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3.6. ADAPTATIONOFTHEV-MODELTOSERVICEROBOTDEVELOPMENTS
29
Project
Approved
Project
Defined
Requirements
Specified
Request for
Prop. Released
Offer
Submitted
Contract
Awarded
Iteration
Scheduled
Acceptance
Completed
System
Specified
System
Designed
Detail Design
Completed
Project
Completed
Modules
Realized
Delivery
Conducted
System
Integrated
Project Progress
Revised
Overall Project Progress
Revised
Overall Project
Partitioned
Process Model Improvement
Implemented
Process Model Improvement
Specified
Process Model
Analyzed
All V-Model Projects
Organization-specific Process Model
Acquire/Supplier Interface
System Development
Legend:
Figure3.5: DecisionGatesdenedbytheV-Modelrepresentingmilestonesofthedevelopment
process[V-ModelXT,2009].
3.6.4 ProjectStagesandDecisionGates
Thestructure-orientedviewofthedevelopmentprocessisbasedonProjectStagesthathaveto
beaccomplishedduringthedevelopment,e.g.,systemspecicationorsystemdesign. Specic
tasks ofProcessModules s are e executedwithinthesestagestogeneraterequiredoutputs. . De-
pendingontheprojectexecutionstrategy,aspeciccombinationandorderofthesestagesis
dened. TheachievementofagoalofaProjectStage e ismarkedbyaDecisionGate,wherethe
currentstatus oftheprojecthastobeevaluatedbytheprojectmanagement. . Therefore,De-
cisionGatesrepresentmilestonesofthedevelopmentprocess(Figure3.5). TopassaDecision
GateandtoenterthenextProjectStage,alltasksofthepreviousstagehavetobenished. If
thequalityofonetaskoutcomeisinsucient,whichpreventsthepassingofaDecisionGate,
threesolutionsareconsideredbytheV-Model: thetaskhastobereviseduntilithasanap-
propriatequality;theprojectistracedbacktopermitanalternativesolutionortorepeatthe
processingofseveralpredecessortaskoutputs;orthedevelopmentprojectcouldbecanceled.
TheDecisionGatesforthedevelopmentsoftherobotplatformsareshowninFigure3.6.The
gatesProjectApprovedandProjectDenedwerealreadypassedbeforethedevelopmentprocess
started.Thesegateswerecompletedbypassingthefundingagenciesevaluationprocesses.The
requirements specications ofthe robot systems, , which havetobedonebeforethe gate Re-
quirementsSpecied,wereincludedintheprojectproposals.Furthermore,mostofthedecision
gatesbelongingtotheacquirer-supplierinterfacewerenotincludedtothedevelopmentprocess,
becausetherelatedtaskswerealreadycarriedoutduringtheprojectapplicationandevaluation
processes. Therefore,thedevelopment t processes oftherobot systems describedinthiswork
started withthe developments s requiredfor the decisiongate SystemSpecied d andcontinued
untilthedecisiongateDeliveryConducted waspassed. TheseDecisionGatesaredescribedin
moredetailinthefollowing:
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30
CHAPTER3. SYSTEMDESIGNMODELS
Project
Approved
Project
Defined
Requirements
Specified
Iteration
Scheduled
Acceptance
Completed
System
Specified
System
Designed
Detail Design
Completed
Project
Completed
Modules
Realized
Delivery
Conducted
System
Integrated
All V-Model Projects
Acquire/Supplier Interface
System Development
Legend:
Figure3.6: Project-specicdevelopmentprocessoftherobotplatforms.
SystemSpecied: The e goal of this s project t stage e is s the overall l system specication. . The
initial situationand the intendedtechnical solutions s have to bedescribed. . Functional
requirementsoftherobotplatformhavetobederivedfromrelevantusecases. Further,
non-functional requirements have e to o be dened, e.g., , the e working g area, physical con-
straints,ordemandsonserviceandinstallation. Anoverviewofthesystemarchitecture
shouldbeincludedinthesystemspecicationandrsttechnicalapproaches(likesystem
interfaces) shouldbepresented. . Forthelater r vericationprocessoftheoutputsofthis
projectstage,anevaluationspecicationbasedontestcasesmustbeincluded.Itisalso
recommendedtospecifyasafetyandsecurityanalysisofthedevelopedsystem.
SystemDesigned: Thisprojectstageincludesthediscussionofpossiblesystemarchitectures.
Afterselectingtheoptimalarchitecture,thesystemdecompositionmustbecarriedout.
