asp.net mvc generate pdf from view : Can a pdf be compressed software Library project winforms asp.net web page UWP Merten-20125-part1499

4.1. PRINCIPLESOFTHEANALYTICHIERARCHYPROCESS
39
4.1.3 ComparisonofAlternatives
Theweightingprocessofthealternativesfollowsthesamerulesastheweightingprocessofthe
criteria. Thepairwisecomparisonmethodhas s tobeapplied d for r qualitativeinformation; ; the
numericalmethodapplies ifquantitative informationareavailable. . Theweightingprocessof
thealternativesmustbecarriedoutunderconsiderationofeverycriterionseparately.
Consideringthegivenexample,fouralternativesweredened: acar(A
1
),train(A
2
),airplane
(A
3
),anda bus(A
4
). Therefore,theevaluationmatrices s havethe dimensions s M =4. . The
comparisonprocessofthesealternativesconsideringthetravelingtimemayhavethefollowing
results(compareTable4.1): Thecarneedsthesametimeasthetrain(1=1),essentiallymore
timethantheairplane(1=5),and"demonstrated"lesstimethanthebus(7=1).Thetrainneeds
essentiallymoretimethantheairplane(1=5)and"demonstrated"lesstimethanthebus(7=1).
Theairplane needsabsolutely lesstime thanthe bus(9=1). . Theresultingevaluationmatrix
underconsiderationofthetravelingtimeis:
E
time
=
2
6
6
6
6
4
1=1 1=1 1=5 7=1
1=1 1=1 1=5 7=1
5=1 5=1 1=1 9=1
1=7 1=7 1=9 1=1
3
7
7
7
7
5
(4.16)
Thecomparisonprocessregardingthecomfortgeneratesthestatements:Thecarisweaklyless
comfortablethanthetrain(1=3),essentiallylesscomfortablethentheairplane(1=5),andweakly
morecomfortablethanthebus(3=1). Thetrainisweaklyless s comfortablethantheairplane
(1=3) andessentially more comfortable than n the bus s (5=1). . Theairplaneis"demonstrated"
morecomfortablethanthebus(7=1).
E
comfort
=
2
6
6
6
6
4
1=1 1=3 3 1=5 3=1
3=1 1=1 1 1=3 5=1
5=1 3=1 1 1=1 7=1
1=3 1=5 5 1=7 1=1
3
7
7
7
7
5
(4.17)
TheConsistencyRatiosC:R:forbothmatricesare:
C:R:
time
0:080
0:89
0:0900:1
(4.18)
C:R:
comfort
0:039
0:89
0:0440:1
(4.19)
Can a pdf be compressed - Compress reduce PDF size in C#.net, ASP.NET, MVC, Ajax, WinForms, WPF
C# Code & .NET API to Compress & Decompress PDF Document
can pdf files be compressed; change page size pdf
Can a pdf be compressed - VB.NET PDF File Compress Library: Compress reduce PDF size in vb.net, ASP.NET, MVC, Ajax, WinForms, WPF
VB.NET PDF Document Compression and Decompression Control SDK
change font size on pdf text box; change font size pdf fillable form
40
CHAPTER4. THEANALYTICHIERARCHYPROCESSFORDECISION-MAKING
Thedecisionmatrixforthisexampleincludingthersttwocomparisonprocessesis:
B
travel
2
6
6
6
6
4
0:176 0:122 b
13
0:176 0:263 b
23
0:609 0:558 b
33
0:039 0:057 b
43
3
7
7
7
7
5
(4.20)
TheanalysisofthismatrixshowsthatthecriterionTime (columnone)isbestachievedbythe
alternativeAirplane (rowthree)withaweightof60:9%. . Thesamealternativealsocomplies
bestwiththecriterionComfort (columntwo): : 55:8%.
Thethirdcriterion(Costs)canbeevaluatedbasedonthenumericalvalueofthetravelingprize.
