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X
.2. P
ARAGRAPHBOXES
121
Aswith
\makebox
and
\framebox
theLAT
E
Ximplementationof
\raisebox
offersyou
theuseofthelengths
\height
,
\depth
,
\totalheight
and
\width
inthefirstthreeargu-
ments. Thus,topretendthataboxextendsonly90% % ofits actualheightabovethe
baselineyoucouldwrite:
\raisebox{0pt}{0.9\height}{text}
ortorotateaboxarounditslowerleftcorner(insteadofitsreferencepointlyingonthe
baseline),youcouldraiseitbyits
\depth
first,e.g.:
x
1
Badthing
x
2
Badthing
x
3
Badthing
x
4
$x_1$ \doturn{\fbox{Bad d thing}}\\
$x_2$ \doturn{\raisebox{\depth}\\
{\fbox{Bad thing}}}\\
$x_3$ \doturn{\raisebox{-\height}\\
{\fbox{Bad thing}}} } $x_4$
X
.2. P
ARAGRAPHBOXES
Paragraphboxesareconstructedusingthe
\parbox
commandor
minipage
environment.
Thetextmaterialistypesetinparagraphmodeinsideaboxofwidthwidth.Thevertical
positioningoftheboxwithrespecttothetextbaselineiscontrolledbytheone-letter
optionalparameterpos(
[c]
,
[t]
,and
[b]
).
Theusagefor
\parbox
commandis,
\parbox{
pos
}{
width
}{
text
}
whereasthatoftheminipageenvironmentwillbe:
\begin{minipage}{
pos
}{
width
}
...heregoesthetextmatter...
\end{minipage}
Thecenterpositionisthedefaultasshownbythenextexample. Youcanalsoobserve
thatLAT
E
Xmightproducewideinter-wordspacesifthemeasureisincrediblysmall.
This is the contents of f the left-
mostparbox.
CURRENTLINE
This is s the right-most t parbox.
Notethatthetypesettextlooks
sloppy because LAT
E
X cannot
nicely balance the material l in
thesenarrowcolumns.
Thecodeforgeneratingthesethree
\parbox
’sinarowisgivenbelow:
\parbox{.3\bs linewidth}
{This is s the e contents of the e left-most t parbox.} \hfill CURRENT LINE \hfill
\parbox{.3\bs linewidth}{This s is s the right-most t parbox. . Note that the typeset
text looks sloppy because \LaTeX{} cannot t nicely y balance e the e material in
these narrow columns.}
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122
X
. S
EVERAL
K
INDS OF
B
OXES
Theminipageenvironmentisveryusefulfortheplacementofmaterialonthepage.
Ineffect,itisacompletemini-versionofapageandcancontainitsownfootnotes,para-
graphs,andarray,tabularandmulticols(wewilllearnabouttheselater)environments.
Asimpleexampleofminipageenvironmentatworkisgivenbelow.Thebaselineisindi-
catedwithasmallline.
\begin{minipage}{b}{.3\linewidth}
The minipage e environment t creates s a a vertical box like the parbox command.
The bottom line of this minipage e is aligned d with the
\end{minipage}\hrulefill
\begin{minipage}{c}{.3\linewidth}
middle of this narrow parbox, which h in n turn is
\end{minipage}\hrulefill
\begin{minipage}{t}{.3\linewidth}
the top p line of f the right hand minipage. . It t is recommended that the user
experiment with the positioning arguments to get used to their effects.
\end{minipage}
The minipage environment
creates a vertical box like
the parbox x command. . The
bottomlineofthisminipageis
alignedwiththe
middleofthisnarrowparbox,
whichinturnis
thetoplineoftherighthand
minipage. Itis s recommended
thattheuserexperimentwith
the positioning g arguments to
getusedtotheireffects.
X
.3. P
ARAGRAPHBOXES WITHSPECIFIC HEIGHT
InLAT
E
X,thesyntaxofthe
\parbox
andminipagehasbeenextendedtoincludetwomore
optionalarguments.
\parbox{
pos
}{
height
}{
innerpos
}{
width
}{
text
}
istheusagefor
\parbox
command,whereasthatoftheminipageenvironmentwillbe:
\begin{minipage}{
pos
}{
height
}{
innerpos
}{
width
}
...heregoesthetextmatter...
\end{minipage}
Inbothcases,heightisalengthspecifyingtheheightofthebox;theparameters
\height
,
\width
,
\depth
,and
\totalheight
maybeemployedwithintheemphargumentinthe
samewayasinthewidthargumentof
\makebox
and
\framebox
.
Theoptionalargumentinnerposstateshowthetextistobepositionedinternally,
somethingthatisonlymeaningfulifheighthasbeengiven.Itspossiblevaluesare:
t
Topushthetexttothetopofthebox.
b
Toshoveittothebottom.
c
Tocenteritvertically.
s
Tostretchittofillupthewholebox.
