I
.2. S
IMPLE TYPESETTING
11
I
.2.4. Accents
Sometimes, especiallywhentypingforeignwords inEnglish,weneedtoputdifferent
typesofaccentsovertheletters. ThetablebelowshowstheaccentsavailableinLAT
E
X.
Eachcolumnshowssomeoftheaccentsandtheinputstogeneratethem.
`o
\‘o
´o
\’o
ˆo
\ˆo
˜o
\˜o
¯o
\=o
˙o
\.o
¨o
\"o
\c c
˘o
\u o
ˇo
\v o
˝o
\H o
o
\d o
o
¯
\b o
oo
\t oo
Thelettersiandjneedspecialtreatmentwithregardtoaccents,sincetheyshouldnot
havetheircustomarydotswhenaccented. Thecommands
\i
and
\j
producedot-lessi
andjasıandj.Thustoget
´
Elest´aaqu´ı
youmusttype
\’{E}l est\’{a} aqu\’{\i}
Somesymbolsfromnon-EnglishlanguagesarealsoavailableinLAT
E
X,asshownin
thetablebelow:
œ
\oe
Œ
\OE
æ
\ae
Æ
\AE
\aa
\AA
ø
\o
Ø
\O
ł
\l
Ł
\L
ß
\ss
¡
!‘
¿
?‘
I
.2.5. Specialsymbols
Wehaveseethattheinput
\LaTeX
producesLAT
E
Xintheoutputand
\
producesaspace.
ThusT
E
Xusesthesymbol
\
foraspecialpurpose—toindicatetheprogramthatwhat
followsisnottexttobetypesetbutaninstructiontobecarriedout. Sowhatifyou
wanttoget\inyouroutput(improbableasitmaybe)? Thecommand
\textbackslash
produces\intheoutput.
Thus
\
isasymbolwhichhasaspecialmeaningforT
E
Xandcannotbeproducedby
directinput.Asanotherexampleofsuchaspecialsymbol,seewhatisobtainedfromthe
inputbelow
Maybe I have now learnt t about t 1% of \LaTeX.
Youonlyget
MaybeIhavenowlearntabout1
Whathappenedtotherestoftheline? Yousee,T
E
Xusesthepercentsymbol
%
asthe
commentcharacter;thatisasymbolwhichtellsT
E
Xtoconsiderthetextfollowingas
‘comments’andnotastexttobetypeset.ThisisespeciallyusefulforaT
E
Xprogrammer
toexplainaparticularlystickybitofcodetoothers(andperhapstohimself). Evenfor
ordinaryusers,thiscomesinhandy,tokeepa‘todo’listwithinthedocumentitselffor
example.
Butthen,howdoyougetapercentsignintheoutput?Justtype
\%
asin
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12
I
. T
HE
B
ASICS
Maybe I have now learnt t about t 1\% % of \LaTeX.
Thesymbols
\
and
%
arejusttwoofthetencharcatersT
E
Xreservesforitsinternal
use.Thecompletelistis
˜ # # $ $ % ˆ & _ _ \ \ { }
WehaveseenhowT
E
Xusestwoofthesesymbols(orisitfour? Didnotweuse
{ }
in
oneofourexamples?)Theuseofotherswewillseeasweproceed.
Also,wehavenotedthat
\
isproducedintheoutputbythecommand
\textbackslash
and
%
isproducedby
\%
.Whatabouttheothersymbols?Thetablebelowgivestheinputs
toproducethesesymbols.
˜
\textasciitilde
&
\&
#
\#
\_
$
\$
\
\textbackslash
%
\%
{
\{
ˆ
\textasciicircum
}
\}
Youcanseethatexceptforthree,allspecialsymbolsareproducedbyprecedingthem
witha
\
. Oftheexceptionalthree,wehaveseenthat
and
areusedforproducing
accents.Sowhatdoes
\\
do?Itisusedtobreaklines.Forexample,
This is the first line.\\ This is s the e second line
produces
Thisisthefirstline.
