III
.2.
NATBIB
31
III
.2.6. Partialcitations
Inauthor–yearschemes,itissometimesdesirabletobeabletorefertotheauthorswith-
outtheyear,orviceversa.Thisisprovidedwiththeextracommands
\citeauthor{ale91}
Alexetal.
\citeauthor*{ale91}
Alex,Mathew,andRavi
\citeyear{ale91}
1991
\citeyearpar{ale91}
(1991)
III
.2.7. Citationsaliasing
Sometimesonewantstorefertoareferencewithaspecialdesignation,ratherthanbythe
authors,i.e.asPaperI,PaperII.Suchaliasescanbedefinedandused,textuallyand/or
parentheticallywith:
\defcitealias{jon90}{Paper˜I}
\citetalias{ale91}
PaperI
\citepalias{ale91}
(PaperI)
Thesecitationcommandsfunctionmuchlike
\citet
and
\citep
:theymaytakemultiple
keysintheargument,maycontainnotes,andaremarkedashyperlinks.
III
.2.8. Selectingcitationstyleandpunctuation
Usethecommand
\bibpunct
withoneoptionalandsixmandatoryarguments:
1. Theopeningbracketsymbol,
default = = (
2. Theclosingbracketsymbol,
default = = )
3. Thepunctuationbetweenmultiplecitations,
default = ;
4. Theletter‘n’fornumericalstyle,or‘s’fornumericalsuperscriptstyle,anyotherletter
forauthor–year,
default = = author--year;
5. Thepunctuationthatcomesbetweentheauthornamesandtheyear
6. Thepunctuationthatcomesbetweenyearsornumberswhencommonauthorlistsare
suppressed(
default = ,
);
Theoptionalargumentisthecharacterprecedingapost-note,defaultisacomma
plus space. . Inredefiningthis s character,onemustincludeaspace ifthatis whatone
wants.
Example1
\bibpunct{[}{]}{,}{a}{}{;}
changestheoutputof
\citep{jon90,jon91,jam92}
into
[Jonesetal.1990;1991,Jamesetal.1992].
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32
III
. B
IBLIOGRAPHY
Example2
\bibpunct[;]{(}{)}{,}{a}{}{;}
changestheoutputof
\citep[and references therein]{jon90}
into
(Jonesetal.1990;andreferencestherein).
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TUTORIALIV
BIBLIOGRAPHICDATABASES
Bibliographicdatabaseisadatabaseinwhichalltheusefulbibliographicentriescanbe
stored.Theinformationaboutthevariouspublicationsisstoredinoneormorefileswith
theextension
.bib
. Foreachpublication,thereisakeythatidentifiesitandwhichmay
beusedinthetextdocumenttorefertoit. Andthisisavailableforalldocumentswith
alistofreferenceinthefield. Thisdatabaseisusefulfortheauthors/researchers s who
areconstantlyreferringtothesamepublicationsinmostoftheirworks. Thisdatabase
systemispossiblewiththeB
IB
T
E
XprogramsuppliedwiththeLAT
E
Xpackage.
IV
.1. T
HE
B
IB
T
E
X
PROGRAM
B
IB
T
E
XisanauxiliaryprogramtoLAT
E
Xthatautomaticallyconstructsabibliographyfor
aLAT
E
Xdocumentfromoneormoredatabases.TouseB
IB
T
E
X,youmustincludeinyour
LAT
E
Xinputfilea
\bibliography
commandwhoseargumentspecifiesoneormorefiles
thatcontainthedatabase.Forexample
\bibliography{
database1,database2
}
Theabovecommandspecifiesthatthebibliographicentriesareobtainedfromdatabase1.bib
anddatabase2.bib.TouseB
IB
T
E
X,yourLAT
E
Xinputfilemustcontaina
\bibliographystyle
command.Thiscommandspecifiesthebibliographystyle,whichdeterminestheformat
ofthesourcelist.Forexample,thecommand
\bibliographystyle{plain}
specifies thatentries shouldbe formattedasspecifiedbythe
plain
bibliographystyle
(
plain.bst
).Wecanput
\bibliographystyle
commandanywhereinthedocumentafter
the
\begin{document}
command.
