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5.3. DETAILEDSYSTEMDESIGN
89
output ofthecamerasupply voltage. . For r the connectionof allmotors andthe LED-matrix,
severaloutput linesare usedtosupply these components withthe requiredsupply currents.
Theimplementationofthese outputs (conguration,voltage levels,current levels, connector
types)hastoberealizedaccordingtotherequirementsoftheexternalunits.
Forthe internal exchange of informationbetweensystemcomponents (uC, FPGA, Memory,
andtheStepperController),theSPIinterfaceisapplied.Thisinterfacehasbeendevelopedby
MotorolatoprovideasimpleinterfacebetweenICs. Itusesfourdatalines(chipselect,clock
line,andtwouni-directionaldatalines)forasynchronizeddatatransfer[Chattopadhyay,2010].
Furthermore,severaldigitalandanaloginterfacesmustbeintegratedforthecontrolofsystem
elements.
Adetaileddescriptionofthedataandsignals,requiredfortheV-Modeldevelopmentprocess,
isnotinthefocusofthisdocument.
Non-Functional Requirements
TechnicalConstraints
ThdesignoftheRobotHeadControlUnithastobecarriedoutundertheconsiderationofsystem
requirementsgivenbyhigherhierarchicallevels.Forexample,theappliedbatterytechnologies
requirethattheRobotHeadControlUnit isabletooperatewithaninputvoltagerangefrom
22.0V to 30.0V.The e workingareaof the shopping robot is ofrelevance for the component
selectionprocess, because it t denes therequired d ranges s for temperature andhumidity. . The
usageinpublicareasrequiresthecomplianceofallelectricsystemswiththetechnicalstandards
forElectromagneticCompatibility(EMC)andElectromagneticInterference(EMI).
Theselectionprocessofunitcomponentsshouldalsofollowtworequirements: there-usageof
appliedcomponents andthe considerationofcosts and d power r consumption. . The e re-usageof
componentsallowsforahighereciencyofthedevelopmentprocess,becausedesignedhardware
elementsandwrittensoftwarecodecanbeappliedtootherunits.Costsandpowerconsumption
ofsystemelementsshouldbeconsideredduringtheselectionprocess,evenifthecriteriaCosts
andOperationTime arenotofhighestpriorityfortheshoppingrobotsystem.
Usability andMaintainability
Therealizationofthisunitshouldconsideraspectsofmaintainability. Thisincludesthepos-
sibility toupdatethe functionality ofthe uC(realized d inthesoftware architecture) ) andthe
FPGA(realizedbytheintegratedmemorycircuit). Thehardwaredesignshouldallowforthe
detection of malfunctions s of system m components, e.g., a defect of the power r output t for r the
omni-directionalcamera.
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90
CHAPTER5. DEVELOPMENTOFTHESHOPPINGROBOTPLATFORM
Integration
TheRobotHeadControlModule shouldbelocatedinsidetherobotheadforaneasyconnection
of all l external units (e.g., , motors). . The e mechanical design must t be carried out under the
considerationoftheavailablespace.
5.3.2 SoftwareArchitectureandSpecication
ThesoftwarearchitecturereferstothesoftwarecomponentsoftheuC.Otherunitcomponents
donot includesoftwareelements. . Giventhetechnicalparameters s ofthedetermineduC,the
architecturepresentedinFigure5.12isrealized.
HAL
CAN
SPI
ADC
RTC
CANopen
PDO
Handler
SDO
Handler
CANopen
Object Dictionary
Application
Operating System
Bootloader
Scheduler
Interrupts
Driver
Watchdog
TMC428
AT45DB321
GPIO
ADC
FPGA
NMT Handler
SYNC Handler
EMCY Handler
LED Control
Power Control
Memory Interface
Stepper Control
DC Motor Control
Communication
Misc
Figure 5.12: : SoftwarearchitectureoftheRobotHeadControlUnit.
