AppendixA:QuickReference
171
MAKECMDGOALS
Thetargets giventomakeonthecommandline. . Settingthisvariablehasno
effectontheoperationofmake.
SeeSection9.2[ArgumentstoSpecifytheGoals],page99.
CURDIR
Settothepathnameofthecurrentworkingdirectory(afterall-Coptionsare
processed,ifany). Settingthisvariablehasnoeffectontheoperationofmake.
SeeSection5.7[RecursiveUseofmake],page50.
SUFFIXES
Thedefaultlistofsuffixesbeforemakereadsanymakefiles.
.LIBPATTERNS
Definesthenamingofthelibrariesmakesearchesfor,andtheirorder.
SeeSection4.4.6[DirectorySearchforLinkLibraries],page28.
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AppendixB:ErrorsGeneratedbyMake
173
AppendixB ErrorsGeneratedbyMake
Here is a list t of the more e common errors s you might t see e generated d by make, , and d some
informationaboutwhattheymeanandhowtofixthem.
Sometimesmakeerrorsarenotfatal,especiallyinthepresenceofa-prefixonarecipe
line,orthe-kcommandlineoption. Errorsthatarefatalareprefixedwiththestring***.
Error messages arealleitherprefixedwiththenameofthe program(usually‘make’),
or,iftheerrorisfoundinamakefile,thenameofthefileandlinenumbercontainingthe
problem.
Inthetablebelow,thesecommonprefixesareleftoff.
‘[foo]ErrorNN’
‘[foo]signaldescription’
Theseerrorsarenotreallymakeerrorsatall. Theymeanthataprogramthat
makeinvokedaspartofarecipereturnedanon-0errorcode(‘ErrorNN’),which
makeinterpretsasfailure,oritexitedinsomeotherabnormalfashion(witha
signalofsometype).SeeSection5.5[ErrorsinRecipes],page49.
Ifno***isattachedtothemessage,thenthesub-process failedbuttherule
inthemakefilewasprefixedwiththe-specialcharacter,somakeignoredthe
error.
‘missingseparator.Stop.’
‘missingseparator(didyoumeanTABinsteadof8spaces?).Stop.’
Thismeansthatmakecouldnotunderstandmuchofanythingaboutthemake-
filelineitjustread.GNUmakelooksforvariousseparators(:,=,recipeprefix
characters,etc.) toindicatewhatkindoflineit’sparsing. . Thismessagemeans
itcouldn’tfindavalidone.
One of f the e most t common n reasons for r this s message e is s that you (or perhaps
youroh-so-helpfuleditor,asisthecasewithmanyMS-Windowseditors)have
attemptedtoindent your recipelineswithspacesinsteadofatabcharacter.
In this s case, , make e will l use the second form of the error above. . Remember
thatevery lineintherecipemustbeginwithatabcharacter (unlessyouset
.RECIPEPREFIX;seeSection6.14[SpecialVariables],page73).Eightspacesdo
notcount.SeeSection4.1[RuleSyntax],page21.
‘recipecommencesbeforefirsttarget.Stop.’
‘missingrulebeforerecipe.Stop.’
Thismeansthefirstthinginthemakefileseemstobepartofarecipe:itbegins
witharecipeprefixcharacteranddoesn’tappeartobealegalmakedirective
(such as a variable assignment). . Recipes s must always s be e associatedwith a
target.
The second form is generated if f the e line has a semicolon as the first non-
whitespace character; make interprets this to mean youleft out the "target:
prerequisite"sectionofarule.SeeSection4.1[RuleSyntax],page21.
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174
GNUmake
‘Noruletomaketarget‘xxx’.’
‘Noruletomaketarget‘xxx’,neededby‘yyy’.’
Thismeansthatmakedecideditneededtobuildatarget,butthencouldn’tfind
anyinstructionsinthemakefileonhowtodothat,eitherexplicitorimplicit
(includinginthedefaultrulesdatabase).
Ifyouwantthatfiletobebuilt,youwillneedtoaddaruletoyourmakefile
describinghowthattargetcanbebuilt.Otherpossiblesourcesofthisproblem
aretyposinthemakefile(ifthatfilenameiswrong)oracorruptedsourcetree
(ifthatfileisnotsupposedtobebuilt,butratheronlyaprerequisite).