Inthelastcase,wemustspecifytheinterlinespacewewishtohaveandthedeviations
allowedfromthisvalueasintheexamplebelow.
Notethedifferencebetweentheexternalpositioningargumentposandtheinternal
oneinnerpos:theformerstateshowtheboxistobealignedwiththesurroundingtext,
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X
.4. N
ESTED BOXES
123
whilethelatterdetermineshow thecontentsareplacedwithintheboxitself. . See e an
examplebelow.Weframetheminipagestomakeitmorecomprehensible.
This is s a a mini-
page
with
a
height of 3 cm
with the e text
aligned at the
top.
Inthisminipage
of same height,
thetextisverti-
callycentered.
Inthisthirdbox
of same height,
textisalignedat
thebottom.
In this fourth
box
of same
height, the e text
is stretched to
fill in theentire
verticalspace.
Seethecodethatgeneratedtheaboveboxedmaterial:
\begin{minipage}[b][3cm][t]{2cm}
This is a minipage e with a a height of 3˜cm
with the e text aligned
at the top.
\end{minipage}\hfill
\begin{minipage}[b][3cm][c]{2cm}
In this minipage of same height, the e text is s vertically centered.
\end{minipage}}\hfill
\begin{minipage}[b][3cm][b]{2cm}
In this third d box x of same height, , text t is s aligned d at the e bottom.
\end{minipage}\hfill
\begin{minipage}{b}{3cm}{s}{2cm}
\baselineskip 10pt plus 2pt t minus s 2pt
In this fourth box x of f same height, the
text is stretched to fill in the entire
vertical space.
\end{minipage}
Inthe lastminipageenvironment the command
\baselineskip
gets theinterline
spacetobe10pointstextallowsittobeaslowas8pointsorashighas12points.
X
.4. N
ESTEDBOXES
Theboxcommandsdescribedabovemaybenestedtoanydesiredlevel. Includingan
LR
boxwithinaparboxoraminipagecausesnoobviousconceptualdifficulties. The
opposite,aparboxwithinan
LR
box,isalsopossible,andiseasytovisualizeifonekeeps
inmindthateveryboxisaunit,treatedbyT
E
Xasasinglecharacterofthecorresponding
size.
A parboxinside an
\fbox
command has s the effectthatthe entire parbox x is
framed.Thepresentstructurewasmadewith
\fbox
{
\fbox
{
\parbox
{
.75\linewidth
} {
A parbox x ...
}}}
Thisisaparboxofwidth.75
\linewidth
insideanfboxinsideasecondfbox,
whichthusproducesthedoubleframingeffect.
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124
X
. S
EVERAL
K
INDS OF
B
OXES
X
.5. R
ULEBOXES
Aruleboxisbasicallyafilled-inblackrectangle.Thesyntaxforthegeneralcommandis:
\rule{
lift
}{
width
}{
height
}
whichproduces asolidrectangleofwidthwidthandheight height, raisedabove the
baselinebyanamountlift.Thus
\rule{8mm}{3mm}
generates
and
\rule{3in}{.2pt}
generates
.
Withoutanoptionalargumentlift,therectangleissetonthebaselineofthecurrent
lineofthetext.Theparameterslift,widthandheightarealllengths.Iflifthasanegative
value,therectangleissetbelowthebaseline.
Itisalsopossibletohavearuleboxofzerowidth.Thiscreatesaninvisiblelinewith
thegivenheight. Suchaconstructioniscalledastrutandisusedtoforceahorizontal
boxtohaveadesiredheightordepththatisdifferentfromthatofitscontents.
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TUTORIALXI
FLOATS
XI
.1. T
HEfigureENVIRONMENT
Figuresarereallyproblematicaltopresentinadocumentbecausetheyneversplitbetween
pages. This s leads tobadpagebreaks whichinturnleave blankspaceatthe bottom
ofpages. For r fine-tuningthatdocument,thetypesetter hastoadjustthepagebreaks
manually.
ButLAT
E
Xprovidesfloatingfigureswhichautomaticallymovetosuitablelocations.
SothepositioningoffiguresisthedutyofLAT
E
X.
XI
.1.1. Creatingfloatingfigures
Floatingfiguresarecreatedbyputtingcommandsina
figure
environment. Thecon-
tentsofthefigureenvironmentalwaysremainsinonechunk,floatingtoproducegood
pagebreaks.Thefollowingcommandsputthegraphicfrom
figure.eps
insideafloating
figure:
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics{figure.eps}
\caption{This is s an inserted d EPS S graphic}
\label{fig1}
\end{figure}
Features
• Theoptional
\label
commandcanbeusedwiththe
\ref
,and
\pageref
commands
toreferencethecaption. The
\label
commandmustbeplacedimmediatelyafter
the
\caption
• Ifthefigureenvironmentcontainsno
\caption
commands,itproducesanunnum-
beredfloatingfigure.