Here,thesystemisbrokendownintosubsystems(e.g.,PowerSupplySubsystem),seg-
ments(e.g.,BatterySystemSegment),andunits(e.g.,BatteryControlUnit). Elements
identiedonallhierarchicallevelsandtheinterfacesbetweenthesesystemelementsshould
bedescribed.Therequirementsofsubsystemsandsegmentsmustbespecied.Alldesign
decisions at these levels must be comprehensively documented. . Further, , anevaluation
specicationforeachsystemelementshouldbeprepared.
DetailDesignCompleted: Thetaskswithinthisprojectstagedealwiththedesignofsystem
units. The e elements at this hierarchical level must be assigned to one e of f the groups:
hardwareunits exclusively containing hardware components; ; softwareunits s exclusively
buildfromsoftwarecomponents;embeddedsystemunitscontaininghardwareandsoftware
components;orexternalunitssuppliedbythirdparties.Foreveryunit,thehardwareand
software architecturemustbespecied. . Every y unit is further decomposedintosmaller
components.Anoverviewoftheinternalinterfacesbetweenthoseunitcomponentsandthe
correspondingexchangedinformationshouldalsobeincluded.Attheendofthisprocess,
anevaluationspecicationmust bepreparedforthe vericationof thefunctionalityof
everyunit.
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3.6. ADAPTATIONOFTHEV-MODELTOSERVICEROBOTDEVELOPMENTS
31
ModulesRealized: Inthis s designstage, , allidentiedunits s have to be realized d physically.
Basedon the specicationofthe previous s projectstage,thedesignofthe units hasto
consider the e describedsoftware and hardware architectures, required components, and
intendedinterfaces. The e realized modules and the functional testing have to be docu-
mented.
SystemIntegrated: Thisdecisiongaterequiresthecompositionofallsystemelements.The
developedunitsarecombinedtosegments,segmentstosubsystems,andsubsystemscom-
posedtothenalrobotsystem. Allrequiredevaluationsthat t weredenedinprevious
stagesmustbecarriedout.Allprocesseshavetobedocumented.
DeliveryConducted: Inthisnalstage,thedevelopedrobotplatformhas s tobetestedre-
gardingtheevaluationspecicationdenedinthedecisiongateSystemSpecied.
After thesuccessfulfulllment oftherequirements ofallprevious decisiongates,theproject
entersthestage,whichleadstothedecisiongateAcceptanceCompleted.Inthisstage,usertrials
havetobecarriedoutunderreal-lifeconditionstoverifythefunctionalityoftheoverallsystem.
Thedevelopmentpartnersverifythefunctionalityofthesystemintheintendedoperationarea.
Theprofessionalpartnersanalyzethesystemregardinguseracceptance,usability,andbenet.
In case of apositive evaluationby y allpartners, , the project t canbe nishedby entering and
passingthedecisiongateProject Completed. . Ifthe e qualityofthe developedsystemdoesnot
fulllall requirements s (e.g., , because of changed systemrequirements), another development
Project
Approved
Project
Defined
Requirements
Specified
System
Specified
System
Designed
Detail Design
Completed
Requirements
Specified
System
Specified
Modules
Realized
System
Integrated
Delivery
Conducted
Modules
Realized
System
Integrated
System
Designed
Detail Design
Completed
Prototype I
(SCITOS G5)
Prototyp II
(SCITOS G5)
All V-Model Projects
Acquire/Supplier Interface
System Development
Legend:
Acceptance
Completed
Project
Completed
Requirements
Specified
System
Specified
Delivery
Conducted
Modules
Realized
System
Integrated
System
Designed
Detail Design
Completed
Demonstrator
(SCITOS A5)
Iteration
Scheduled
Iteration
Scheduled
Figure 3.7: : System m development process s onthe e example of the shopping robot platform
carriedoutinthreeiterations. Thedesignofthehome-carerobotsystemwascarriedoutin
twoiterationsleavingouttherstprototypestage.
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32
CHAPTER3. SYSTEMDESIGNMODELS
iterationcanbeinitialized.Usually,thedecisiongateIterationScheduled re-enterstheproject
stageleading to the decisiongate Requirements Specication. . If f thesystemrequirements do
nothavetobeadapted,theiterationcanstartdirectlywiththerevisionoftheoverallsystem
specicationorthesystemdesignprocess.