Forthisexample,thefollowingcostsareassumed:
v
1
=100
(Car)
v
2
=200
(Train)
v
3
=1000
(Airplane)
v
4
=25
(Bus)
(4.21)
Thecalculationof theweightsis basedonEquation4.9,becauselower costsarepreferredin
thisdecision.Forthiscriterion,thealternativeBusgetsthehighestprioritywith71:4%,which
isshowninthecompletedweightsmatrix(columnthree):
B
travel
2
6
6
6
6
4
0:176 0:122 0:179
0:176 0:263 0:089
0:609 0:558 0:018
0:039 0:057 0:714
3
7
7
7
7
5
(4.22)
4.1.4 DeterminationoftheOverallPriority
ThenalstepisthedeterminationoftheoverallprioritiesP basedontheweightsmatrixAof
thecriteriaandtheweightsmatrixBofthealternatives:
VB.NET TIFF: How to Convert TIFF to PDF in a VB.NET Doc Imaging
A TIFF file can be compressed with several methods, but this If you want to restore the file with a smallest possible size, you should choose TIFF over PDF.
optimize scanned pdf; change font size in pdf fillable form
VB.NET PDF Convert to Tiff SDK: Convert PDF to tiff images in vb.
When converting PDF document to TIFF image using VB.NET program, do you TIFF stands for Tagged Image File Format which can be compressed and uncompressed by
change font size pdf form; batch reduce pdf file size
4.2. APPLICATIONOFTHEAHPTODECISIONPROBLEMSOFTHEROBOTDEVELOPMENTS
41
P=AB
T
=
h
a
1
::: a
j
::: a
N
i
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
b
11
::: b
i1
::: b
M1
:::
:::
:::
b
1j
::: b
ij
::: b
Mj
:::
:::
:::
b
1N
::: b
iN
::: b
MN
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
(4.23)
Forthegivenexample:
P
travel
h
0:643 0:283 0:074
i
2
6
4
0:176 0:176 6 0:609 0:039
0:122 0:263 3 0:558 0:057
0:179 0:089 9 0:018 0:714
3
7
5
(4.24)
P
travel
h
0:161 0:194 0:551 1 0:094
i
(4.25)
Consequently, theexample decisionproblemis best t solvedby the alternative Airplane e with
anoverallpriorityof55:1%,followedbythealternativeTrain with19:4%andtheCar with
16:1%. ThealternativeBussolvesworstthedecisionproblemwithjust9:4%.
4.2 ApplicationoftheAHPtoDecisionProblemsoftheRobot
Developments
TheAHPisappliedinthisthesistotherobotsystemsdevelopmentprocessestofacilitatedeci-
sionsconcerningthedesignofthesystems. TheAHPhelpstheselectionoftechnicalsolutions
thattthesystemrequirementsoftherespectiverobotplatformbest.Basedonthehierarchi-
calstructureoftheV-Modeldominatingthesystemdesignprocess,designdecisionsatsystem,
subsystem,orsegmentlevelshaveahigherimpacttothedevelopmentprocessthandecisionsat
unitorcomponentlevels(Figure5.5). Therefore,theapplicationoftheAHPtodesigndecisions
atsystem,subsystem,andsegmentlevelshasthehighestbenetforthedesignprocesses.
Forinteractive servicerobots,designengineers havetoselectappropriate technologies inthe
eldsofcontrolsystems,sensorssystems,drivetechnologies,powersupplysystems,andinter-
actionsystems(Figure5.3). Inthis s thesis,four designdecisionproblems areselectedforthe
applicationoftheAHP: the e decisionsaboutthesystemarchitecture,thebatterytechnology,
thechargingsystem,andthedrivesystem. Inthisthesis,theAHPis s not appliedtothese-
lectionprocessesofsensorandinteractionsystems,becausethecompositionsofthesesystems
C# Word: How to Compress, Decompress Word in C#.NET Projects
can save both the original and compressed files to project in your VS program, you can simply copy powerful & profession imaging controls, PDF document, image
pdf page size limit; adjust file size of pdf
VB.NET Image: RasterEdge JBIG2 Codec Image Control for VB.NET
compressed bitonal images into PDF files and decompress images from PDF files quickly with the smallest quality loss. The encoded images in PDF file can also
change pdf page size; pdf change font size
42
CHAPTER4. THEANALYTICHIERARCHYPROCESSFORDECISION-MAKING
weregivenbysoftwareconceptsdevelopedinpreviousprojects. Thedevelopmentofalternative
conceptswasnotinthefocusofthiswork.