Software ElementOverview
Hardware Abstraction Layer(HAL)
Thisabstractionlayerofthesoftwarearchitecturecontainstheinterfacestothehardwarefunc-
tionalitiesoftheuC.EverycomponentoftheHALincludesregistersforthecongurationand
usageofimplementedhardwarefunctionalities. Fortheaspiredsoftwaresystem,thefollowing
components oftheHALareofrelevance: : TheRealTimeClock(RTC)isrequiredfortheas-
sessmentofthecurrentsystemtime.Thisvalueisusedforasynchronizedcontrolofthemotors
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5.3. DETAILEDSYSTEMDESIGN
91
andtheLEDs,andforthetimingofoutgoingCANmessages. TheWatchdog g isintegratedto
improvethereliabilityofthisunitbyrestartingtheuCincaseofasoftwaremalfunction. The
ADC isapplicableforthedeterminationofanalogvaluesofthecamerapoweroutputs,andthe
SPIandCANmodulesareusedforinternalandexternalcommunication.
Operating System Layer
Theoperationsystemprovidesbasicfunctionalitiesthatcanbeusedbyallsoftwarecomponents.
Thisincludesthe Scheduler that processes theglobalsystem time of the unit andthat calls
softwaremodules basedonagiventime ow. . The e Interrupt Handler r includesfunctionalities
requiredfortheprocessingofinternalandexternalinterrupts(e.g.,anincomingCANmessage).
TheBootloader moduleallowsforanupdateofallsoftwarecomponents.
DriverLayer
Drivers provide softwareinterfaces betweenthe Application n Layer r andtheHALfor r congu-
rationandinformation handling. . Theintegration n of drivers allows s the usage of unmodied
application modules s for dierent hardware systems. . For r this unit, , drivers s are requiredthat
providefunctionalitiesfortheaccess oftheFPGA,theAnalogDigitalConverter(ADC),the
GeneralPurposeInput/Outputs(GPIOs)aswellasdriversfordataexchangewiththeMemory
andtheStepperController.
CANopenLayer
TheCANopenprotocolisusedfortheCANbasedcommunicationbetweentherobot’scontrol
units. This s protocolwasdevelopedfor the applicationinautomationunderthe directionof
the company Bosch [Zeltwanger, 2008]. . It t provides s services for network management, , data
transfer,anddevicemonitoring. Ofmostrelevancefortheexchangeofinformationwithother
unitsaretheProcessDataObject(PDO)andtheServiceDataObject(SDO)Handlers. PDOs
are used to transfer real-time information. . They y include plenary process information. . The
CANopenprotocolreserves ranges ofCANIdentiers(IDs)for the usagebyPDOmessages.
SDOs are applicablefor the transfer ofcongurationinformationorstaticprocess data. . An
SDOmessageincludesinformationaboutthedatatype,theaccesstype,andtheaddresswithin
theCANopenObject Dictionary y ofthetransferredvalue. . TheCANopenObjectDictionary y is
theinterfacetotheApplicationLayer.Withinthisdictionary,allvaluesaredened(datatype,
access type,datarange)that areaccessibleby the CANopencommunicationprotocol. . Data
valuesofincomingSDOandPDOmessagesarestoredinthisdictionary;requiredinformation
tobetransmittedistakenfromthisdictionary.
Further services ofthe CANopen n Layer are theNMT Handler,the SYNCHandler, andthe
EMCYHandler.TheNMTHandlersupportsnetworkmanagementprotocolsthatcanbeused
tosetaunitindierentstates(e.g.,stop,start,reset)orforthegenerationofheartbeatmessages
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92
CHAPTER5. DEVELOPMENTOFTHESHOPPINGROBOTPLATFORM
determiningthestatusofaunit. TheSYNCHandlerisapplicablewhenseveralunitsneedto
processataskatthesametime.Examplescouldbethesynchronizedcontrolofactuatorsorthe
synchronizedacquisitionofprocessdata.TheEMCYHandlerisresponsibleforthegeneration
ofCANerrormessages incaseof aninternalerror ofaunit. . Thisallows s other units forthe
reactiontooccurringmalfunctions.