Thisisthesecondline
Wecanalsogiveanoptionalargumentto
\\
toincreasetheverticaldistancebetweenthe
lines.Forexample,
This is the first line.\\[10pt]
This is the second d line
gives
Thisisthefirstline.
Thisisthesecondline
Nowthereisanextra10pointsofspacebetweenthelines(1pointisabout1/72
nd
ofan
inch).
I
.2.6. Textpositioning
WehaveseenthatT
E
Xalignstextinitsownway,regardlessofthewaytextisformatted
intheinputfile.Nowsupposeyouwanttotypesetsomethinglikethis
TheT
E
XnicalInstitute
Certificate
ThisistocertifythatMr.N.O.Vicehasundergoneacourseatthisinstitute
andisqualifiedtobeaT
E
Xnician.
TheDirector
TheT
E
XnicalInstitute
Thisisproducedby
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I
.3. F
ONTS
13
\begin{center}
The \TeX nical Institute\\[.75cm]
Certificate
\end{center}
\noindent This is to certify y that Mr. . N. O. Vice has undergone a
course at this institute and d is s qualified d to o be a \TeX nician.
\begin{flushright}
The Director\\
The \TeX nical Institute
\end{flushright}
Here,thecommands
\begin{center} ... . \end{center}
typesetsthetextbetweenthemexactlyatthecenterofthepageandthecommands
\begin{flushright} ... . \end{flushright}
typesetstextflushwiththerightmargin.Thecorrespondingcommands
\begin{flushleft} ... \end{flushleft}
placestheenclosedtextflushwiththeleftmargin.(Changethe
flushright
to
flushleft
andseewhathappenstotheoutput.)
TheseexamplesareanillustrationofaLAT
E
Xconstructcalledanenvironment,which
isoftheform
\begin{
name
} ... \end{
name
}
wherenameisthenameoftheenvironment.Wehaveseenanexampleofanenvironment
attheverybeginningofthischapter(thoughnotidentifiedassuch),namelythe
document
environment.
I
.3. F
ONTS
Theactuallettersandsymbols(collectivelycalledtype)thatLAT
E
X(oranyothertypeset-
tingsystem)producesarecharacterizedbytheirstyleandsize.Forexample,inthisbook
emphasizedtextisgiveninitalicstyleandtheexampleinputsaregivenin
typewriter
style.Wecanalsoproduce
smaller
and
bigger
type.Asetoftypesofaparticularstyle
andsizeiscalledafont.
I
.3.1. Typestyle
InLAT
E
X,atypestyleisspecifiedbyfamily,seriesandshape.Theyareshowninthetable
I
.1.
Anytypestyleintheoutputisacombinationofthesethreecharacteristics.Forexam-
ple,bydefaultwegetromanfamily,mediumseries,uprightshapetypestyleinaLAT
E
X
output.The
\textit
commandproducesromanfamily,mediumseries,italicshapetype.
Again,thecommand
\textbf
producesromanfamily,boldfaceseries,uprightshapetype.
Wecancombinethesecommandstoproduceawidevarietyoftypestyles.Forexam-
ple,theinput
\textsf{\textbf{sans serif family, boldface series, , upright t shape}}
\textrm{\textsl{roman family, medium m series, , slanted shape}}
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14
I
. T
HE
B
ASICS
Table
I
.1:
STYLE
C
OMMAND
FAMILY
roman
\textrm{roman}
sansserif
\textsf{sans serif}
typewriter
\texttt{typewriter}
SERIES
medium
\textmd{medium}
boldface
\textbf{boldface}
SHAPE
upright
\textup{upright}
italic
\textit{italic}
slanted
\textsl{slanted}
SMALL CAP
\textsc{small cap}
producestheoutputshownbelow:
sansseriffamily,boldfaceseries,uprightshape
romanfamily,mediumseries,slantedshape
Someofthesetypestylesmaynotbeavailableinyourcomputer. Inthatcase,LAT
E
X
gives a a warning message oncompilationand substitutes s another availabletype style
whichitthinksisacloseapproximationtowhatyouhadrequested.