4.2.1 CriteriaDenition
Fortheevaluationprocess ofthe selectedproblems,this thesisdenessevencriteria: : adapt-
ability,operationtime,usability,robustness, safeness, features, andcosts. . Thesecriteria a are
assumedtohave amajor relevancefor the assessmentof aninteractive servicerobot. . Addi-
tionalcriteriacouldbeincludedinthedecisionprocesstofurther improvethequalityofthe
decisionoutputs(e.g.,maneuverabilityormaintainability). Itmightalsobepossibletodene
sub-criteriafor the decisionprocess (e.g., , productioncosts s andoperationalcosts). . However,
forthedevelopmentsofshoppingandhome-carerobots,thecombinationofthesesevencriteria
appearstobeapplicable.
Thefollowingparagraphsdescribetheappliedcriteriainmoredetail:
Adaptability (A): : Thiscriteriondescribesthe exibilityofasystemtobeadaptedtochanged
requirements or r novelapplications. . Adaptability y depends on n available interfaces (e.g.,
mountingpoints,computerinterfaces,systemconnectors)andthe modularityofasys-
tem(e.g.,distributedcontrolnodes). Itis s alsoin uencedby the systemresourcesofa
robot(e.g.,computationalpower,batterycapacity,payload).Thiscriterionissatisedby
modularsystemswithamplesystemresources;robotsystemshighlyspecializedtotheir
applicationsdonotmeetthiscriterionwell.
OperatingTime(O): The operating g time e is the period, during which a a robot t system m is
abletoexecuteits dedicatedtasksbeforeithastoberecharged. . Thistimedependson
thepowerconsumptionofthesystemandthebattery capacity. . Itis s alsoin uencedby
the durationof the chargingprocess,inwhichthe usability of therobot islimited. . A
developmentprocessunderthiscriterionshouldconsidertheintegrationofenergy-saving
componentsandfunctionalitiestoswitch-ounusedmodules.
Usability(U): This s criterion n includes aspects s of user-friendliness (primarily y for end-users,
butalsoforoperatorsandservicepersonal),acceptancebyusers,andthe attractionof
attention (for shopping robots). . The e usability y depends on the e appearance of a robot
andtheintegrationofinteractionfunctionalities. Examplesoftechnicalcomponentsthat
in uenceusabilityfromthehardwarepointofviewaresensorsystems (e.g.,todetecta
user),computingpower(e.g.,toestimatethepositionofauser),orthedrivesystem(e.g.,
tomovetherobotwithanadequatespeed).
Robustness(R): Thiscriteriondescribestheprobabilityofthebreakdownofarobotsystem,
becauseofmalfunctionsofsystemcomponentsordamageofthesystemcausedbypersons
VB.NET Image: JPEG 2000 Codec for Image Encoding and Decoding in
For example, you can use our VB.NET image to display, view and process images compressed or decompressed Integrate PDF, Tiff, Word compression add-on with JPEG
adjust pdf size; pdf file size
C# Image: How to Encode & Decode JPEG 2000 Images Using C#.NET JP2
image file format for JPEG 2000 compressed data) adopts image codec SDK has provided can also help powerful & profession imaging controls, PDF document, image
best online pdf compressor; pdf file compression
4.2. APPLICATIONOFTHEAHPTODECISIONPROBLEMSOFTHEROBOTDEVELOPMENTS
43
orobstacles. Theimplementationofhigh-qualitysystemcomponents,areasonableinte-
grationofthecomponents,andthedetectionoffallouts(ifpossible,beforetheyoccur)
improvetherobustness. Redundancyofsystemcomponentsandalowsystemcomplexity
furthercontributetotherobustnessofasystem.
Safeness(S): Thiscriteriondealswithhazardsforpersonsandobjectsgeneratedbytherobot
system.Toincreasethesafenesssecuritysensorscouldbeintegrated(e.g.,toreliablystop
allmotors),asmoothcasingcouldbedesignedwithouthardedges,orsystemcomponents
thatproducehighvoltagesorhightemperaturescouldbeavoided.Redundancyofsystem
componentsalsoincreasesthesafeness.
Features(F): Inadditiontorequiredfunctionalitiesofarobotsystem,thiscriterionconsid-
erssupplementary functionalities forpossiblefuturemodicationsofasystem. . Variety
offeaturesis importantforrobotplatformsthatmight beusedforfurtherapplications
andsystemdevelopments.Robotsystemsthatsatisfythiscriterionprovideamplesystem
resources (e.g.,computingpower,batterycapacity) for the integrationofnewfunction-
alities,ornovelsensorsystemsforapotentialimprovementofenvironmentalperception
(e.g.,depthcameras).