Application Layer
Thislayer represents allsoftwaremodules thatprocess the highleveltasks ofthe unit. . For
theRobot HeadControlUnit,thisincludesapplicationmodulesforthecontrolofthemotors,
theLED-matrix,andthecontrolandmonitoringofthecamerapoweroutput. Othermodules
are responsible for r the e processing of incomingmessages s and the management t of the FPGA
congurationmemory. TheapplicationmoduleMisc c includesfunctions,e.g.,forthecontrolof
aunitstatusLED.
Non-Functional Requirements
System Update
TheupdatabilityofthefunctionalitiesoftheuCandtheFPGAmustbeenabledbytheimple-
mentedsoftwarearchitecture.TheuploadofnewfunctionalitiesmustbepossibleovertheCAN
busduringnormaloperation. Incorrect t updateprocessesmustbedetectedbythebootloader
beforetheapplicationisstarted.Insuchcases,theunitmustenterapre-operationalmodeand
waitforacorrectsoftwareupdate. Thebootloadermustalwaysbeaccessibleforthestartofa
newupdateprocess.
SoftwareTimestamp
AllPDOsmustcontainatimestampforthevalidationoftheactualityoftheinformation.The
globalsystemtime,transferredovertheCANbus,shouldbereceivedbythisunit.Ifthelocal
unittimeandtheglobalsystemtimearedierent,thelocalunittimehastobeset.
Error Handling
In case of an internalerror r of the unit, , a corresponding error r message has to be sent using
theCANopenEMCY Handler. . Everyerrormessagemusthaveauniqueerror r code. . Possible
errorstobereportedovertheCANbuscouldbeafaultycommunicationtotheFPGA,ashort
circuitorover-currentonthepoweroutputoftheomni-directionalcamera,orthedetectionof
ablockedmotor.
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5.4. SYSTEMELEMENTREALIZATION
93
5.3.3 UnitEvaluation
Theevaluationprocessofthisunitmustcoveraspectsofthehardwareandsoftwarerealization
aswellasthemechanicalintegration. Forthevericationofthehardware,testcasesmustbe
dened that t cover allintegrated d modules s regarding functionality andperformance. . Possible
failurecasesshouldbedenedandtested,e.g.,areversepolarityofthepowersupply,orshort
circuitsoftheoutputsignals. Finally,theoverallpowerconsumptionshouldbemeasuredand
comparedtotheexpectedconsumptionofallcomponents.
Inasimilarway,testcaseshavetobedenedfortheevaluationofallsoftwarefunctionalities.
Additionally, the timings s of all l software e modules s shouldbe measuredandcomparedto the
estimatedvalues.ThecompletenessandcorrectnessoftheCANopenObjectDictionary hasto
bechecked.Thegenerationoferrormessagehastobeprovenaswellasthecorrectfunctionality
ofthebootloader.
Theevaluationprocessofthemechanicalintegrationchecks,whetherthisunitcanbeintegrated
intotherobotheadasplanned. Thisrealizationhas s tobetestedregardingproducibilityand
maintainability(e.g.,accessibilityofconnectors).
5.4 SystemElementRealization
Inthisprojectstage,allspeciedsystemunitshavetobedesigned. Forembeddedsystemunits,
thisincludesthephysicaldesignofthePCBundertheconsiderationofmechanicalconstraints,
and the writing of software programs. . Every y unit t has to be e tested d regarding the specied
evaluation procedures. . In n the e course of f this s thesis, 16 units s were developed d to o realize the
embeddedsystemof theshopping robot (seeSection5.5). . Atotalnumberoftenembedded
systemunitsweredevelopedinaccordancetotheunitarchitecturedescribedintheprevious
section.Threeunitsarebasedonasimpliedembeddedsystemarchitecture(withoutCANopen
stack).
Figure5.13presentstherealizedRobotHeadControlUnitinthedesignstage(leftpanel)andthe
productionstage(rightpanel).Allrequiredcomponents,speciedbythehardwarearchitecture,
wereintegrated. Mechanicalrequirementsoftheshapefortheintegrationintotherobothead
wereconsidered.Theplacementofconnectorsfollowedtherulesforagoodproducability.The
placementofothercomponentswasarrangedbyfunctionalgroups,whichminimizestheimpact
ofpowercomponents(e.g.,motordrivers)tologicalcomponents(e.g.,FPGAoruC).
