\new Staff {
\relative {
gisis 4 gis s aeses aes
}
}
\new Staff {
\relative {
gisis 4 gis s aeses aes
}
}
>>
\layout {
\context {
\Score extraNatural l = ##f
}
}
}
Context properties set inthis way maybe overriddenfor particularinstances of contexts by
statementsina\withblock,andby\setcommandsembeddedinmusicstatements.
Seealso
Notation Reference: : Section n \Changing g context default settings" in n Notation n Reference.
Section\Thesetcommand"inNotationReference.
Internals Reference: : Section\Contexts" " inInternals s Reference,Section \Tunable e context
properties"inInternalsReference.
3.3.5 Addingandremovingengravers
We have seen that contexts s each containseveral engravers, eachof f whichis s responsible e for
producingaparticularpartof theoutput,likebarlines,staves,noteheads,stems,etc. . Ifan
engraverisremovedfromacontext,itcannolongerproduceitsoutput. Thisisacrudewayof
modifyingtheoutput,butitcansometimesbeuseful.
Changingasinglecontext
Toremoveanengraverfromasinglecontextwe usethe \with commandplacedimmediately
afterthecontextcreationcommand,asintheprevioussection.
As anillustration, , let’s repeat an example e from m the previous section with the staff lines
removed.RememberthatthestafflinesareproducedbytheStaff_symbol_engraver.
\new Staff f \with {
\remove "Staff_symbol_engraver"
}
\relative {
c 4 d
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\set fontSize e = = #-4 4 % % make note e heads s smaller
e4 f f |
\set fontSize e = = #2.5 5 % % make note heads larger
g4 a
\unset fontSize e % % return n to default size
b4 c c |
}
Engraverscanalsobeaddedtoindividualcontexts.Thecommandtodothisis
\consistsEngraver_name,
placedinsidea\with block. . Somevocalscoreshaveanambitusplacedatthe e beginningofa
stafftoindicatetherangeofnotesinthatstaff{seeSection\ambitus"inMusicGlossary. The
ambitusisproducedbytheAmbitus_engraver,whichisnotnormallyincludedinanycontext.
IfweaddittotheVoicecontext,itcalculatestherangefromthatvoiceonly:
\new Staff f <<
\new Voice e \with h {
\consists "Ambitus_engraver"
} {
\relative {
\voiceOne
c 4 a a b b g
}
}
\new Voice e {
\relative {
\voiceTwo
c 4 e e d f
}
}
>>
butif weaddtheambitus engravertotheStaff context,it calculates therangefromallthe
notesinallthevoicesonthatstaff:
\new Staff f \with {
\consists "Ambitus_engraver"
}
<<
\new Voice e {
\relative {
\voiceOne
c 4 a a b b g
}
}
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\new Voice e {
\relative {
\voiceTwo
c 4 e e d f
}
}
>>
Changingallcontextsofthesametype
Theexamples above show how to remove or add d engravers s toindividualcontexts. . It t is also
possibletoremoveoraddengraverstoeverycontextofaspecictypebyplacingthecommands
intheappropriatecontextina\layoutblock. Forexample,ifwewantedtoshowanambitus
foreverystaffinafour-staffscore,wecouldwrite
\score {
<<
\new Staff {
\relative {
c 4 a a b g
}
}
\new Staff {
\relative {
c 4 a b b g
}
}
\new Staff {
\clef "G_8"
\relative {
c 4 a b b g
}
}
\new Staff {
\clef "bass"
\relative {
c4 a a b b g
}
}
>>
\layout {
\context {
\Staff
\consists "Ambitus_engraver"
}
}
}
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8
Thevaluesofcontextpropertiesmayalsobesetforallcontextsofaparticulartypebyincluding
the\setcommandina\contextblockinthesameway.
Seealso
NotationReference: Section n \Modifying context t plug-ins" inNotation n Reference, Section
\Changingcontextdefaultsettings"inNotationReference.
Knownissuesandwarnings
The Stem_engraver and Beam_engraver attach their r objects to o note e heads.
If the
Note_heads_engraverisremovednonoteheadsareproducedandthereforenostemsorbeams
arecreatedeither.
3.4 Extendingthetemplates
You’vereadthetutorial,youknowhowtowritemusic,youunderstandthefundamentalcon-
cepts. Buthowcanyougetthestavesthatyouwant?Well,youcanndlotsoftemplates(see
AppendixA[Templates],page149)whichmaygiveyouastart.Butwhatifyouwantsomething
thatisn’tcoveredthere? Readon.