Wecannowtellthewholestoryofthe
\emph
command.Wehaveseenthatitusually,
thatiswhenweareinthemiddleofnormal(upright)text,itproducesitalicshape.Butif
thecurrenttypeshapeisslantedoritalic,thenitswitchestouprightshape.Also,ituses
thefamilyandseriesofthecurrentfont.Thus
\textit{A polygon of three sides is called a \emph{triangle} and a
polygon of four sides s is s called d a a \emph{quadrilateral}}
gives
Apolygonofthreesidesiscalledatriangleandapolygonoffoursidesiscalledaquadrilateral
whiletheinput
\textbf{A polygon of three sides is called a
\emph{triangle} and a polygon of four sides is s called d a
\emph{quadrilateral}}
produces
Apolygonofthreesidesiscalledatriangleandapolygonoffoursidesiscalledaquadrilateral
Eachofthesetypestylechangingcommandshasanalternateformasadeclaration.
Forexample,insteadof
\textbf{boldface}
youcanalsotype
{\bfseries boldface}
to
getboldface. Notethatthatnotonlythenameofthecommand,butitsusagealsois
different.Forexample,totypeset
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I
.4. T
YPE SIZE
15
Byatriangle,wemeanapolygonofthreesides.
ifyoutype
By a \bfseries{triangle}, we e mean a a polygon of f three e sides.
youwillendupwith
Byatriangle,wemeanapolygonofthreesides.
Thustomakethedeclarationactuponaspecificpieceoftext(andnomore),thedecla-
rationandthetextshouldbeenclosedinbraces.
Thetablebelowcompletestheonegivenearlier,bygivingalsothedeclarationsto
producetypestylechanges.
STYLE
C
OMMAND
D
ECLARATION
SHAPE
upright
\textup{upright}
{\upshape upright}
italic
\textit{italic}
{\itshape italic}
slanted
\textsl{slanted}
{\slshape slanted}
SMALL CAP
\textsc{small cap}
{\scshape small l cap}
SERIES
medium
\textmd{medium}
{\mdseries medium}
boldface
\textbf{boldface}
{\bfseries boldface}
FAMILY
roman
\textrm{roman}
{\rmfamily roman}
sansserif
\textsf{sans serif}
{\sffamily sans serif}
typewriter
\texttt{typewriter}
{\ttfamily typewriter}
These declarationnames canalsobe usedas environmentnames. . Thus s totype-
set alongpassage in, , say, , sans s serif, , justenclose the passage within the commands
\begin{sffmily} ... . \end{sffamily}
.
I
.4. T
YPESIZE
Traditionally,typesizeismeasuredin(printer)points. ThedefaulttypethatT
E
Xpro-
ducesisof10ptsize.Therearesomedeclarations(ten,tobeprecise)providedinLAT
E
X
forchangingthetypesize.Theyaregiveninthefollowingtable:
size
{\tiny size}
size
{\large size}
size
{\scriptsize size}
size
{\Large size}
size
{\footnotesize size}
size
{\LARGE size}
size
{\small size}
size
{\huge size}
size
{\normalsize size}
size
{\Huge size}
Notethatthe
\normalsize
correspondstothesizewegetbydefaultandthesizesform
anorderedsequencewith
\tiny
producingthesmallestand
\Huge
producingthelargest.
Unlikethestylechangingcommands,therearenocommand-with-one-argumentforms
forthesedeclarations.