Costs(C): Thiscriterionconsidersproductionandoperationalcosts. Itisbestfullledbylow
overallsystemcosts. Asystemdevelopmentprocessunder r this criterionmustconsider
thelifeexpectancyofarobotsystem. Theintegrationoflong-livingcomponentsusually
increasestheproductioncosts,butreduces theoperationalcosts,becauseoflesson-site
services(e.g.,dierentbatterytechnologies).
The weighting process of the criteria is s carried in the V-Model project t stage System m De-
sign,whereallsystemrequirementsaredened(Section5.2fortheshoppingrobot platform,
Section6.2forthehome-carerobotplatform).
4.2.2 DecisionAlternatives
SystemArchitecture
Anappropriatesystemarchitecturehastobechosenforarobotplatformtomeetallrequire-
ments. Inthecontext t ofthis thesis,systemarchitecturemeansthecompositionofembedded
systemscontrolmodulesincombinationwithcommunicationsystems. Theanalysisofexisting
systemarchitecturesinthe eldofmobilerobots,revealedfour dierent approachesthat are
discussedinthefollowing:
VB.NET Image: Free VB.NET Guide to Convert Image to Byte Array
Byte array can be compressed and preserved in other data If necessary, you can also use this VB.NET Image Conversion Control to convert Word or PDF document to
change paper size in pdf; best pdf compressor
JPEG to PDF Converter | Convert JPEG to PDF, Convert PDF to JPEG
JPEG to PDF Converter can be used on Windows 95 Support a batch conversion of JPG to PDF with amazingly high speed; Get a compressed PDF file after
pdf compressor; change font size in pdf form
44
CHAPTER4. THEANALYTICHIERARCHYPROCESSFORDECISION-MAKING
System Architecture A1: : Centralized d ControlUnit
Therstapproachusesacentralizedcontrolarchitecture(Figure4.2). Themaincontrolcom-
ponent, often an embedded PC, represents s the only y high-computational unit t of the system.
Peripheral modules, , like motor r controller, sensor r systems, , or r human-machine interfaces are
directlyconnectedtotheembeddedPC. Thecommunicationtotheperipheralmodulesisusu-
ally basedonPC compatibleinterfaces, , like USB or r RS232. . Toextendavailableinterfaces,
additionalhubscanbeintegrated.
Main Control Unit
(Embedded PC)
Low-Performance-Systems
(Motor Controller, Sensor Units, Power Supply Units)
Low-Performance-Systems
(Displays, Buttons, Cameras)
Interface
(Gateway/Hub)
Interface
(Gateway/Hub)
Interface
(Gateway/Hub)
Interface
(Gateway/Hub)
Figure4.2: SystemarchitectureA1withcentralizedcontrolunit.
Theadvantageofthisdesignarchitectureistheusageofcommercialcomponentsleadingtoa
cost-eectiverealizationofarobotsystem.Thedisadvantagesofthisapproacharethecomplex
integrationofsystemelementsandthelackofredundancy,whichmaketherobotsystemfault
prone. Anotherdisadvantageisthattheprocessingofreal-time-signalsisnotdeterminableby
theembeddedPC.
Centralizedcontrolarchitectures are,forexample,implementedintherover systems K9 9 and
K10,developedattheIntelligentRoboticsGroupatNASAAmesResearchCenter[Parketal.,
2005]. ThesesystemsareequippedwithlaptopPersonalComputers(PCs)thatareconnected
todierenthubmodules.Thevarietyofslavedevicesrequirestheconnectionofinterfaceslike
RS232,RS485,USB,FireWire,orEthernettotheinternalPC. Anotherexampleistherobot
systemB21rbuiltbyRWI,whichwasinitiallyusedforthedevelopmentoftheshoppingrobot
system. ThisrobotisalsoequippedwithaPCthatisconnectedtotheperipheraldevicesby
anRS232hub.