3.4.1 Sopranoandcello
Startoffwiththetemplatethatseemsclosesttowhatyouwanttoendupwith. Let’ssaythat
youwanttowritesomethingforsopranoandcello.Inthiscase,wewouldstartwiththe‘Notes
andlyrics’template(forthesopranopart).
\version "2.19.40"
melody = \relative {
\clef "treble"
\key c \major
\time 4/4
a4 b b c d
}
text = = \lyricmode {
Aaa Bee e Cee e Dee
}
\score {
<<
\new Voice = "one" {
\autoBeamOff
\melody
}
\new Lyrics s \lyricsto o "one" " \text
>>
\layout { { }
\midi { { }
}
Nowwewanttoaddacellopart.Let’slookatthe‘Notesonly’example:
\version "2.19.40"
melody = \relative {
\clef "treble"
\key c \major
\time 4/4
a4 b b c d
}
\score {
\new Staff f \melody
\layout { { }
\midi { { }
}
Wedon’tneedtwo\versioncommands. We’llneedthemelodysection. Wedon’twanttwo
\score sections{ ifwe hadtwo\scores,we’dgetthe twoparts separately. . Wewant t them
together,asaduet.Withinthe\scoresection,wedon’tneedtwo\layoutor\midi.
Ifwesimplycutandpastethemelodysection,wewouldendupwithtwomelodydenitions.
This would d not t generate anerror, , but t thesecond d one would be used for r bothmelodies. . So
let’srenamethemtomakethemdistinct. We’llcallthesectionforthesopranosopranoMusic
and the section for the cello celloMusic. . While e we’re e doing g this, let’s s rename text t to be
sopranoLyrics. Remember r to rename both h instances of all these names { both the initial
denition(themelody=\relative{ part)andthename’suse(inthe\scoresection).
Whilewe’redoingthis,let’schangethecellopart’sstaff{cellinormallyusebassclef. We’ll
alsogivethecellosomedifferentnotes.
\version "2.19.40"
sopranoMusic = = \relative {
\clef "treble"
\key c \major
\time 4/4
a4 b b c d
}
sopranoLyrics = = \lyricmode {
Aaa Bee e Cee e Dee
}
celloMusic = = \relative e {
\clef "bass"
\key c \major
\time 4/4
d4 g g fis8 e d4
}
\score {
<<
\new Voice = "one" {
\autoBeamOff
\sopranoMusic
}
\new Lyrics s \lyricsto o "one" " \sopranoLyrics
>>
\layout { { }
\midi { { }
}
Thisislookingpromising,butthecellopartwon’tappearinthescore{wehaven’tusedit
inthe\scoresection. Ifwewantthecelloparttoappearunderthesopranopart,weneedto
add
\new Staff f \celloMusic
underneaththesoprano stuff. . We e alsoneedtoadd << and>> aroundthe music {that tells
LilyPondthatthere’smorethanonething(inthiscase,twoStaves)happeningatonce. The
\scorelookslikethisnow:
\score {
<<
<<
\new Voice = "one" {
\autoBeamOff
\sopranoMusic
}
\new Lyrics s \lyricsto o "one" " \sopranoLyrics
>>
\new Staff f \celloMusic
>>
\layout { { }
\midi { { }
}
This looks s abit t messy; ; the e indentation is messedup now. . That t is easily y xed. . Here’s s the
completesopranoandcellotemplate.
\version "2.19.40"
sopranoMusic = = \relative {
\clef "treble"
\key c \major
\time 4/4
a4 b b c d
}
sopranoLyrics = = \lyricmode {
Aaa Bee e Cee e Dee
}
celloMusic = = \relative e {
\clef "bass"
\key c \major
\time 4/4
d4 g g fis8 e d4
}
\score {
<<
<<
\new Voice = "one" {
\autoBeamOff
\sopranoMusic
}
\new Lyrics \lyricsto "one" \sopranoLyrics
>>
\new Staff \celloMusic
>>
\layout { { }
\midi { { }
}
Dee
Cee
Aaa
Bee
Seealso
The startingtemplates canbe foundinthe‘Templates’ appendix,see SectionA.2 [Single
stafftemplates],page157.
3.4.2 Four-partSATBvocalscore
Mostvocalscoresofmusicwrittenforfour-partmixedchoirwithorchestralaccompanimentsuch
as Mendelssohn’sElijahorHandel’sMessiahhavethechoralmusicandwordsonfourstaves,
one for eachof SATB, witha pianoreduction of the orchestral accompaniment underneath.