Wecancombinestylechangeswithsizechanges. Forexample,the“certificate”we
typedearliercannowbe‘improved’asfollows
\begin{center}
{\bfseries\huge The \TeX nical Institute}\\[1cm]
{\scshape\LARGE Certificate}
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16
I
. T
HE
B
ASICS
\end{center}
\noindent This is to certify y that Mr. . N. O. Vice has undergone a
course at this institute and d is s qualified d to o be a \TeX nical Expert.
\begin{flushright}
{\sffamily The Director\\
The \TeX nical Institute}
\end{flushright}
andthisproduces
TheT
E
XnicalInstitute
C
ERTIFICATE
ThisistocertifythatMr. N.O.Vicehasundergoneacourseatthisinstituteandis
qualifiedtobeaT
E
XnicalExpert.
TheDirector
TheT
E
XnicalInstitute
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TUTORIALII
THEDOCUMENT
II
.1. D
OCUMENT CLASS
Wenowdescribehowanentiredocumentwithchaptersandsectionsandotherembellish-
mentscanbeproducedwithLAT
E
X.WehaveseenthatallLAT
E
Xfilesshouldbeginbyspec-
ifyingthekindofdocumenttobeproduced,usingthecommand
\documentclass{... }
.
We’vealsonotedthatforashortarticle(whichcanactuallyturnouttobequitelong!)we
write
\documentclass{article}
andforbooks,wewrite
\documentclass{book}
. There
areotherdocumentclassesavailableinLAT
E
X suchas
report
and
letter
. Allofthem
sharesomecommonfeaturesandtherearefeaturesspecifictoeach.
Inadditiontospecifyingthetypeofdocument(whichwemustdo,sinceLAT
E
X has
nodefaultdocumentclass),wecanalsospecifysomeoptionswhichmodifythedefault
format.Thustheactualsyntaxofthe
\documentclass
commandis
\documentclass[
options
]{
class
}
Notethatoptions aregiveninsquarebrackets andnotbraces. . (This s is oftenthe
casewithLAT
E
X commands—optionsarespecifiedwithinsquarebrackets,afterwhich
mandatoryargumentsaregivenwithinbraces.)
II
.1.1. Fontsize
Wecanselectthesizeofthefontforthenormaltextintheentiredocumentwithoneof
theoptions
10pt
11pt
12pt
Thuswecansay
\documentclass[11pt]{article}
tosetthenormaltextinourdocumentin11ptsize.Thedefaultis
10pt
andsothisisthe
sizeweget,ifwedonotspecifyanyfont-sizeoption.
II
.1.2. Papersize
WeknowthatLAT
E
Xhasitsownmethodofbreakinglinestomakeparagraphs.Italsohas
methodstomakeverticalbreakstoproducedifferentpagesofoutput. Forthesebreaks
toworkproperly,itmustknow thewidthandheightofthepaperused. . Thevarious
optionsforselectingthepapersizearegivenbelow:
letterpaper
11×8.5in
a4paper
20.7×21in
legalpaper
14×8.5in
a5paper
21×14.8in
executivepaper
10.5×7.25in
b5paper
25×17.6in
Normally,thelongerdimensionistheverticalone—thatis,theheightofthepage. The
defaultis
letterpaper
.
17
18
II
. T
HE
D
OCUMENT
II
.1.3. Pageformats
Thereareoptionsforsettingthecontentsofeachpageinasinglecolumn(asisusual)or
intwocolumns(asinmostdictionaries).Thisissetbytheoptions
onecolumn
twocolumn
andthedefaultis
onecolumn
.
Thereisalsoanoptiontospecifywhetherthedocumentwillbefinallyprintedonjust
onesideofeachpaperoronbothsides.Thenamesoftheoptionsare
oneside
twoside
Oneofthedifferencesisthatwiththe
twoside
option,pagenumbersareprintedon
therightonodd-numberedpagesandontheleftonevennumberedpages,sothatwhen
theseprintedbacktoback,thenumbersarealwaysontheoutside,forbettervisibility.
(NotethatLAT
E
Xhasnocontrolovertheactualprinting. Itonlymakestheformatsfor
differenttypesofprinting.) Thedefaultis
oneside
for
article
,
report
and
letter
and
twoside
for
book
.