System Architecture A2: : Centralized d ControlUnit with real-time Co-Controller
This system m architecture addresses the challenge of processing real-time-signals s by y the e inte-
VB.NET PowerPoint: How to Convert PowerPoint Document to TIFF in
can be compressed to reduce the file size by using LZW compression and can be converted to many other image and document formats, such as JPEG, GIF and PDF, by
pdf file size limit; pdf custom paper size
C# TIFF: How to Insert & Burn Picture/Image into TIFF Document
That is to say, you add a compressed image to Our .NET TIFF Processing Toolkit can be incorporated powerful & profession imaging controls, PDF document, tiff
pdf compress; change font size in pdf form field
4.2. APPLICATIONOFTHEAHPTODECISIONPROBLEMSOFTHEROBOTDEVELOPMENTS
45
gration of a a real-time control l unit cooperating with the integrated d PC (Figure 4.3). . This
co-processing module is oftenrealized by a MicroController (uC) or a FieldProgrammable
GateArray(FPGA)thatisdirectlyconnectedtoalltimecriticalsystemelements. Therefore,
thesystemcangivedeterminedresponsestotime-criticaleventsandcangeneratefastoutput
signals,e.g.,Pulse-WidthModulation(PWM)signals.
Comparedtotherstarchitecture,thisversionsimpliestherealizationofreal-timeprocesses.
The implementation of a cooperation system based on a a single e board module is s cost eec-
tive,especiallyathigherproductionquantities,wherethedevelopmenteortofthismoduleis
negligible. Thedisadvantageis s thespecializationofthis module totherequiredtasks,which
constrictstheadaptabilityofthis architecture. . However,this s architecturemightbeperfectly
qualiedforrobotsystemswithhighproductionquantitiesandanoptimizedcost-performance
ratio.
Main Control Unit
(Embedded PC)
Low-Performance-Systems
(Motor Controller, Sensor Units, Power Supply Units)
Low-Performance-Systems
(Displays, Buttons, Cameras)
Interface
(Gateway/Hub)
Interface
(Gateway/Hub)
System-specific Co-Controller
(Micro Contoller Board)
Non-Real-Time-Systems
Real-Time-Systems
Figure4.3: SystemarchitectureA2withcentralizedcontrolunitandreal-timeco-controller.
One exampleis therobotsystemMARVIN N (MobileAutonomous s RoboticVehicleforIndoor
Navigation)developedbytheMechatronicsGroupoftheUniversityofWaikato[Carnegieetal.,
2004]. ThissystemisequippedwithaWindowsPCandahardwarecontrolunit,basedona
powerfuluCtoavoidrealtimeissuesproducesbytheWindows operatingsystem. . Afurther
exampleisthebipedwalkingrobotJohnnie,developedattheUniversityofTechnology,Munich
[Lohmeieretal.,2004]. This s systemconsists of twocontrolPCsincombinationwitha PCI
cardwithtwouCsandpowerfulperipheralcomponentsforreal-timetasks.
System Architecture A3: : Decomposed d high-performance Control Units
Thethirdsystemarchitectureisbasedondistributedcomputationunits(Figure4.4).Itconsists
46
CHAPTER4. THEANALYTICHIERARCHYPROCESSFORDECISION-MAKING
ofdecomposedhigh-performancesingleboardcomputerstocontrol,e.g.,interactivesystems,
motors, or sensor r systems [Ahn n et t al., , 2005]. . Every y component t is connected d to a PC C that
handlestheincomingandoutgoinginformation. Thecommunicationbetweendierentnodes
isusuallyrealizedbyhighspeedcommunicationsystemslikeEthernet.
Theadvantageofthisarchitectureisthedistributionofsystemtaskstoseveralpowerfulcompu-
tationunits.Dependingonthecomplexityandthetimingrequirementsofatask,anappropriate
modulecanbechosen.Thisarchitecturefurtherallowsfortherealizationofredundancytoim-
provethesystem’sreliability.Themaindisadvantagesarethecostsandthepowerconsumption
generatedbytheoverheadoftheimplementedcomputationunits.
High-Performance Control Unit
(Embedded PC, System Controller)
Low-Performance-Systems
(Motor Controller, Sensor Units, Power Supply Units)
Low-Performance-Systems
(Displays, Buttons, Cameras)
High-Performance Control Unit
(Embedded PC, System Controller)
High-Performance Control Unit
(Embedded PC, System Controller)
High-Performance Control Unit
(Embedded PC, System Controller)
Ethernet
Backplane
Figure4.4: SystemarchitectureA3withdecomposedhigh-performancecontrolunits.