IV
.2. B
IB
T
E
X
STYLEFILES
plain
StandardB
IB
T
E
Xstyle.Entriessortedalphabeticallywithnumericlabels.
unsrt
StandardB
IB
T
E
X style. . Similar r toplain, butentries are printed d inorder r of
citation,ratherthansorted.Numericlabelsareused.
alpha
StandardB
IB
T
E
Xstyle.Similartoplain,butthelabelsoftheentriesareformed
fromtheauthor’snameandtheyearofpublication.
abbrv
StandardB
IB
T
E
Xstyle. Similartoplain,butentriesaremorecompact,since
firstnames,month,andjournalnamesareabbreviated.
acm
AlternativeB
IB
T
E
Xstyle,usedforthejournalsoftheAssociationforComput-
ingMachinery.Ithastheauthorname(surnameandfirstname)insmallcaps,
andnumbersaslabels.
33
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34
IV
. B
IBLIOGRAPHIC
D
ATABASES
apalike AlternativeB
IB
T
E
Xstyle,usedbythejournalsoftheAmericanPsychologyAs-
sociation. Itshouldbe e usedtogetherwiththeLAT
E
X apalikepackage. . The
bibliographyentries areformattedalphabetically,lastname first,eachentry
havingahangingindentationandnolabel.
Examplesofsomeotherstylefilesare:
abbrv.bst,abstract.bst, acm.bst,agsm.bst,
alpha.bst, amsalpha.bst, , authordatei.bst,
authordate1-4.sty,bbs.bst,cbe.bst,cell.bst,
dcu.bst, harvard.sty, , ieeetr.bst, , jtb.bst,
kluwer.bst, named.bst, , named.sty, , nat-
bib.sty, natbib.bst, nature.sty, nature.bst,
phcpc.bst,phiaea.bst,phjcp.bst,phrmp.bst
plainyr.bst,siam.bst
Variousorganisationsorindividualshavedevelopedstylefilesthatcorrespondtothe
housestyleofparticularjournalsoreditinghouses.Wecanalsocustomiseabibliography
style,bymakingsmallchangestoanyofthe
.bst
file,orelsegenerateourownusingthe
makebst
program.
IV
.2.1. StepsforrunningB
IB
T
E
XwithLAT
E
X
1. RunLAT
E
X,whichgeneratesalistof
\cite
referencesinitsauxiliaryfile,
.aux
.
2. RunB
IB
T
E
X,which readsthe e auxiliary file, looks up p the e referencesina database
(oneormore
.bib
files,andthenwritesafile(the
.bbl
file)containingtheformatted
referencesaccordingtotheformatspecifiedinthestylefile(the
.bst
file). Warning
anderrormessagesarewrittentothelogfile(the
.blg
file). Itshouldbenotedthat
B
IB
T
E
XneverreadstheoriginalLAT
E
Xsourcefile.
3. RunLAT
E
Xagain,whichnowreadsthe
.bbl
referencefile.
4. RunLAT
E
Xathirdtime,resolvingallreferences.
Occasionallythebibliographyistoincludepublicationsthatwerenotreferencedin
thetext.Thesemaybeaddedwiththecommand
\nocite{
key
}
givenanywherewithinthemaindocument.Itproducesnotextatallbutsimplyinforms
B
IB
T
E
Xthatthisreferenceisalsotobeputintothebibliography.With
\nocite{*}
,every
entryinallthedatabaseswillbeincluded,somethingthatisusefulwhenproducingalist
ofallentriesandtheirkeys.
AfterrunningB
IB
T
E
Xtomakeupthe
.bbl
file,itisnecessarytoprocessLAT
E
Xatleast
twicetoestablishboththebibliographyandthein-textreferencelabels.Thebibliography
willbeprintedwherethe
\bibliography
commandisissued;itinfactinputsthe
.bbl
file.