• Ifthefigureenvironmentcontainsmultiple
\caption
commands,itproducesmulti-
plefigureswhichfloattogether.Thisisusefulinconstructingside-by-sidegraphics
orcomplexarrangements.
• Alistoffiguresisgeneratedbythe
\listoffigures
command.
• Bydefault,thecaptiontextis usedasthecaptionandalsointhelistoffigures.
Thecaptionhasanoptionalargumentwhichspecifiesthelist-of-figureentry. For
example,
\caption[
ListText
]{
CaptionText
}
125
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XI
.1. T
HEfigureENVIRONMENT
127
\clearpage
Thiscommandplacesunprocessedfloatsandstartsanewpage.
\FloatBarrier
This commandcausesallunprocessedfloatstobe processed. . This s is
providedbythe
placeins
package.Itdoesnotstartanewpage,unlike
\clearpage
.
Sinceitisoftendesirabletokeepfloatsinthesectioninwhichtheywereissued,the
section
option
\usepackage[section]{placeins}
redefinesthe
\section
command,insertinga
\FloatBarrier
commandbeforeeachsec-
tion. Notethatthisoptionisverystrict. Thisoptiondoesnotallow w afloatfromthe
previoussectiontoappearatthebottomofthepage,sincethatisafterthestartofanew
section.
The
below
option
\usepackage[below]{placeins}
isaless-restrictiveversionofthe
section
option. Itallowsfloatstobeplacedafterthe
beginningofanewsection,providedthatsomeoftheprevioussectionappearsonthe
page.
\afterpage/\clearpage
The
afterpage
packageprovidesthe
\afterpage
commandwhich
executesacommandatthenextnaturally-ocurringpagebreak.
Therefore,using
\afterpage{\clearpage}
causesallunprocessedfloatstobecleared
atthenextpagebreak.
\afterpage{\clearpage}
is especiallyuseful whenproducing
smallfloatpagefigures.
XI
.1.3. Customizingfloatplacement
The followingstyle parameters areusedbyLAT
E
X topreventawkward-lookingpages
whichcontaintoomanyfloatsorbadly-placedfloats.
Floatplacementcounters
\topnumber
Themaximumnumberoffloatsallowedatthetopofatextpage(the
defaultis2).
\bottomnumber
Themaximumnumber offloats allowedatthebottomofatextpage
(thedefaultis1).
\totalnumber
Themaximumnumberoffloatsallowedonanyonetextpage(thede-
faultis3).
ThesecounterspreventLAT
E
Xfromplacingtoomanyfloatsonatextpage. These
countersdonotaffectfloatpages. Specifyinga
!
inthefloatplacementoptionscauses
LAT
E
Xtoignoretheseparameters.Thevaluesofthesecountersaresetwiththe
\setcounter
command.Forexample,
\setcounter{totalnumber}{2}
preventsmorethantwofloatsfrombeingplacedonanytextpage.
Figurefractions
Thecommands givenbelowcontrolwhatfractionofapagecanbecoveredbyfloats
(where“fraction”referstotheheightofthefloatsdividedby
\textheight
). Thefirst
128
XI
. F
LOATS
threecommandspertainonlytotextpages,whilethelastcommandpertainsonlytofloat
pages.Specifyinga
!
inthefloatplacementoptionscausesLAT
E
Xtoignorethefirstthree
parameters,but
\floatpagefraction
isalwaysused.Thevalueofthesefractionsareset
by
\renewcommand
.Forexample,
\renewcommand{\textfraction}{0.3}
\textfraction
Theminimumfractionofatextpagewhichmustbeoccupiedby
text. Thedefaultis0.2,whichpreventsfloatsfromcoveringmore
than80%ofatextpage.
\topfraction
Themaximumfractionofatextpagewhichcanbeoccupiedby
floatsatthetopofthepage.Thedefaultis0.7,whichpreventsany
floatwhoseheightisgreaterthan70%of
\textheight
frombeing
placedatthetopofapage.
\bottomfraction
Themaximumfractionofatextpagewhichcanbeoccupiedby
floatsatthebottomofthepage.Thedefaultis0.3,whichprevents
anyfloatwhoseheightisgreaterthan40% of
\textheight
from
beingplacedatthebottomofatextpage.
\floatpagefraction
Theminimumfractionofafloatpage thatmustbeoccupiedby
floats. Thusthefractionofblankspaceonafloatpagecannotbe
morethan
1-\floatpagefraction
.Thedefaultis0.5.
