V
.2. I
NDEX
41
Additionally,thecommand
\@dottedtocline
usesthefollowingformattingparame-
ters,whichspecifythevisualappearanceofallentries:
\@pnumwidth
Thewidthoftheboxinwhichthepagenumberisset.
\@tocmarg
Theindentationoftherightmarginforallbutthelastlineofmultiple
lineentries.Dimension,butchangedwith
\renewcommand
.
\@dotsep
Theseparationbetweendots,in
mu
(mathunits). Itisapurenumber
(like1.7or2).Bymakingthisnumberlargeenoughyoucangetridof
thedotsaltogether.Changedwith
\renewcommand
aswell.
V
.1.3. Multipletablesofcontents
Theminitocpackage,initiallywrittenbyNigelWardandDanJurafskyandcompletely
redesignedbyJean-PierreDrucbert,createsamini-tableofcontents(a“minitoc”)atthe
beginningofeachchapterwhenyouusethebookorreportclasses.
Themini-tableofcontentswillappearatthebeginningofachapter,afterthe
\chapter
command.Theparametersthatgoverntheuseofthispackagearediscussedbelow:
Table
V
.1:Summaryofthe
minitoc
parameters
\dominitoc
Mustbeputjustinfrontof
\tableofcontents
,toinitialize
theminitocsystem(Mandatory).
\faketableofcontents
Thiscommandreplaces
\tableofcontents
whenyouwant
minitocsbutnottableofcontents.
\minitoc
Thiscommandmustbeputrightaftereach
\chapter
com-
mandwhereaminitocisdesired.
\minitocdepth
AL
A
T
E
Xcounterthatindicateshowmanylevelsofhead-
ingswillbedisplayedintheminitoc(defaultvalueis
2
).
\mtcindent
Thelengthoftheleft/rightindentationoftheminitoc(de-
faultvalueis
24pt
).
\mtcfont
Commanddefiningthefontthatisusedfortheminitoc
entries(Thedefaultdefinitionisasmallromanfont).
Foreachmini-table,anauxiliaryfilewithextension
.mtc
<
N
>where<
N
>isthechap-
ternumber,willbecreated.
Bydefault,thesemini-tablescontainonlyreferencestosectionsandsubsections.The
minitocdepth
counter,similarto
tocdepth
,allowstheusertomodifythisbehaviour.
Astheminitoctakesuproomonthefirstpage(s)ofachapter,itwillalterthepage
numbering. Therefore,threerunsnormallyareneededtogetcorrectinformationinthe
mini-tableofcontents.
Toturnoffthe
\minitoc
commands,merelyreplacethepackage
minitoc
with
mini-
tocoff
onyour
\usepackage
command.Thisassuresthatall
\minitoc
commandswillbe
ignored.
V
.2. I
NDEX
Tofindatopicofinterestinalargedocument,book,orreferencework,youusually
turntothetableofcontentsor,moreoften,totheindex. Therefore,anindexisavery
importantpartofadocument,andmostusers’entrypointtoasourceofinformation
ispreciselythroughapointerintheindex. Themostgenerallyusedindexpreparation
programisMakeIndex.
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42
V
. T
ABLEOFCONTENTS
,I
NDEXAND
G
LOSSARY
Pagevi: \index{animal}
Page5: \index{animal}
Page6: \index{animal}
Page7: \index{animal}
Page11:\index{animalism|see{animal}}
Page17:\index{animal@
\emph
{animal}}
\index{mammal|textbf}
Page26:\index{animal!mammal!cat}
Page32:\index{animal!insect}
(a)Theinputfile
\indexentry{animal}{vi}
\indexentry{animal}{5}
\indexentry{animal}{6}
\indexentry{animal}{7}
\indexentry{animalism|seeanimal}{11}
\indexentry{animal@
\emph
{animal}}{17}
\indexentry{mammal|textbf}{17}
\indexentry{animal!mammal!cat}{26}
\indexentry{animal!insect}{32}
(b)The
.idx
file
\begin
{theindex}
\itemanimal,vi,5–7
\subiteminsect,32
\subitemmammal
\subsubitemcat,26
\item
\emph
{animal},17
\itemanimalism,\see{animal}{11}
\indexspace
\itemmammal,
\textbf
{17}
\end
{theindex}
(c)The
.ind
file
animal,vi5–7
insect,32
mammal
cat,26
animal,17
animalism,seeanimal
mammal,17
(d)Thetypesetoutput
Figure
V
.1:Stepwisedevelopmentofindexprocessing
Each
\index
commandcausesLAT
E
Xtowriteanentryinthe
.idx
file.Thiscommand
writesthetextgivenasanargument,inthe
.idx
file.This
.idx
willbegeneratedonlyif
wegive
\makeindex
commandinthepreambleotherwiseitwillproducenothing.