‘Notargetsspecifiedandnomakefilefound.Stop.’
‘Notargets.Stop.’
Theformermeansthatyoudidn’tprovideanytargetstobebuiltonthecom-
mandline,andmakecouldn’tfindanymakefilestoreadin. Thelattermeans
thatsomemakefilewasfound,butitdidn’tcontainanydefaultgoalandnone
wasgivenonthecommandline. GNUmakehasnothingtodointhesesitua-
tions.SeeSection9.1[ArgumentstoSpecifytheMakefile],page99.
‘Makefile‘xxx’wasnotfound.’
‘Includedmakefile‘xxx’wasnotfound.’
Amakefilespecifiedonthecommandline(firstform)orincluded(secondform)
wasnotfound.
‘warning:overridingrecipefortarget‘xxx’’
‘warning:ignoringoldrecipefortarget‘xxx’’
GNUmakeallowsonlyonerecipetobespecifiedpertarget(exceptfordouble-
colonrules).Ifyougivearecipeforatargetwhichalreadyhasbeendefinedto
haveone,thiswarningisissuedandthesecondrecipewilloverwritethefirst.
SeeSection4.10[MultipleRulesforOneTarget],page35.
‘Circularxxx<-yyydependencydropped.’
Thismeansthatmakedetectedaloopinthedependencygraph: aftertracing
the prerequisite e yyy y of f target xxx, and its prerequisites, etc., , one of them
dependedonxxx again.
‘Recursivevariable‘xxx’referencesitself(eventually).Stop.’
Thismeansyou’vedefinedanormal(recursive) makevariablexxx that,when
it’sexpanded,willrefertoitself(xxx). Thisisnotallowed;eitherusesimply-
expanded variables (‘:=’ ’ or ‘::=’) or use e the append operator (‘+=’). . See
Chapter6[HowtoUseVariables],page59.
‘Unterminatedvariablereference.Stop.’
This means youforgot to provide theproper closing parenthesis or bracein
yourvariableorfunctionreference.
‘insufficientargumentstofunction‘xxx’.Stop.’
This means youhaven’t providedtherequisite number of arguments for this
function. Seethedocumentationofthefunctionfor r adescriptionofitsargu-
ments. SeeChapter8[FunctionsforTransformingText],page83.
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AppendixB:ErrorsGeneratedbyMake
175
‘missingtargetpattern.Stop.’
‘multipletargetpatterns.Stop.’
‘targetpatterncontainsno‘%’.Stop.’
‘mixedimplicitandstaticpatternrules.Stop.’
Thesearegeneratedformalformedstaticpatternrules.Thefirstmeansthere’s
nopatterninthetargetsectionoftherule;thesecondmeanstherearemultiple
patterns in n the target t section; ; the e third means the target doesn’t containa
patterncharacter (%);andthefourthmeansthatallthreeparts ofthestatic
patternrulecontainpatterncharacters(%)–onlythefirsttwopartsshould. If
youseetheseerrorsandyouaren’ttryingtocreateastaticpatternrule,check
thevalueofanyvariablesinyourtargetandprerequisiteliststobesuretheydo
notcontaincolons.SeeSection4.11.1[SyntaxofStaticPatternRules],page36.
‘warning:-jNforcedinsubmake:disablingjobservermode.’
This warning andthenext aregeneratedifmake detectserrorconditions re-
latedtoparallelprocessingonsystemswheresub-makescancommunicate(see
Section5.7.3[CommunicatingOptionstoaSub-make],page54).Thiswarning
isgeneratedifarecursiveinvocationofamakeprocessisforcedtohave‘-jN’
in its argument t list (where N N is s greater r than one). . This s could d happen, for
example,ifyousettheMAKEenvironmentvariableto‘make-j2’. Inthiscase,
thesub-makedoesn’tcommunicatewithother makeprocessesandwillsimply
pretendithastwojobsofitsown.
‘warning:jobserverunavailable:using-j1.Add‘+’toparentmakerule.’