Theimplementedsoftware waspartitionedbasedonthe software architecture. . Are-usageof
softwarecomponents fromother systemunits was possiblefor themodulesofthe Operating
SystemandtheCANopen layer,bothdevelopedatthebeginningoftheproject. . Driversand
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94
CHAPTER5. DEVELOPMENTOFTHESHOPPINGROBOTPLATFORM
LED Driver
FPGA
DC-Motor Driver
Stepper Motor Driver
Stepper Controller
Microcontroller
Memory
CAN-Interface
Power Supply
Temperature Sensor
Power Output
Stepper Motor Driver
Figure5.13: RealizationoftheRobotHeadControlUnit. Theleftpictureshowsthedesign
state,therightpicturetheproducedandassembledPCB.
applicationmoduleswerespecicallydevelopedforthisunit. TheCANopenObjectDictionary
wasadaptedregardingthetransferredprocessinformation.
Table 5.10: : PowerconsumptionofrelevantcomponentsoftheRobotHeadControlUnitin
accordancewiththecomponentdatasheets.
Hardware Element
Type
Consumption(@3.3V)
Microcontroller
AT90CAN128
8.0mA
FPGA(V
CCIO
)
EP1C3T100C8N
4.0mA
FPGA(V
CCINT
)
EP1C3T100C8N
20.0mA
Memory
AT45DB321D-SU
3uA
CAN-Interface
SN65HVD233D
10.0mA
StepperMotorController
TMC428-I
1.0mA
StepperMotorDriver(3x)
TMC246A
2.2mA
Total
45.2mA
Thefunctionaltestsofthisunitwerecarriedoutbeforethisunitwasintegratedintoitsdedi-
catedsystemsegment. Therefore,allperipheralelements(motors,LED-matrix,camera)were
connected to this unit and the expected functionalities and performances s veried. . For r the
electricalcomponents,theoverallpowerconsumptionwas estimatedbasedonthegivenman-
ufacturer data (Table 5.10). . This s was comparedtothe real l power r consumption n of theunit
(measuredvalueofabout39.0mA@3.3V).Thisfurtherindicatesthecorrectnessofthephys-
icaldesign.
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5.5. SYSTEMINTEGRATION
95
Table 5.11: : Measuredtime e durations of relevant softwarecomponents of the Robot Head
ControlUnit.
SoftwareElement
Layer
Period
Time
Scheduler
OperatingSystem
10ms
20us
InterruptHandler
OperatingSystem
1ms
50us
StepperControl
Application
50ms
500us
DCMotorControl
Application
50ms
1,050us
LEDControl
Application
10ms
3,600us
PowerControl
Application
10ms
10us
Communication
Application
10ms
200us
Misc
Application
100ms
10us
SDOHandler
CANopen
onrequest
250us
PDOHandler
CANopen
10ms
700us
The functional tests of f the unit t were e also o applied to verify y the e correct functionality of the
software. Furthermore,thecorrectnessoftheCANopenObjectDictionary wastested,because
thiscomponentrepresentstheinterfacetoothersystemunits. Finally,theoperationtimesof
certainsoftwarecomponentswerecheckedforplausibility(Table5.11).
5.5 SystemIntegration
The next stepin the V-Modeldevelopment process is the composition process of the robot
systemstartingattheunit level. . Thisprocessleadstothecompositionoffunctionalgroups
at segment level(containing units), , subsystemlevel (containingsegments), andsystem level
(containingsubsystems).Foreveryhierarchicallevel,therequiredevaluationshavetobecarried
out.Thecompositionprocessandtheoutcomeofallevaluationprocessesmustbedocumented.
Attheendofthisprojectstage,thesystemisindeliverableform.