Inthe
report
and
book
classthereisaprovisiontospecifythedifferentchapters(we
willsoonseehow). Chaptersalwaysbeginonanewpage,leavingblankspaceinthe
previouspage,ifnecessary. Withthe
book
classthereistheadditionalrestrictionthat
chaptersbeginonlyonodd-numberedpages,leavinganentirepageblank,ifneedbe.
Suchbehavioriscontrolledbytheoptions,
openany
openright
Thedefaultis
openany
for
reportclass
(sothatchaptersbeginon“any”newpage)
and
openright
forthe
book
class(sothatchaptersbeginonlyonnew
right
,thatis,odd
numbered,page).
ThereisalsoaprovisioninLAT
E
Xforformattingthe“title”(thenameofthedocu-
ment,author(s)andsoon)ofadocumentwithspecialtypographicconsideration.Inthe
article
class,thispartofthedocumentisprintedalongwiththetextfollowingonthe
firstpage,whilefor
report
and
book
,aseparatetitlepageisprinted.Thesearesetbythe
options
notitlepage
titlepage
Asnotedabove,thedefaultis
notitlepage
for
article
and
titlepage
for
report
and
book
. As s withtheother options, thedefaultbehavior canbeoverruledbyexplicitly
specifyinganoptionwiththe
documentclass
command.
Therearesomeotheroptionstothe
documentclass
whichwewilldiscussintherele-
vantcontext.
II
.2. P
AGESTYLE
Havingdecidedontheoverallappearanceofthedocumentthroughthe
\documentclass
commandwithitsvariousoptions,wenextseehowwecansetthestylefortheindividual
pages. InLAT
E
Xparlance,eachpagehasa“head”and“foot”usuallycontainingsuch
informationasthecurrentpagenumberorthecurrentchapterorsection.Justwhatgoes
whereissetbythecommand
\pagestyle{...}
wherethemandatoryargumentcanbeanyoneofthefollowingstyles
plain
empty
headings
myheadings
Thebehaviorpertainingtoeachoftheseisgivenbelow:
II
.3. P
AGE NUMBERING
19
plain Thepageheadisemptyandthefootcontainsjustthepagenumber,cen-
teredwithrespecttothe width h ofthe e text. . This s is the defaultfor the
article
classifno
\pagestyle
isspecifiedinthepreamble.
empty Boththe headandfootare empty. . Inparticular, , nopage numbers are
printed.
headings Thisis the defaultfor the
book
class. Thefoot t is s empty y andthehead
containsthepagenumberandnamesofthechaptersectionorsubsection,
dependingonthedocumentclassanditsoptionsasgivenbelow:
CLASS
OPTION
LEFT PAGE
RIGHT PAGE
book, report
one-sided
chapter
two-sided
chapter
section
article
one-sided
section
two-sided
section
subsection
myheadings Thesameas
headings
, exceptthatthe‘section’informationinthehead
are not t predetermined, , butto o be e given n explicitly using the commands
\markright
or
\markboth
asdescribedbelow.
Moreover,wecancustomizethestyleforthecurrentpageonlyusingthecommand
\thispagestyle{
style
}
wherestyleisthenameofoneofthestylesabove. Forexample,thepagenumbermay
besuppressedforthecurrentpagealonebythecommand
\thispagestyle{empty}
.Note
thatonlytheprintingofthepagenumberissuppressed.Thenextpagewillbenumbered
withthenextnumberandsoon.
II
.2.1. Headingdeclarations
Aswementionedabove,inthepagestyle
myheadings
, wehavetospecifythetextto
appearontheheadofeverypage.Itisdonewithoneofthecommands
\markboth{
lefthead
{
righthead
}
\markright{
righthead
}
whereleftheadisthetexttoappearintheheadonleft-handpagesandrightheadisthe
texttoappearontheright-handpages.