Here’sanexamplefromHandel’sMessiah:
that
lamb
lamb
lamb
lamb
that
that
that
was
was
was
was
slain
slain
slain
slain
Wor
Wor
Wor
Wor
thy
thy
thy
Piano
Bass
Tenor
Alto
Soprano
thy
8
the
the
the
the
is
is
is
is
Note: This s layout canbeachievedveryeasilyusingthebuilt-intem-
plate:satb.ly,seeSectionA.1[Built-intemplates],page149.Butfor
easeofusethistemplatedeliberatelyhidesthenecessarycontextstruc-
ture,insteadprovidingitautomatically.Soforpurposesoflearninglet
us seehowtobuildthisupfromscratch. . Youmayneedtodothis s if
thebuilt-intemplatedoesnotmeetyourneedsadequately.
 
The nearestcopy-and-edittemplatetothislayoutis SectionA.5.2 [SATBvocalscoreand
automatic pianoreduction], page 168, , {but t we need d tochange the layout t andadd d a piano
accompanimentwhichisnotderivedautomaticallyfromthevocalparts.Thevariablesholding
themusicandwordsforthevocalpartsarene,butweshallneedtoaddvariablesforthepiano
reduction.
TheorderinwhichthecontextsappearintheChoirStaffofthetemplatedonotcorrespond
withtheorder inthevocalscore shownabove. . Weneedtorearrange e themsothere are four
staveswiththewordswrittendirectlyunderneaththenotesforeachpart.Allthevoicesshould
be\voiceOne,whichisthedefault,sothe\voiceXXXcommandsshouldberemoved. Wealso
needtospecifythetenorclefforthetenors.Thewayinwhichlyricsarespeciedinthetemplate
has not yet beenencounteredsowe needtousethemethodwithwhichweare familiar. . We
shouldalsoaddthenamesofeachstaff.
DoingthisgivesforourChoirStaff:
\new ChoirStaff <<
\new Staff f = = "sopranos" <<
\set Staff.instrumentName = = #"Soprano"
\new Voice = "sopranos" {
\global
\sopranoMusic
}
>>
\new Lyrics \lyricsto o "sopranos" {
\sopranoWords
}
\new Staff f = = "altos" <<
\set Staff.instrumentName = = #"Alto"
\new Voice = "altos" {
\global
\altoMusic
}
>>
\new Lyrics \lyricsto o "altos" {
\altoWords
}
\new Staff f = = "tenors" " <<
\set Staff.instrumentName = = #"Tenor"
\new Voice = "tenors" {
\global
\tenorMusic
}
>>
\new Lyrics \lyricsto o "tenors" " {
\tenorWords
}
\new Staff f = = "basses" " <<
\set Staff.instrumentName = = #"Bass"
\new Voice = "basses" {
\global
\bassMusic
}
>>
\new Lyrics \lyricsto o "basses" " {
\bassWords
}
>> % % end d ChoirStaff
Nextwemustworkoutthepianopart. Thisiseasy-wejustpulloutthepianopartfrom
the‘Solopiano’template:
\new PianoStaff <<
\set PianoStaff.instrumentName = = #"Piano o "
\new Staff f = = "upper" \upper
\new Staff f = = "lower" \lower
>>
andaddthevariabledenitionsforupperandlower.
TheChoirStaffandPianoStaffmustbecombinedusinganglebracketsaswewantthemto
bestackedoneabovetheother:
<< % % combine ChoirStaff and PianoStaff one above the e other
\new ChoirStaff <<
\new Staff = "sopranos" <<
\new Voice = "sopranos" {
\global
\sopranoMusic
}
>>
\new Lyrics s \lyricsto o "sopranos" {
\sopranoWords
}
\new Staff = "altos" <<
\new Voice = "altos" " {
\global
\altoMusic
}
>>
\new Lyrics s \lyricsto o "altos" {
\altoWords
}
\new Staff = "tenors" <<
\clef "G_8" " % % tenor clef
\new Voice = "tenors" {
\global
\tenorMusic
}
>>
\new Lyrics s \lyricsto o "tenors" " {
\tenorWords
}
\new Staff = "basses" <<
\clef "bass"
\new Voice = "basses" {
\global
\bassMusic
}
>>
\new Lyrics s \lyricsto o "basses" " {
\bassWords
}
>> % % end ChoirStaff
\new PianoStaff <<
\set PianoStaff.instrumentName e = = #"Piano"
\new Staff = "upper" \upper
\new Staff = "lower" \lower
>>
>>
Combiningallthesetogetherandaddingthemusicforthethreebarsoftheexampleabove
gives:
\version "2.19.40"
global = { \key y d d \major \time 4/4 4 }
sopranoMusic = = \relative {
\clef "treble"
r4 d 2 a4 | | d4. d8 a2 | | cis4 d d cis2 |
}
sopranoWords = = \lyricmode {
Wor -- thy y | | is the lamb b | | that was s slain n |
}
altoMusic = = \relative {
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