Forthedesignoftheshoppingrobotplatform,threedevelopmentcycleswerescheduledduring
theTailoring phase e ofthe project (Figure 3.7). . The e rst cyclewas arranged for the design
ofanearlyprototype. Thissystemincludedonly y thenecessary componentsforrstsoftware
implementationsandfunctionalanalysisofsystemelements.Becauseofitsprototypecharacter,
thisrobotwasnotevaluatedbasedonthe entiresystemspecication(project stage Delivery
Conducted).Theseconddesigniterationincludedthemaindevelopmentprocessoftheshopping
robotplatform. Inthis s cycle,allrequiredsystemelementswere developedandveried. . The
outputwasafullyfunctionalrobotsystem(SCITOSG5)thatwasusedfortheimplementation
ofallsystemfunctionalitiesandrstusertrials.Thethirddesigncyclewasscheduledtomake
minorchangesonthesystemtooptimizeitfortheusageinpublicenvironments.Thisprimarily
includedchangesonthecasingoftherobot.
Thedesignprocessofthehome-carerobotwasplannedtobecarriedoutintwodevelopment
cycles.Thiswasreasonable,becauseofthegainedknowledgeoftheresearchpartnersfromthe
shoppingrobotprojectthatcouldbeappliedtothisdevelopment. Furthermore,theshopping
robotplatformcouldbeusedforrstsoftwareimplementationsandtests.Thenovelhome-care
robotplatform,designedintherstdevelopmentcycle,couldalreadybevalidatedregarding
thespeciedevaluationrequirementsandappliedforusertrials.Thesecondcyclewasexecuted
tomake minor r changes s on n the robot t platform m basedon informationcollected fromthe rst
developmentcycle.
The successful application of f the V-Model l requires design decisions at dierent abstraction
levels (from system level downto o unit t level). . In n the next t chapter, , the Analytic Hierarchy
Process(AHP)willbedescribed. Thisdecisionmethodwasusedinthisthesistosupportthe
V-Modelbaseddevelopmentprocesses.
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33
Chapter4
TheAnalyticHierarchyProcessfor
Decision-Making
ThischapterdescribestheAnalyticHierarchyProcess(AHP)asadecisionengineeringmethod
to solve e complex x multi-criteria problems. . The e AHP P is s used in n several areas s like e industry,
business, or r education n to o support complex decision n processes. . In n the eld of f robotics, the
AHPhasbeenappliedtotheselectionprocessofavailablerobotsystems(e.g.,[Athawaleand
Chakraborty,2011]and[
Ozgurler etal.,2011])andtheoptimizationofcontrolstrategies for
robotmanipulators(e.g.,[Bangaetal.,2007]).Thereseemstobeno(documented)application
oftheAHPtothedevelopmentprocessofservicerobots.
ThisthesisintroducesandadaptstheAHPasadecisionmethodforthedesignofcomplexmobile
robotsystems.Intherstsectionofthischapter,theprinciplesoftheAHParedescribed.The
detailedness ofthisdescriptionshouldallowthebetter traceabilityoflater calculations. . The
next section generates s the decision n problems and the AHP structures for r the service e robot
developments. InSection4.2.1,criteriaapplicabletoservicerobotdevelopmentsarediscussed.
Thefollowingsectionspresentdesignalternativesforservicerobotsandweightthesealternatives
undertheconsiderationofthedenedcriteria.
4.1 PrinciplesoftheAnalyticHierarchyProcess
The AHPwas developed by the mathematicianThomas L. Saaty in the 1970s to facilitate
complex design decisions s [Saaty, , 1977]. . Multiple e criteria have to be considered in complex
decisions. The e AHP P applies pairwise comparisons s between n all decision criteria a to derive a
prioritizationofthecriteria(weights). Italsosupportsthedecompositionofcriteriaintosub-
criteria for r highly y complex x decisionprocesses or r ambiguous criteria [Saaty, , 1994]. . Decision-
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34
CHAPTER4. THEANALYTICHIERARCHYPROCESSFORDECISION-MAKING
making processes basedon the AHPcanbe usedto select the best solution(e.g., means of
travel) out ofgivenalternatives (e.g., , car,train, airplane, bus). . These e alternatives are also
weightedbasedonpairwisecomparisons. The e evaluationofalternatives must be carriedout
underconsiderationofeachcriterion(e.g.,time,comfort,costs). Theresultingweightsofthe
alternativesforeachcriterionandtheweightsofthecriteriaareusedtocalculatetheoverall
priorities of the alternatives. . These e priorities represent thesuitability of the alternatives to
solvethegivendecisionproblem.
DuringtheexecutionoftheAHP,thedecisionhierarchyisconstructed,thecriteriaareweighted,
thealternativesarecompared,andtheoverallprioritiesaredetermined. Inthenextsections,
thesequenceandthe mathematicsof the AHPare introducedbasedonanexampledecision
problem.