The
\markboth
commandisusedwiththe
twoside
optionwithevennumberedpages
consideredtobeontheleftandoddnumberedpagesontheright.With
oneside
option,
allpagesareconsideredtoberight-handedandsointhiscase,thecommand
\markright
canbeused. Thesecommandscanalsobeusedtooverridethedefaultheadsetbythe
headings
style.
Notethatthesegiveonlyalimitedcontrolovertheheadandfoot.sincethegeneral
format,includingthefontusedandtheplacementofthepagenumber,isfixedbyLAT
E
X.
Bettercustomizationoftheheadandfootareofferedbythepackagefancyhdr,whichis
includedinmostL
A
T
E
Xdistributions.
II
.3. P
AGENUMBERING
Thestyleofpagenumberscanbespecifiedbythecommand
\pagenumbering{...}
Thepossibleargumentstothiscommandandtheresultingstyleofthenumbersaregiven
below:
20
II
. T
HE
D
OCUMENT
arabic
Indo-Arabicnumerals
roman
lowercaseRomannumerals
Roman
uppercaseRomannumerals
alph
lowercaseEnglishletters
Alph
uppercaseEnglishletters
Thedefaultvalueis
arabic
.Thiscommandresetsthepagecounter.Thusforexample,to
numberallthepagesinthe‘Preface’withlowercaseRomannumeralsandtherestofthe
documentwithIndo-Arabicnumerals,declare
\pagenumbering{roman}
atthebeginning
ofthePrefaceandissue thecommand
\pagestyle{arabic}
immediatelyafterthe first
\chapter
command. (The
\chapter{...}
commandstartsanewchapter. Wewillcome
toitsoon.)
Wecanmakethepagesstartwithanynumberwewantbythecommand
\setcounter{page}{
number
}
wherenumberisthepagenumberwewishthecurrentpagetohave.
II
.4. F
ORMATTINGLENGTHS
EachpagethatLAT
E
Xproducesconsistsnotonlyofaheadandfootasdiscussedabove
butalsoabody(surprise!) containingtheactualtext. . Informattingapage,LAT
E
Xuses
thewidthandheightsofthesepartsofthepageandvariousotherlengthssuchasthe
leftandrightmargins. Thevaluesoftheselengthsaresetbythepapersizeoptionsand
thepageformatandstylecommands.Forexample,thepagelayoutwithvaluesofthese
lengthsforanoddpageandeveninthisbookareseparatelyshownbelow.
Theselengthscanallbechangedwiththecommand
\setlength
.Forexample,
\setlength{\textwidth}{15cm}
makesthewidthoftext15cm.Thepackagegeometrygiveseasierinterfacestocustomize
pageformat.
II
.5. P
ARTSOFADOCUMENT
Wenowturnourattentiontothecontentsofthedocumentitself.Documents(especially
longerones)aredividedintochapters,sectionsandsoon. Theremaybe e atitlepart
(sometimesevenaseparatetitlepage)andanabstract. Alltheserequirespecialtypo-
graphicconsiderationsandLAT
E
Xhasanumberoffeatureswhichautomatethistask.
II
.5.1. Title
The“title”partofadocumentusuallyconsistsofthenameofthedocument,thename
ofauthor(s)andsometimesadate.Toproduceatitle,wemakeuseofthecommands
\title{
documentname
}
\author{
authornames
}
\date{
datetext
}
\maketitle
Notethatafterspecifyingtheargumentsof
\title
,
\author
and
\date
,wemustissuethe
command
\maketitle
forthisparttobetypeset.
Bydefault,allentriesproducedbythesecommandsarecenteredonthelinesinwhich
theyappear. Ifatitletextistoolongtofitinoneline,itwillbebrokenautomatically.
However,wecanchoosethebreakpointswiththe
\\
command.
Ifthereareseveralauthorsandtheirnamesareseparatedbythe
\and
command,then
thenamesappearsidebyside.Thus
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