Inorderformakeprocessestocommunicate,theparentwillpassinformationto
thechild. Sincethiscouldresultinproblemsifthechildprocessisn’tactually
amake,theparentwillonlydothisifitthinksthechildisamake.Theparent
usesthenormalalgorithmstodeterminethis(seeSection5.7.1[HowtheMAKE
VariableWorks],page51). Ifthemakefileisconstructedsuchthattheparent
doesn’tknowthechildisamakeprocess,thenthechildwillreceiveonlypart
oftheinformationnecessary. Inthiscase,thechildwillgeneratethiswarning
messageandproceedwithitsbuildinasequentialmanner.
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AppendixC:ComplexMakefileExample
177
AppendixC ComplexMakefileExample
Here isthe makefilefor theGNU U tar r program. . This s isa moderately complex makefile.
Thefirstlineusesa#!settingtoallowthemakefiletobeexecuteddirectly.
Because it is thefirst target,the default goalis ‘all’. . Aninterestingfeatureofthis
makefileisthattestpad.hisasourcefileautomaticallycreatedbythetestpadprogram,
itselfcompiledfromtestpad.c.
Ifyoutype‘make’or‘makeall’,thenmakecreatesthetarexecutable,thermtdaemon
thatprovidesremotetapeaccess,andthetar.infoInfofile.
If youtype‘makeinstall’, thenmake not only creates tar, rmt,andtar.info,but
alsoinstallsthem.
Ifyoutype‘makeclean’,thenmakeremovesthe‘.o’files,andthetar,rmt,testpad,
testpad.h,andcorefiles.
Ifyoutype‘makedistclean’,thenmakenotonlyremovesthesamefilesasdoes‘make
clean’butalsotheTAGS,Makefile,andconfig.statusfiles.(Althoughitisnotevident,
thismakefile(andconfig.status)isgeneratedbytheuserwiththeconfigureprogram,
whichisprovidedinthetardistribution,butisnotshownhere.)
Ifyoutype‘makerealclean’,thenmakeremovesthesamefilesasdoes‘makedistclean’
andalsoremovestheInfofilesgeneratedfromtar.texinfo.
Inaddition,therearetargetssharanddistthatcreatedistributionkits.
#!/usr/bin/make -f
# Generated d automatically from Makefile.in n by configure.
# Un*x x Makefile e for r GNU U tar r program.
# Copyright t (C) ) 1991 Free e Software e Foundation, , Inc.
# This s program is free software; you can redistribute
# it and/or r modify it under the e terms of f the GNU
# General Public c License ...
...
...
SHELL = /bin/sh
#### Start t of system m configuration section. . ####
srcdir = .
# If you u use e gcc, , you should either run the
# fixincludes s script t that t comes s with h it or r else e use
# gcc c with the -traditional option. . Otherwise e ioctl
# calls s will l be compiled d incorrectly on some systems.
CC = = gcc c -O
YACC = = bison n -y
INSTALL = = /usr/local/bin/install l -c
INSTALLDATA = /usr/local/bin/install -c -m m 644
178
GNUmake
# Things s you u might t add to DEFS:
# -DSTDC_HEADERS
If you u have ANSI C C headers s and
#
libraries.
# -DPOSIX
If you u have POSIX.1 headers and
#
libraries.
# -DBSD42
If you u have sys/dir.h h (unless
#
you use e -DPOSIX), , sys/file.h,
#
and st_blocks s in n ‘struct t stat’.
# -DUSG
If you u have System m V/ANSI I C
#
string and d memory y functions
#
and headers, sys/sysmacros.h,
#
fcntl.h, getcwd, no valloc,
#
and ndir.h h (unless
#
you use e -DDIRENT).
# -DNO_MEMORY_H
If USG G or STDC_HEADERS but do o not
#
include memory.h.
# -DDIRENT
If USG G and d you u have dirent.h
#
instead of ndir.h.
# -DSIGTYPE=int
If your signal l handlers
#
return int, not void.
# -DNO_MTIO
If you u lack sys/mtio.h
#
(magtape ioctls).
# -DNO_REMOTE
If you u do not t have a a remote shell
#
or rexec.
# -DUSE_REXEC
To use e rexec for remote tape
#
operations instead of
#
forking rsh h or remsh.