\index{
index
entry
}
Togenerateindexfollowtheproceduregivenbelow:
1. Tagthewordsinsidethedocument,whichneedstocomeasindex,asanargumentof
\index
command.
2. Includethemakeidxpackagewithan
\usepackage
commandandput
\makeindex
com-
mandatthepreamble.
3. Puta
\printindex
commandwheretheindexistoappear,normallybefore
\end{document}
command.
4. LAT
E
Xfile.Thenarawindex(
file.idx
)willbegenerated.
5. Thenrun
makeindex
.(makeindexfile.idxormakeindexfile).Thentwomorefileswill
begenerated,file.indwhichcontainstheindexentriesandfile.ilg,atranscriptfile.
6. ThenrunLAT
E
Xagain.Nowyoucanseeinthedvithattheindexhasbeengenerated
inanewpage.
V
.2.1. Simpleindexentries
Each
\index
commandcausesL
A
T
E
Xtowriteanentryinthe
.idx
file.Forexample
\index{
index
entry
}
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V
.2. I
NDEX
43
fonts
ComputerModern,13–25
math,seemath,fonts
PostScript,5
table,ii–xi,14
Pageii: \index{table|(}
Pagexi: \index{table|)}
Page5: \index{fonts!PostScript|(}
\index{fonts!PostScript|)}
Page13 \index{fonts!ComputerModern|(}
Page14:\index{table}
Page17:\index{fonts!math|see{math,fonts}}
Page21:\index{fonts!ComputerModern}
Page25:\index{fonts!ComputerModern|)}
Figure
V
.2:Pagerangeandcross-referencing
V
.2.2. Subentries
Uptothreelevelsofindexentries (main, sub,andsubsubentries)areavailable with
LAT
E
X-
MakeIndex
.Toproducesuchentries,theargumentofthe
\index
commandshould
containboththemainandsubentries,separatedby!character.
Page5:
\index{
dimensions!rule!width
}
Thiswillcomeoutas
dimensions
rule
width,5
V
.2.3. Pagerangesandcross-references
Youcanspecifyapagerangebyputtingthecommand
\index{...|(}
atthebeginningof
therangeand
\index{...|)}
attheendoftherange.Pagerangesshouldspanahomoge-
neousnumberingscheme(e.g.,RomanandArabicpagenumberscannotfallwithinthe
samerange).
Youcanalsogeneratecross-referenceindexentrieswithoutpagenumbersbyusing
the
see
encapsulator. Since“see”entrydoesnotprintanypagenumber,thecommands
\index{...|
see
{...}}
canbeplacedanywhereintheinputfileafterthe
\begin{document}
command. For r practical reasons, itis convenient t togroupall suchcross-referencing
commandsinoneplace.
V
.2.4. Controllingthepresentationform
Sometimesyoumaywanttosortanentryaccordingtoakey,while usingadifferent
visualrepresentationforthetypesetting,suchasGreekletters,mathematicalsymbols,or
specifictypographicforms.Thisfunctionisavailablewiththesyntax:key@visual,where
keydeterminesthealphabeticalpositionandthestringvalueproducesthetypesettextof
theentry.
Forsomeindexescertainpagenumbersshouldbeformattedspecially,withanitalic
pagenumber(forexample)indicatingaprimaryreference,andannafterapagenumber
denotingthattheitemappears inafootnoteonthatpage. MakeIndexallowsyouto
formatanindividualpagenumberinanywayyouwantbyusingtheencapsulatorsyntax
specified|character.Whatfollowsthe|signwill“encapsulate”orenclosethepagenum-
ber associatedwiththeindexentry. . Forinstance,thecommand
\index
{keyword|xxx}
willproduceapagenumberoftheform
\xxx
{n},wherenisthepagenumberinquestion.