IV
.3. C
REATINGABIBLIOGRAPHIC DATABASE
Thoughbibliographicdatabase creationdemands more workthantypingupalistof
referenceswiththe
thebibliography
environment;ithasagreatadvantagethat,theen-
triesneedtobeincludedinthedatabaseonlyonceandarethenavailableforallfuture
publicationsevenifadifferentbibliographystyleisdemandedinlaterworks,allthein-
formationisalreadyonhandinthedatabaseforB
IB
T
E
Xtowriteanew
thebibliography
environmentinanotherformat. Givenbelowisaspecimenofanentryinbibliographic
database:
@BOOK{knuth:86a,
AUTHOR
="Donald E. . Knuth",
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IV
.3. C
REATINGA BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATABASE
35
TITLE
={The \TeX{}book},
EDITION
="third"
PUBLISHER
="Addison-Wesley",
ADDRESS
={Reading, MA},
YEAR
=1986 }
Thefirstword,prefixed
@
,determinestheentry
type.Theentry
typeisfollowedby
thereferenceinformationforthatentryenclosedincurlybraces{}.Theveryfirstentry
isthekeyforthewholereferencebywhichitisreferredtointhe
\cite
command.Inthe
aboveexampleitis
knuth:86a
.Theactualreferenceinformationisthenenteredinvarious
fields,separatedfromoneanotherbycommas. Eachfieldconsistsofafield
name,an
=
sign,withoptionalspacesoneitherside,andthefieldtext.Thefield
namesshowsabove
are
AUTHOR
,
TITLE
,
PUBLISHER
,
ADDRESS
,and
YEAR
.Thefieldtextmustbeenclosedeither
incurlybracesorindoublequotationmarks. However,ifthetextconsistssolelyofa
number,asfor
YEAR
above,thebracesorquotationmarksmaybeleftoff.
For eachentrytype,certainfields arerequired, others areoptional, andtherest
areignored. Thesearelistedwiththedescriptionofthevariousentrytypesbelow. Ifa
requiredfieldisomitted,anerrormessagewillappearduringtheB
IB
T
E
Xrun.Optional
fields willhavetheirinformationincludedinthebibliographyiftheyarepresent,but
theyneednotbethere. Ignoredfieldsareusefulforincludingextrainformationinthe
databasethatwillnotbeoutput,suchasacommentoranabstractofapaper.Ignored
fieldsmightalsobeonesthatareusedbyotherdatabaseprograms.
Thegeneralsyntaxforentriesinthebibliographicdatabasereads
@entry_type{key,
field_name = {field text},
....
field_name = {field text} }
Thenamesoftheentry
typesaswellasthefield
namesmaybewrittenincapitals
orlowercaseletters,orinacombinationofboth.Thus
@BOOK
,
@book
,and
@bOOk
areall
acceptablevariations.
Theoutermostpairofbracesfortheentireentrymaybeeithercurlybraces{},as
illustrated,orparentheses().Inthelattercase,thegeneralsyntaxreads
@entry_type(key, ... ..)
However,thefieldtextmayonlybeenclosedwithincurlybraces{...}ordoublequotation
marks
...
asshownintheexampleabove.
Thefollowingisalistofthestandardentrytypesinalphabeticalorder,withabrief
descriptionofthetypesofworksforwhichtheyareapplicable,togetherwiththerequired
andoptionalfieldsthattheytake.
@article
:
Entryforanarticlefromajournalormagazine.
requiredfields: author,title,journal,year.
optionalfields: volume,number,pages,month,note.
@book
:
Entryforabookwithadefinitepublisher.
requiredfields: authororeditor,title,publisher,year.
optionalfields: volumeornumber,series,address,edition,month,note.
@booklet
:
Entryforaprintedandboundworkwithoutthenameofapublisher
orsponsoringorganisation.
requiredfields: title.
optionalfields: author,howpublished,address,month,year,note.
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36
IV
. B
IBLIOGRAPHIC
D
ATABASES
@conference
:
Entryforanarticleinconferenceproceedings.
requiredfields: author,title,booktitle,year.
optionalfields: editor,volumeornumber,series,pages,address,month,organisa-
tion,publisher,note.
@inbook
:
Entryforapart(chapter,section,certainpages)ofabook.
requiredfields: authororeditor,title,chapterand/orpages,publisher,year.
optionalfields: volumeornumber,series,type,address,edition,month,note.
@incollection
: Entryforpartofabookthathasitsowntitle.
requiredfields: author,title,booktitle,publisher,year.
optionalfields: editor,volumeornumber,series,type,chapter,pages,address,edi-
tion,month,note.
@inproceedings
: Entryforanarticleinconferenceproceedings.
requiredfields: author,title,booktitle,year.
optionalfields: editor,volumeornumber,series,pages,address,month,organisa-
tion,publisher,note.
