
gisis 4 gis aeses s aes
}
}
\new Staff f \with h { { extraNatural l = ##f } {
\relative {
gisis 4 gis aeses s aes
}
}
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Propertiessetinthiswaymaystillbechangeddynamicallyusing\setandreturnedtothe
defaultvaluesetinthe\withblockwith\unset.
So ifthe fontSize property is s set t ina \with clause it sets thedefault value of thefont
size. Ifitislaterchangedwith\set,thisnewdefaultvaluemayberestoredwiththe\unset
fontSizecommand.
Settingcontextpropertieswith\context
Thevalues of context properties may beset inall l contexts s of aparticular type, , such as s all
Staffcontexts,withasinglecommand.Thecontexttypeisidentiedbyusingitstypename,
likeStaff,prexedbyaback-slash: \Staff. Thestatementwhichsets s thepropertyvalueis
thesameasthatina\withblock,introducedabove. Itisplacedina\contextblockwithin
a\layoutblock. Each\contextblockwillaffectallcontextsofthetypespeciedthroughout
the\scoreor\bookblockinwhichthe\layoutblockappears. Here e isanexampletoshow
theformat:
\score {
\new Staff f {
\relative {
cisis 4 e d cis
}
}
\layout {
\context {
\Staff
extraNatural = = ##t
}
}
}

Ifthepropertyoverrideistobeappliedtoallstaveswithinthescore:
\score {
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