5.5.1 UnitLevel
A total number of 38 system unit types composed the e embedded system of the robot: : 16
units,designedinthecourseofthisthesis,and22externalunits(o-the-shelfproducts). The
selectioncriteriafortheexternalunitsfollowedfunctionalandnon-functionalrequirementsand
the decisions s of f the AHP. . Examples s are e the Laser Range e Finder r Unit t with h an S300 laser
scanner(companySick)forarobustlocalizationandnavigation;theFrontCameraUnit witha
high-resolutioncamerafor3Dobstacledetectionandmapping[Einhornetal.,2010];theDrive
MotorUnit containingElectronic c Commutated (EC) motors withexternalrotors s for r a high
96
CHAPTER5. DEVELOPMENTOFTHESHOPPINGROBOTPLATFORM
torsionalmomentoftherobotplatform.
The16units,developedwithinthisthesis,canbedividedintothreehardwareunits(Backplane
Unit, PowerControl l Unit,andthe Robot t Head d Light Unit) and13embeddedsystemunits.
Theseembeddedsystemunitshavethefollowingtasks:
Interface Unit: : This s unit controls the functionality of the embeddedPC. . It t provides the
powersupplyofthePCandmonitorsrelevantsignalsofthemotherboard.Thisgivesthe
InterfaceUnit thepossibilitytoturnonandotheembeddedPCandtosuperviseits
functionality.
Motor Control Unit: : Thisunitis s responsibleforthecontrolofbothdrivemotors. . Itpro-
ducesthepoweroutputsforthecurrentfeedofthemotorphasesandcalculatestherobot’s
odometrybasedontheintegratedhallsensorsofthemotors. Forsafetyreasons,thecol-
lision sensor r (bumper) of therobot andtheoptionalemergency buttons areconnected
tothismoduletoimmediatelystopthemotorsincaseofacollisionoruserinterference.
ThisunitcontainsauCandanFPGAforredundancy.
Sensor Control Unit: : ThisunitprimarycontrolsthefunctionalityoftheUltrasonicSensor
ArrayUnit. Therefore,theSensorControl l Unit t containsanI2Cinterfaceforcommuni-
cationandapowersupplyoutputadaptedtotherequirementsoftheultrasonicsensors.
Allincomingdatapackagesfromtheultrasonicsensorsarecheckedforplausibilitytode-
tectfaultysensorsalreadyatthisstage.Thismodulefurthercontainseightinput/output
portsforanaloganddigitalsignals.
Ultrasonic SensorArrayUnit: : This s sensor array y represents s multiple e PCBs, , each h con-
nected to one ultrasonic c sensor. . The e size of f this s array y can n be e adapted according g to
therequirements oftheplatform. . For r the shoppingrobot,24ultrasonicsenor modules
arecombinedtobuildtheUltrasonicSensorArrayUnit.
EBCUnit: TheExternalBusConnectorUnit providestwoEBCportsfortheconnectionof
units(e.g.,theRobot HeadControlUnit). . EachEBCportcontainsapoweroutputfor
thebatteryvoltage(max.currentof4.0A)andpoweroutputsfor5.0Vand12.0V(max.
currentof2.5A,each). Everypoweroutputcanbeseparatelyturnedonando,andis
monitoredregardingover-current. The e over-current thresholdleadingtoan emergency
shutdownofapoweroutputcanbeconguredbysoftware.Additionally,everyEBCport
includesaCANinterface.
RobotHeadControl Unit: : TheRobotHeadControlUnit t isresponsibleforthecontrolofall
componentsoftherobothead(asdescribedintheprevioussections).
HeadCameraUnit: Thisunitbelongstotheomni-directionalcameraoftherobot. Itcon-
tainsaUSBhubfortheconnectionoffourcameras. AsmalluCcanbeusedtoturnon
andothesecameras.
5.5. SYSTEMINTEGRATION
97
Display Control Unit: : The Display y Control l Unit t controls s all functionalities s of f the Dis-
play/MultimediaSegment. Thisincludesthepowersupplyofthedisplayandthetouch
sensoraswellasthepowersupplyanddataexchangeoftheBarcode-ReaderUnit. Fur-
thermore,aUSBsoundcardisintegratedtogeneratesoundoutputs(twoloudspeakers)
andtoreceivespeechinput(fourmicrophones).