@manual
:
Entryfortechnicaldocumentation.
requiredfields: title.
optionalfields: author,organisation,address,edition,month,year,note.
@masterthesis
: EntryforaMaster’sthesis.
requiredfields: author,title,school,year.
optionalfields: type,address,month,note.
@misc
:
Entryforaworkthatdoesnotfitunderanyoftheothers.
requiredfields: none.
optionalfields: author,title,howpublished,month,year,note.
@phdthesis
:
EntryforaPhDthesis.
requiredfields: author,title,school,year.
optionalfields: type,address,month,note.
@proceedings
:
Entryforconferenceproceedings.
requiredfields: title,year.
optionalfields: editor, , volume or number, series, address, month, organisation,
publisher,note.
@unpublished
:
Entryforanunpublishedworkwithanauthorandtitle.
requiredfields: author,title,note.
optionalfields: month,year.
IV
.3.1. ExampleofaLAT
E
Xfile(sample.tex)usingbibliographicaldatabase(bsample.bib)
\documentclass{article}
\pagestyle{empty}
\begin{document}
\section*{Example of Citations of f Kind d \texttt{plain}}
Citation of f a a normal l book˜\cite{Eijkhout:1991} } and d an edited
book˜\cite{Roth:postscript}. Now w we cite an article e written n by a
single˜\cite{Felici:1991} and by multiple
authors˜\cite{Mittlebatch/Schoepf:1990}. A reference to an
article inside proceedings˜\cite{Yannis:1991}.
We refer r to o a a manual˜\cite{Dynatext} and d a technical
report˜\cite{Knuth:WEB}. A citation of an n unpublished
work˜\cite{EVH:Office}. A A reference to a chapter in n a
book˜\cite{Wood:color} and to a PhD thesis˜\cite{Liang:1983}.
IV
.3. C
REATINGA BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATABASE
37
An example of f multiple
citations˜\cite{Eijkhout:1991,Roth:postscript}.
\bibliographystyle{plain} %% % plain.bst
\bibliography{bsample}
%% bsample.bib
\end{document}
IV
.3.2. Procedureforproducingreferencesfortheabovefilesample.texwhichusesbib-
liographicdatabasebsample.bib
$ latex sample
% 1st run n of f LaTeX
$ bibtex x sample
% BibTeX run
% Then sample.bbl l file will
% be e produced
$ latex sample
% 2nd run n of f LaTeX
Ifstillunresolvedcitationreferences
$ latex sample
% 3rd run n of f LaTeX
38
TUTORIALV
TABLEOFCONTENTS
,
INDEXANDGLOSSARY
V
.1. T
ABLEOFCONTENTS
Atableofcontentsisaspeciallistwhichcontainsthesectionnumbersandcorresponding
headingsasgiveninthestandardformofthesectioningcommands,togetherwiththe
pagenumbersonwhichtheybegin. Similarlistsexistcontainingreferenceinformation
aboutthefloatingelementsinadocument,namely,thelistoftablesandlistoffigures.
Thestructureoftheselistsissimpler,sincetheir contents,thecaptionsofthefloating
elements,allareonthesamelevel.
StandardLAT
E
Xcanautomaticallycreatethesethreecontentslists.Bydefault,LAT
E
X
enterstextgeneratedbyoneoftheargumentsofthesectioningcommandsintothe
.toc
file.Similarly,LAT
E
Xmaintainstwomorefiles,oneforthelistoffigures(
.lof
)andonefor
thelistoftables(
.lot
),whichcontainthetextspecifiedastheargumentofthe
\caption
commandforfiguresandtables.
\tableofcontents
producesatableofcontents.
\listoffigures
and
\listoftables
producea listoffigures s andlistof f tablesrespectively. . These e lists areprintedatthe
pointwherethesecommandsareissued. Occasionally,youmayfindthatyoudonot
likethewayLAT
E
Xprintsatableofcontentsoralistoffiguresortables. Youcanfine-
tuneanindividualentrybyusingtheoptionalargumentstothesectioningcommandor
\caption
commandthatgeneratesit.Formattingcommandscanalsobeintroducedwith
the
\addtocontents
. Ifallelsefails,youcaneditthe
.toc
,
lof
,
lot
filesyourself. Edit
thesefilesonlywhenpreparingthefinalversionofyourdocument,andusea
\nofiles
commandtosuppressthewritingofnewversionsofthefiles.