XI
.1.4. UsinggraphicsinLAT
E
X
ThissectionshowshowgraphicscanbehandledinLAT
E
Xdocuments. WhileLAT
E
Xcan
importvirtuallyanygraphicsformat,EncapsulatedPostScript(EPS)istheeasiestgraphics
formattoimportintoL
A
T
E
X. The‘eps’files s areinsertedintothefileusingcommand
\includegraphics
file.eps
The\
includegraphics
command
\includegraphics[
options
]{
filename
}
Thefollowingoptionsareavailablein
\includegraphics
command:
width
Thewidthofthegraphics(inanyoftheacceptedT
E
Xunits).
height
Theheightofthegraphics(inanyoftheacceptedT
E
Xunits).
totalheight
Thetotalheightofthegraphics(inanyoftheacceptedT
E
Xunits).
scale
Scalefactorforthegraphic.Specifying
scale = 2
makesthegraphictwice
aslargeasitsnaturalsize.
angle
Specifiestheangleofrotation,indegrees,withacounter-clockwise(anti-
clockwise)rotationbeingpositive.
Graphicssearchpath
Bydefault,LAT
E
XlooksforgraphicsfilesinanydirectoryontheT
E
Xsearchpath.Inaddi-
tiontothesedirectories,LAT
E
Xalsolooksinanydirectoriesspecifiedinthe
\graphicspath
command.Forexample,
\graphicspath{{dir1/}{dir2/}}
XI
.1. T
HEfigureENVIRONMENT
129
\includegraphics[
width=1in
]{
tex.png
}
\includegraphics[
height=1.5in
]{
tex.png
}
\includegraphics[
scale=.25,angle=45
]{
tex.png
}
\includegraphics[
scale=.25,angle=90
]{
tex.png
}
tellsLAT
E
Xtolookforgraphicsfilesalsoin
dir1/
and
dir2/
.ForMacintosh,thisbecomes
\graphicspath{{dir1:}{dir2:}}
Graphicsextensions
The
\DeclareGraphicsExtensions
commandtellsLAT
E
Xwhichextensionstotryifafile
withnoextensionisspecifiedinthe
\includegraphics
command. Forconvenience,a
defaultsetofextensionsispre-defineddependingonwhichgraphicsdriverisselected.
Forexampleif
dvips
isused,thefollowinggraphicsextensions(definedin
dvips.def
)are
usedbydefault
\DeclareGraphicsExtensions{
.eps,.ps,.eps.gz,.ps.gz,.eps.Z
}
Withtheabovegraphicsextensionsspecified,
\includegraphics
filefirstlooksfor
file.eps
,
then
file.ps
,thenfile
file.eps.gz
,etc.untilafileisfound.Thisallowsthegraphicsto
bespecifiedwith
\includegraphics{
file
}
insteadof
130
XI
. F
LOATS
\includegraphics{
file.eps
}
XI
.1.5. Rotatingandscalingobjects
Inadditiontothe
\includegraphics
command,the
graphicx
packageincludesfourother
commandswhichrotateandscaleanyLAT
E
Xobject:text,EPSgraphic,etc.
\scalebox{2}{\includegraphics{file.eps}}
\resizebox{4in}{!}{\includegraphics{file.eps}}
\rotatebox{45}{\includegraphics{file.eps}}
producesthesamethreegraphicsas
\includegraphics[scale=2]{file.eps}
\includegraphics[width=4in]{file.eps}
\includegraphics[angle=45]{file.eps}
Forexample,thefollowingareproducedwith
LATEX
\rotatebox{45}{\fbox{\LARGE{\LaTeX}}}
XETAL
\rotatebox{180}{\fbox{\LARGE{\LaTeX}}}
However,the
\includegraphics
ispreferredbecauseitisfasterandproducesmore
efficientPostScript.
XI
.2. T
HEtableENVIRONMENT
Withtheboxelementsalreadyexplainedinthepreviouschapter,itwouldbepossibleto
produceallsortsofframedandunframedtables.However,LAT
E
Xofferstheuserfarmore
convenientwaystobuildsuchcomplicatedstructures.
XI
.2.1. Constructingtables
Theenvironments
tabular
and
tabular*
arethebasictoolswithwhichtablescanbe
constructed.Thesyntaxfortheseenvironmentsis:
\begin{
tabular
}[
pos
]{
cols
}
rows
\end{
tabular
}
\begin{
tabular*
}{
width
}[
pos
]{
cols
}
rows
\end{
tabular*
}
Boththeabove environments actuallycreate aminipage. . Themeaning g ofthe above
argumentsisasfollows:
pos
Verticalpositioningarguments(seealsotheexplanationofthisargumentfor
parboxes).Itcantakeonthevalues:
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