4.1.1 ConstructionoftheAHPHierarchy
Atthebeginning,theproblemhastobedened. Thisisparticularlyimportant,whenseveral
partiesweightthecriteria.Acommongoalfortheproblemsolutionisrequiredtogetconsistent
weights ofthecriteria. . Alternativesandcriteriahavetobedenedthatare e relevant for the
decisionprocess.BothelementsdeterminethestructureandcomplexityoftheAHPhierarchy.
Alternatives should be e proved regardingmandatory requirements. . Alternatives s that do not
fulllallmandatory requirementsshouldbe removedfrom m the decisionprocess s atthis early
stagetosimplifythepairwisecomparisonprocess.
Basedonthedeterminedcriteria(N)andthealternatives(M),twodecisionmatricescanbe
generated. Therstmatrixconsistsoftheweightsa
j
ofthecriteria:
A =
h
a
1
::: a
j
::: a
N
i
(4.1)
Thesecondmatrixcontainstheweightsb
ij
ofalternativesiforeachcriterionj:
B =
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
b
11
::: b
1j
::: b
1N
:::
:::
:::
b
i1
::: b
ij
::: b
iN
:::
:::
:::
b
M1
::: b
Mj
::: b
MN
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
(4.2)
Figure4.1presentstheAHPhierarchyfortheexampleoftheproblemtondthebestmeansof
travelfromonecitytoanother.IntheresultingAHPhierarchy,thedecisionmatriceshavethe
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4.1. PRINCIPLESOFTHEANALYTICHIERARCHYPROCESS
35
dimensionsdim(A)=3(becauseofthreeconsideredcriteria)anddim(B)=(4 3)containing
theweightsofthefouralternativesforeachcriterion.
4.1.2 DenitionandWeightingofCriteria
Once the hierarchy y and the e decision matrices have e been n generated, the AHP uses s pairwise
comparisonsofcriteriatoassesstheirimpactonthedecisiongoal. Theresultingcomparisons
(Table4.1)revealtheimportanceofonecriterionrelativetoanother. Allcomparisonse
ij
ofa
criterionievaluatedwithcriterionjarerepresentedintheevaluationmatrixE:
E=
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
e
11
::: e
1j
::: e
1N
:::
:::
:::
e
i1
::: e
ij
::: e
iN
:::
:::
:::
e
N1
::: e
Nj
::: e
NN
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
with
8i=j: e
ij
=1
8i=1;:::;N
8j=1;:::;N : : e
ij
>0
8i=1;:::;N
8j=1;:::;N : : e
ij
=e
1
ji
(4.3)
Table4.1: Absolutenumbersfortheweightingofcomparisons[Saaty,1980].
Intensityof
Importance
Denition
Explanation
1
Equalimportance
Twoactivities contribute equally to the objec-
tive.
3
Weakimportanceofone
overanother
Experienceandjudgmentslightlyfavoroneac-
tivityoveranother.
5
Essential or strong im-
portance
Experienceandjudgmentstronglyfavoroneac-
tivityoveranother.
7
Demonstrated
impor-
tance
An activity is strongly favored d and its domi-
nancedemonstratedinpractice.
9
Absoluteimportance
Theevidencefavoringoneactivityoveranother
isofthehighestpossibleorderofarmation.
2,4,6,8
Intermediatevalues be-
tweenthetwoadjacent
judgments
Whencompromiseisneeded.
Reciprocals of
abovenonzero
Ifactivityihasoneoftheabovenonzeronumbersassignedtoitwhen
comparedwithactivityj,thenjhasthereciprocalvaluewhencompared
withi.
36
CHAPTER4. THEANALYTICHIERARCHYPROCESSFORDECISION-MAKING
Alternative 1
Comfort
Car
Train
Airplane
Bus
Time
Costs
Traveling
Goal
Level
Criteria
Level
Alternatives
Level
Figure4.1: ExampleAHPhierarchyconsistingofthethreeabstractionlevelsforthedecision
goal,criteria,andalternatives.
Adrawbackofthisapproachisthatinconsistencywithintheevaluationmatrixmightarise.One
ofthereasonsisthatabsolutenumbersareusedasjudgments,whichdonotperfectlyre ectthe
relationsbetweenallcriteria.Anunacceptableinconsistencymightoccur,whenlogicalmistakes
aremadeduringthecomparisonprocess.Anexamplewouldbethecomparisonofthreecriteria:
AismoreimportantthanB,BismoreimportantthanC,andCismoreimportantthanA.For
theestimationoftheinconsistencyofanevaluationmatrix,theConsistencyIndex C:I:andthe
ConsistencyRatioC:R:canbecalculated.Bothvaluesusethefactthatthemaximaleigenvalue
max
ofaconsistentevaluationmatrix(E)isequaltothematrixdimensionN=dim(E). An
increasinginconsistencyleadstoanincreasing
max
. TheconsistencyvaluesC:I:andC:R:are
denedas:
C:I:=
max
N
N 1
(4.4)
C:R:=
C:I:
R:I:
(4.5)
TheRandomIndex R:I:isthemeanConsistencyIndex ofrandomlygeneratedmatricesthat
followtheattributes ofequation4.3withamatrixdimensiongreater thantwo. . For r smaller
matrixdimensionsthisvalueisdenedaszero(Table4.2).