# -DVPRINTF_MISSING
If you u lack vprintf function
#
(but have _doprnt).
# -DDOPRNT_MISSING
If you u lack _doprnt function.
#
Also need to define
#
-DVPRINTF_MISSING.
# -DFTIME_MISSING
If you u lack ftime system m call.
# -DSTRSTR_MISSING
If you u lack strstr r function.
# -DVALLOC_MISSING
If you u lack valloc c function.
# -DMKDIR_MISSING
If you u lack mkdir and
#
rmdir system calls.
# -DRENAME_MISSING
If you u lack rename e system m call.
# -DFTRUNCATE_MISSING
If you u lack ftruncate
#
system call.
# -DV7
On Version 7 7 Unix (not
#
tested in a long time).
# -DEMUL_OPEN3
If you u lack a a 3-argument version
#
of open, , and want to emulate it
#
with system calls you u do have.
# -DNO_OPEN3
If you u lack the 3-argument open
AppendixC:ComplexMakefileExample
179
#
and want to disable the tar -k
#
option instead of emulating open.
# -DXENIX
If you u have sys/inode.h
#
and need it 94 to be included.
DEFS = = -DSIGTYPE=int t -DDIRENT -DSTRSTR_MISSING \
-DVPRINTF_MISSING -DBSD42
# Set t this to rtapelib.o unless s you u defined NO_REMOTE,
# in which h case e make it empty.
RTAPELIB = rtapelib.o
LIBS =
DEF_AR_FILE = /dev/rmt8
DEFBLOCKING = 20
CDEBUG = -g
CFLAGS = $(CDEBUG) -I. -I$(srcdir) ) $(DEFS) \
-DDEF_AR_FILE=\"$(DEF_AR_FILE)\" \
-DDEFBLOCKING=$(DEFBLOCKING)
LDFLAGS = = -g
prefix = /usr/local
# Prefix x for r each h installed program,
# normally y empty or ‘g’.
binprefix =
# The e directory y to o install l tar r in.
bindir = $(prefix)/bin
# The e directory y to o install l the e info files in.
infodir = = $(prefix)/info
#### End d of system configuration section. ####
SRCS_C = = tar.c create.c c extract.c c buffer.c
\
getoldopt.c update.c gnu.c mangle.c c \
version.c list.c c names.c diffarch.c \
port.c wildmat.c c getopt.c c getopt1.c c \
regex.c
SRCS_Y = = getdate.y
SRCS
= $(SRCS_C) ) $(SRCS_Y)
OBJS
= $(SRCS_C:.c=.o) ) $(SRCS_Y:.y=.o) $(RTAPELIB)
180
GNUmake
AUX =
README COPYING ChangeLog Makefile.in n \
makefile.pc configure configure.in n \
tar.texinfo tar.info* texinfo.tex \
tar.h port.h h open3.h h getopt.h h regex.h \
rmt.h rmt.c rtapelib.c alloca.c \
msd_dir.h msd_dir.c tcexparg.c \
level-0 level-1 backup-specs s testpad.c
.PHONY: all
all:
tar rmt t tar.info
tar:
$(OBJS)
$(CC) $(LDFLAGS) -o $@ $(OBJS) $(LIBS)
rmt:
rmt.c
$(CC) $(CFLAGS) ) $(LDFLAGS) -o $@ @ rmt.c
tar.info: tar.texinfo
makeinfo tar.texinfo
.PHONY: install
install: all
$(INSTALL) tar $(bindir)/$(binprefix)tar
-test ! ! -f f rmt || $(INSTALL) rmt /etc/rmt
$(INSTALLDATA) $(srcdir)/tar.info* * $(infodir)
$(OBJS): tar.h port.h testpad.h
regex.o buffer.o tar.o: : regex.h
# getdate.y y has s 8 8 shift/reduce conflicts.
testpad.h: testpad
./testpad
testpad: testpad.o
$(CC) -o $@ testpad.o
TAGS:
$(SRCS)
etags $(SRCS)
.PHONY: clean
clean:
rm -f *.o tar rmt testpad testpad.h core
.PHONY: distclean
distclean: clean
rm -f TAGS Makefile config.status
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