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44
V
. T
ABLEOFCONTENTS
,I
NDEXAND
G
LOSSARY
delta,14
δ,23
deltawing,16
flower,19
ninety,26
xc,28
ninety-five,5
tabbing,7,34–37
tabular,ii,21,22n
tabular
environment,23
Pageii:
\index{tabular|textbf}
Page5:
\index{ninety-five}
Page7:
\index{tabbing}
Page14: \index{delta}
Page16: \index{deltawing}
Page19: \index{flower@
\textbf
{flower}}
Page21: \index{tabular|textit}
Page22: \index{tabular|nn}
Page23: \index{delta@
δ
}
\index{tabular@
\texttt
{tabular}
environment}
Page26: \index{ninety}
Page28: \index{ninety@xc}
Page34: \index{tabbing|(textit}
Page36: \index{tabbing|)}
Figure
V
.3:Controllingthepresentationform
@sign,2
|,seeverticalbar
exclamation(!),4
Ah!,5
M¨adchen,3
quote(
"
),1
"
sign,1
\index{
bar@
\texttt
{"|}|
see
{
verticalbar
}}
Page1:
\index{
quote(
\verb
+
""
+)
}
\index{
quote@
\texttt
{""}
sign
}
Page2:
\index{
atsign@
\texttt
{"@}
sign
}
Page3:
\index{
maedchen@M\
"{
a
}
dchen
}
Page4:
\index{
exclamation(
"
!)
}
Page5:
\index{
exclamation(
"
!)!Ah
"
!
}
Figure
V
.4:Printingthosespecialcharacters
Similarly,thecommand
\index
{keyword|(xxx)}willgenerateapagerangeoftheform
\xxx
{n-m}
\newcommand{\nn}[1]{#1n}
V
.2.5. Printingthosespecialcharacters
TotypesetoneofthecharactershavingaspecialmeaningtoMakeIndex(
!, ", , @, or |
)
intheindex,precedeitwitha
"
character. Moreprecisely,anycharacterissaidtobe
quotedifitfollowsanunquoted
"
thatisnotpartofa
\"
command.Thelattercaseisfor
allowingumlautcharacters. Quoted
!, @, , ", , or |
charactersaretreatedlikeordinary
characters,losingtheirspecialmeaning. The
"
precedingaquotedcharacterisdeleted
beforetheentriesarealphabetised.
V
.3. G
LOSSARY
A‘glossary’isaspecialindexoftermsandphrasesalphabeticallyorderedtogetherwith
theirexplanations.Tohelpsetupaglossary,LAT
E
Xoffersthecommands
\makeglossary
inthepreambleand
\glossary{
glossary-entry
}
inthetextpart
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V
.3. G
LOSSARY
45
whichfunctionjustlikethecommandsformakingupanindexregister. Theentriesare
writtentoafilewithextension
.glo
afterthecommand
\makeglossary
hasbeengivenin
thepreamble.Theformofthesefileentriesfromeach
\glossary
commandis
\glossaryentry\textit{glossary-entry}{
pagenumber
}
Theinformationinthe
.glo
filecanbeusedtoestablishaglossary.However,thereisno
equivalenttothe
theindex
environmentforaglossary,butarecommendedstructureis
the
description
environmentoraspeciallistenvironment.
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46
TUTORIALVI
DISPLAYEDTEXT
Therearemanyinstancesinadocumentwhenwewanttovisuallyseparateaportion
oftextfromitssurroundingmaterial.Onemethodofdoingthisistotypesetthedistin-
guishedtextwithaddedindentation.Itiscalleddisplaying.LAT
E
Xhasvariousconstructs
fordisplayingtextdependingthenatureofthedisplayedtext.
VI
.1. B
ORROWEDWORDS
Quotations are oftenusedina a document,either r toaddweighttoour arguments by
referringtoahigherauthorityorbecausewefindthatwecannotimproveontheway
anideahasbeenexpressedbysomeoneelse. Ifthequoteisaone-liner,wecansimply
include itwithindouble-quotesandbe donewithit(rememberhow touse quotes in
T
E
X?) Butifthequotationis s severallines long,itisbettertodisplayit. . Lookatthe
followingexample:
SomemathematicianselevatethespiritofMathematicstoakindofintellectualaesthetics. It
isbestvoicedbyBertrandRussellinthefollowinglines.