BatteryControlUnit: Thisunit t isresponsiblefor themanagementoftherobot’sbattery.
Theunit’stasksincludethemonitoringofallcellvoltages,thebalancingofthecells,the
control of the charging process s (setting of current andvoltage levels), , andthe system
shutdownincaseoffailures(e.g.,under-voltage,over-voltage,orover-current).Because
this module is s directly y connected d tothe battery, it has s further responsibilities for the
controlofthewholerobotsystem.Theseresponsibilitiesare: theexecutionofthepower-
up procedure of the robot, the generation of the globalsystem time, the executionof
adeterminedpower-downprocedure,andthewake-upofallsystemcomponentsaftera
denedsleepingperiodorincaseofauserrequest.
Thetechnologicalprogressinbatterytechnologiesduringthetimecourseofthisthesisled
tothedevelopmentandimplementationoftwotypesofbatterysystems. Therefore,two
typesofBatteryControl Units s weredeveloped. . Therst t version(developedduringthe
SerRoKonprojects)controls two lead-acidbattery cells(nominalvoltageof 24.0Vand
nominalcapacity of42.0Ah). . This s Battery y Control l Unit t includes s a100Wlinevoltage
powerconverterforthemanualchargingofthebattery.ThesecondBatteryControlUnit
(designedinanadditionaldevelopmentcycleafterthenishingoftheSerRoKonprojects)
controlsthe56cellsofalithium-polymerbattery(nominalvoltageof25.9Vandnominal
Figure 5.14: : Lithium-polymerbatteryoftheshoppingrobot t platform without cover. . The
BatteryControlUnitconnectstheintegrated56batterycells.
98
CHAPTER5. DEVELOPMENTOFTHESHOPPINGROBOTPLATFORM
capacityof80.0Ah). Thisversionisabletohandlesevenlithium-polymercellsinseries
andisintegratedinsidethecasingofthebattery(Figure5.14). Forthemanualcharging
processbasedonlinevoltage,anexternalPowerSupplyUnit with500Wisused.
Collision Sensor
Unit
Ground Contact
Motor Units
Battery
Units
Driven
Wheels
Drive Motor 
Unit
Castor
Wheel
Power Plug
Unit
Figure5.15: Shoppingrobotbasewiththedrivesystemandtwolead-acidbatteries.
Bothbatteryversionswerepositionedataverylowandcentralpointoftherobotplatform
(Figure5.15). Thisguaranteestheveryhighstabilityoftheshoppingrobotsystem.
AuxiliaryChargerControlUnit: Inadditiontothemanualchargingmodebasedonline
voltage,theAHPproposedtherealizationofanextra-lowvoltageautonomous charging
mode. Therefore,theAuxiliaryChargerControlUnit t wasdesigned,whichconvertsthe
incomingextra-lowvoltagefromtheautonomouschargingstationtovoltageandcurrent
levelssuitable for thechargingprocess ofthe robot’s battery. . This s unit communicates
withtheautonomouschargingstationtostartthechargingprocess. It t furthercontrols
twomotorsthatpushthechargingcontactsoftherobotdownwards(tocontactthemetal
platesofthechargingstation).
AutonomousChargerControlUnit: ThisunitisthecounterpartoftheAuxiliaryCharger
ControlUnit. Itisinstalledinsidetheautonomouschargingstationandenablesthepower
outputtothechargingmetalplates.
User-RFID-ReaderUnit: TheUser-RFID-ReaderUnit t wasdevelopedtoenableoperators
tosettherobotapplicationsintospecialoperatingmodes(e.g.,anadministrationmode).
ThisunitcontainsanRFIDreaderwithashortdetectionrange.IfanRFIDtagisplaced
closetothismodule,aCANmessagecontainingthedetectedRFIDcodeisgenerated.
StatusDisplayUnit: This s optional module can be e installed on the robot. . It t contains a
smalldisplayandaturningknob,whichallowfor the congurationoflowlevelsystem
parameters(e.g.,thecontroloftheultrasonicsensors,ortheEBCports).
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