Table4.2: RandomIndexR.I.[Saaty,1980]
N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
R.I.
0.00
0.00
0.52
0.89
1.11
1.25
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.49
4.1. PRINCIPLESOFTHEANALYTICHIERARCHYPROCESS
37
Thecutovalue,whichrequiresarevisionoftheevaluationmatrixisC:R:>0:1.
Afterthegenerationoftheevaluationmatrixandthevericationofthematrixconsistency,the
criteriaweights canbecalculated. . Therefore,the e evaluationmatrixhastobe normalizedby
columnsums:
D=
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
d
11
::: d
1j
::: d
1N
:::
:::
:::
d
i1
::: d
ij
::: d
iN
:::
:::
:::
d
N1
::: d
Nj
::: d
NN
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
=
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
e
11
NP
i=1
e
i1
:::
e
1j
NP
i=1
e
ij
:::
e
1N
NP
i=1
e
iN
:::
:::
:::
e
i1
NP
i=1
e
i1
:::
e
ij
NP
i=1
e
ij
:::
e
iN
NP
i=1
e
iN
:::
:::
:::
e
N1
NP
i=1
e
i1
:::
e
Nj
NP
i=1
e
ij
:::
e
NN
NP
i=1
e
iN
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
(4.6)
Afterwards,therowsumsofthisnormalizedevaluationmatrixDarecalculatedanddividedby
thedimensionN ofthematrix. Thesevaluesrepresenttheweightsa
i
forthecriteria(referto
equation4.1):
a
i
=
NP
j=1
d
ij
N
8i=1;:::;N
(4.7)
Thedescribedevaluationprocedurebasedonpairwisecomparisonsisapplicableforqualitative
information.Ifquantitativeinformationaboutthecriteriaisavailable,adierentmathematical
approachcanbeused[Meixner andRainer,2002]. . The e advantageofthisapproachisthat it
does not createinconsistency. . The e weights ofthe criteriaa
i
canbecalculatedbasedonthe
givennumericalvaluesv
i
:
a
i
=
v
i
NP
j=1
v
j
8i=1;:::;N
(4.8)
Basedonthisequation,ahighervalueofv
i
generatesahigherweightingvaluea
i
.Ifanumerical
valueofacriterionhastobeminimizedinthedecisionprocess(e.g.,systemcosts),thefollowing
calculationapplies:
38
CHAPTER4. THEANALYTICHIERARCHYPROCESSFORDECISION-MAKING
a
i
=
1
v
i
PN
j=1
1
v
j
8i=1;:::;N
(4.9)
Forthegivenexample(Figure4.1),threecriteriaweredened: time(C
1
),comfort(C
2
),and
costs(C
3
). Assumingthattheexamplereferstoabusinesstrip,thefollowingstatementscould
bederivedrelyingontheevaluationsofTable4.1:Timeisweaklymoreimportantthancomfort
(3=1),timeis"demonstrated"moreimportantthancosts(7=1),andcomfortisessentiallymore
importantthancosts(5=1).Theresultingevaluationmatrixis:
E
travel
=
2
6
4
1=1 3=1 7=1
1=3 1=1 5=1
1=7 1=5 1=1
3
7
5
(4.10)
Toprovetheconsistencyoftheevaluationmatrix,thecorrespondingConsistencyRatio C:R:
forathree-dimensionalmatrixcanbedetermined:
C:R:
travel
0:032
0:52
0:0620:1
(4.11)
Basedonequations4.6and4.7,thecriteriaweightscanbecalculated:
a
1
0:643
(Time)
(4.12)
a
2
0:283
(Comfort)
(4.13)
a
3
0:074
(Costs)
(4.14)
Theresultingweightsmatrixofequation4.1is
A
travel
h
0:643 0:283 0:074
i
(4.15)
Consequently, the traveling g time is the e criterion n with the highest priority y (64:3%) ) for this
decisionprocess. Thecomfortislessimportant(28:3%)andthetravelingcostshavethelowest
priority(7:4%).
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