Thetruespiritofdelight,theexaltation,thesenseofbeingmorethanman,which
isthetouchstoneofthehighestexcellence,istobefoundinMathematicsassurely
asinpoetry....Reallifeis,tomostmen,alongsecondbest,aperpetualcompro-
misebetweentheidealandthepossible;buttheworldofpurereasonknowsno
compromise,nopracticallimitations,nobarrierstothecreativeactivityembody-
inginsplendidedificesthepassionateaspirationaftertheperfect,fromwhichall
greatworksprings.
Yes,tomenlikeRussell,Mathematicsismoreofanartthanscience.
Thiswastypesetasshownbelow
Some mathematicians elevate e the spirit of Mathematics
to a a kind of
intellectual aesthetics. . It t is best voiced
by Bertrand Russell in the
following lines.
\begin{quote}
The true spirit of ................................from which
all great work springs.
\end{quote}
NotethatherewegiveinstructionstoT
E
Xtotypesetsomematerialinaseparate
paragraphwithadditionalindentationoneithersideandindicatethestartandendof
materialrequiringspecialtreatment,bymeansofthecommands
\begin{quote} ... \end{quote}
47
48
VI
. D
ISPLAYED
T
EXT
ThisisanexampleofwhatisknowninLAT
E
Xparlanceasanenvironment. Environ-
mentsareusedtodelimitpassagesrequiringspecialtypographictreatmentsandtogive
instructionstoLAT
E
Xonhowtotypesetit.Thegeneralformofanenvironmentisofthe
form
\begin{
name
} ... \end{
name
}
wherenameisthenameoftheenvironmentandsignifiestoLAT
E
Xthetypeoftypographic
treatmentrequired(deliberateattemptatapun,that).
Thequotedpartinthis exampleisasingleparagraph. . Ifthequotationrunsinto
severalparagraphs,wemustusethe
quotation
environment,byenclosingthequotation
within
\begin{quotation}
and
\end{quotation}
.Asusual,paragraphsareseparatedby
blanklineswhiletypingthesourcefile.
VI
.2. P
OETRY INTYPESETTING
LAT
E
Xcanwritepoetry...wellalmost;ifyouwritepoems,T
E
X cannicelytypesetitfor
you.(IhavealsoheardsomeT
E
XwizardssayingKnuth’scodeissheerpoetry!)Lookat
thepassagebelow:
Contrarytopopularbelief,limericksarenotalwaysribald.Someofthemcontainmathemati-
calconcepts:
Amathematicianonceconfided
ThataM¨obiusbandisonesided
You’llgetquitealaugh
Ifyoucutitinhalf
Foritstaysinonepiecewhendivided
ThereisanextensionofthistoKlein’sbottlealso.
Thiswastypesetasfollows:
Contrary to popular belief, , ...
tried their hands s at t it:
\begin{verse}
A mathematician n confided\\
A M\"obius s band is s one sided\\
You’ll get t quite e a laugh\\
If you cut t it t in half\\
For it stays in n one e piece e when divided
\end{verse}
There is an extension of this to o Klein’s bottle e also.
Notethatlinebreaksareforcedbythesymbol
\\
. Differentstanzasareseparated
intheinputbyone(ormore)blanklines.IfyoudonotwantT
E
Xtostartanewpageat
aparticularlinebreak(ifyouwanttokeeprhymingcoupletstogetherinonepage,for
example),thenuse
\\*
insteadofplain
\\
.Again,ifyouwantmorespacebetweenlines
thanwhatLAT
E
Xdeemsfit,thenuse
\\
withanoptionallengthasin
\\[5pt]
whichadds
anextraverticalspaceof5pointsbetweenthelines.Youcanalsotype
\\*[5pt]
,whose
intentionshouldbeobviousbynow.
VI
.3. M
AKINGLISTS
ListsareneededtokeepsomesemblanceoforderinachaoticworldandL
A
T
E
Xhelpsus
totypesetthemnicely. Also,therearedifferentkindsoflistsavailablebydefaultandif
VI
.3. M
AKINGLISTS
49
noneofthemsuitsyourneed,therearefacilitiestotweaktheseorevendesignyourown.
LetusfirsthavealookatthetypesoflistsLAT
E
Xprovides.