V
.1.1. Additionalentries
The*-formsectioningcommandsarenotenteredautomaticallyinthetableofcontents.
LAT
E
Xofferstwocommandstoinsertsuchinformationdirectlyintoacontentsfile:
\addtocontents{
file
}{
text
}
\addcontentsline{
file
}{
type
}{
text
}
file
Theextensionofthecontentsfile,usually
toc
,
lof
or
lot
.
type
Thetypeoftheentry. Forthe
toc
filethetypeisnormallythesameas
theheadingaccordingtotheformatofwhichanentrymustbetypeset.
Forthe
lof
or
lot
files,
figure
or
table
isspecified.
text
Theactualinformationtobewrittentothefilementioned.LAT
E
Xcom-
mandsshouldbeprotectedby
\protect
todelayexpansion
The
\addtocontents
commanddoesnotcontainatypeparameterandisintendedto
enteruser-specificformattinginformation. Forexample,ifyouwanttogenerateaddi-
tionalspacinginthemiddleofatableofcontents,thefollowingcommandcanbeissued:
\addtocontents{toc}{\protect\vspace{2ex}}
39
40
V
. T
ABLEOFCONTENTS
,I
NDEXAND
G
LOSSARY
The
\addcontentsline
instructionisusuallyinvokedautomaticallybythedocument
sectioningcommands,orbythe
\caption
commands. Iftheentrycontainsnumbered
text,then
\numberline
mustbeusedtoseparatethesectionnumber(number)fromthe
restofthetextfortheentry(heading)inthetextparameter:
\protect\numberline{
number
}{
heading
}
Forexample,a
\caption
commandinsidea
figure
environmentsavesthetextan-
notatingthefigureasfollows:
\addcontentsline
{lof}{figure}{
\protect\numberline
{
\thefigure
}captionedtext}
Sometimes
\addcontentsline
is usedinthe source tocomplementthe actions of
standardLAT
E
X.Forinstance,inthecaseofthestarredformofthesectioncommands,no
informationiswrittentothe
.toc
file.Soifyoudonotwantaheadingnumber(starred
form)butanentryinthe
.toc
fileyoucanwritesomethinglike:
\chapter*{Forward}
\addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}{\numberline{}Forward}
Thisproducesanindented“chapter”entryinthetable ofcontents,leavingthespace
wherethechapternumberwouldgofree. Omittingthe
\numberline
commandwould
typesettheword“Forward”flushleftinstead.
V
.1.2. Typesettingacontentslist
Asdiscussedabove,contentslistsconsistofentriesofdifferenttypes,correspondingto
thestructuralunitsthattheyrepresent.Apartfromthesestandardentries,theselistsmay
containanycommands.Astandardentryisspecifiedbythecommand:
\contentsline{
type
}{
text
}{
page
}
type
Typeoftheentry,e.g.
section
,or
figure
.
text
Actualtextasspecifiedintheargumentofthesectioningor
\caption
commands.
page
Pagenumber.
Notethatsectionnumbersareenteredasaparameterofthe
\numberline
command
toallowformattingwiththeproperindentation.Itisalsopossiblefortheusertocreate
atableofcontentsbyhandwiththehelpofthecommand
\contentsline
.Forexample:
\contentsline {section}
{\numberline {2.4}Structure of the e Table e of Contents}{31}
Toformatanentryinthetableofcontentsfiles,standardLAT
E
Xmakesuseofthe
followingcommand:
\@dottedtocline{
level
}{
indent
}{
numwidth
}{
text
}{
page
}
Thelasttwoparameterscoincidewiththoseof
\contentsline
,sincethelatterusu-
allyinvokes
\@dottedtocline
command.Theotherparametersarethefollowing:
level
Thenestinglevelofanentry.Thisparameterallowstheusertocontrol
howmanynestinglevelswillbedisplayed.Levelsgreaterthanthevalue
ofcounter
tocdepth
willnotappearinthetableofcontents.
indent
Thisistotalindentationfromtheleftmargin.
numwidthThewidthoftheboxthatcontainsthenumberiftexthasa
\numberline
command. Thisisalsotheamountofextraindentationaddedtothe
secondandlaterlinesofamultiplelineentry.
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