VI
.3.1. Sayingitwithbullets
The
itemize
environmentgivesusabullet-list. Forexampleitproducessomethinglike
this:
OneshouldkeepthefollowinginmindwhenusingT
E
X
• T
E
Xisatypesettinglanguageandnotawordprocessor
• T
E
Xisaprogramandandnotanapplication
• TheresisnomeaningincomparingT
E
Xtoawordprocessor,sincethedesignpurposes
aredifferent
Beingaprogram,T
E
Xoffersahighdegreeofflexibility.
Theinputwhichproducesthisisgivenbelow:
One should keep the following in mind when using \TeX
\begin{itemize}
\item \TeX\ \ is s a a typesetting g language and not a word processor
\item \TeX\ \ is s a a program m and and not an n application
\item Theres is no meaning g in n comparing g \teX\ \ to a word processor, since the design
purposes are different
\end{itemize}
Being a a program, , \TeX\ \ offers s a high degree of flexibility.
The
\begin{itemize}
...
\end{itemize}
pairsignifies wewantabullet-listofthe
enclosedmaterial.Eachitemofthelistisspecifiedby(whatelse?)an
\item
command.
Wecanhavelistswithinlists.Forexample:
OneshouldkeepthefollowinginmindwhenusingT
E
X
• T
E
Xisatypesettinglanguageandnotawordprocessor
• T
E
Xisaprogramandandnotanapplication
• TheresisnomeaningincomparingT
E
Xtoawordprocessor,sincethedesignpurposes
aredifferent
• T
E
Xisthenaturalchoiceinoneofthesesituations
– IfwewanttotypesetadocumentcontaininglotofMathematics
– Ifwewantourtypeddocumenttolookbeautiful
Beingaprogram,T
E
Xoffersahighdegreeofflexibility.
Itisproducedbytheinputbelow:
One should keep the following in mind when using \TeX
\begin{itemize}
\item \TeX\ \ is s a a typesetting g language and not a
word processor
\item \TeX\ \ is s a a program m and and not an n application
\item Theres is no meaning g in n comparing g \TeX\ \ to a word processor, since the design
purposes are different
\item \TeX\ \ is s the natural l choice e in one of these e situations
\begin{itemize}
\item If we want to o typeset t a a document t containing lot of Mathematics
50
VI
. D
ISPLAYED
T
EXT
\item If we want our typed document to look beautiful
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
Being a program, , \TeX\ \ offers a a high h degree of flexibility.
The
itemize
environmentsupportsfourlevelsofnesting. Thefulllistoflabelsforthe
items(‘bullets’forthefirstlevel,‘dashes’forthesecondandsoon)isasshownbelow
• Thefirstiteminthefirstlevel
• theseconditeminthefirstlevel
– Thefirstiteminthesecondlevel
– theseconditeminthesecondlevel
∗ Thefirstiteminthethirdlevel
∗ theseconditeminthethirdlevel
· Thefirstiteminthefourthlevel
· theseconditeminthefourthlevel
Notsatisfiedwiththesedefaultlabels?Howaboutthisone?
 Firstitemofanewlist
 Seconditem
Itwasproducedbythefollowinginput:
{\renewcommand{\labelitemi}{$\triangleright$}
\begin{itemize}
\item First t item of f a a new w list
\item Second item
\end{itemize}}
Several things needexplanationhere. . Firstnote e thatthe first levellabelsofthe
itemize
environmentareproducedbythe(internalandsoinvisibletotheuser)command
\labelitemi
andbydefault,thisissetas
\textbullet
toproducethedefault‘bullets’.
Whatwedoherebyissuingthe
\renewcommand
istooverridethisbyachoiceofourown
namely
$\triangleright$
whichproducesthelittletrianglesintheabovelist. Whythe
braces
{
and
}
(didyounoticethem?)enclosingthewholeinput? Theymaketheeffect
ofthe
\renewcommand
localinthesensethatthischangeoflabelsisonlyforthisspecific
list. Whichmeansthenexttimeweusean
itemize
environment,thelabelsrevertback
totheoriginal‘bullets’.Ifwewantthelabelstobechangedintheentiredocument,then
removethebraces.
Whatifwewanttochangethesecondlevellabels? Noproblem,justchangethe
\labelitemii
command,usingasymbolofourchoice.Thethirdandfourthlevellabels
aresetbythecommands(canyouguess?)
\labelitemiii
and
\labelitemiv
.Lookatthe
followingexample.
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