For example, , this s architecture is implemented d in the e robot t platform m EMIEW W developedby
research laboratories s of the company Hitachi[Hosodaet al., , ]. . This s system m consists s of four
high speed controlsystems s connectedby anEthernet t network. . Real-time e tasks, like motor
control or sensor r analysis, , are e computed d by real-time operating systems (installed on three
controlmodules),whereasinteractionisrealizedbyonecomputationalnodewithanon-real-time
operatingsystem.AnotherexampleofaprofessionalrobotsystemistheplatformMB835bythe
companyBlueBotics[Tomatisetal.,2004].Thissystemisequippedwithtwocomputationcards
includinganIntelPIIIprocessorandaMotorolaPowerPCsystem. The e rstsystemhandles
mobilitytasks,thesecondsystemisresponsibleforinteractionservices.Furthercontrolmodules
areanI/Ocard,anencodermodule,andacontrolmodulewithauCforsecurityreasons.
System Architecture A4: : Main n ControlUnit withdecomposed ControlModules
The most t  exible e system architecture, , similar r to automotive architectures, is based on the
distributionofthesystemtosmartcontrolmodules,whichareassignedtodierenttasks(Figure
4.2. APPLICATIONOFTHEAHPTODECISIONPROBLEMSOFTHEROBOTDEVELOPMENTS
47
4.5).Usually,thesemodulescontrolreal-timeprocesses(e.g.,motororsensorcontrol),whereas,
complextasks(e.g.,localizationorinteraction)arestillexecutedbynon-real-timecontrolunits
withhigh-computationalpower.
Theadvantageisthe exibilityreachedbytheimplementationofsmartcontrolmodules.These
modules -optimizedregardingcomplexity,costs,andpower consumption-canbecombined
toadapt the robot’s capabilities to the nalapplication. . The e integrationof a multi-master
communication interface, e.g., Controller Area Network (CAN) or RS485 allows s for r a a data
exchangebetweendierentmodules,whichresultsinafastanddeterminedresponsetooccurring
events. Thedisadvantagearethehigherproductioncostscausedbyredundancyinthemodule
designs(e.g.,eachmoduleisequippedwithpowersuppliesandcommunicationinterfaces).
Main Control Unit
(Embedded PC)
Low-Performance-Systems
(Motor Controller, Sensor Units, Power Supply Units)
Low-Performance-Systems
(Displays, Buttons, Cameras)
Interface
(Gateway/Hub)
Interface
(Gateway/Hub)
Control Module
(uC Board)
Non-Real-Time-Systems
Real-Time-Systems
Control Module
(uC Board)
Control Module
(uC Board)
Control Module
(uC Board)
Interface
(Converter)
Figure4.5: SystemarchitectureA4withmaincontrolunitanddecomposedcontrolmodules.
Typically,mobilerobotsystems arebasedonthis architecture. . Examplesare e theinteractive
robotsdevelopedbytheFraunhoferInstituteofManufacturing,Engineering,andAutomation
(IPA) thatuseoneembeddedPCforhighlevelcomputation,whichisconnectedtolowlevel
controlmodulesbyasingleCANbus[Grafetal.,2004]andthemodularmobilerobotdeveloped
bythe BeihangUniversity Beijingusing anRS485 bus toconnect dierent low levelcontrol
modules witha maincontrol l system [Zouet t al., , 2006]. . Representatives s with h higher r system
complexities arethe HERMES S systemdevelopedbytheBundeswehr r UniversityMunichthat
usesamulti-processormaincontrolsystemincombinationwithasingleCANbus[Bischoand
48
CHAPTER4. THEANALYTICHIERARCHYPROCESSFORDECISION-MAKING
Graefe,2004],therobotsystemKapeck designedbytheUniversidadeFederaldoRioGrandedo
Nortethatusesamulti-embeddedPCincombinationwithasingleCANbusfortheinteraction
withreal-timemodules [Brittoet al.,2008],ortherobotplatformARMAR-III I developedby
theUniversityofKarlsruheconsistingofveembeddedPCswithadistributedcommunication
systembasedonfourCANbuses[Asfouretal.,2006].
Evaluationof SystemArchitectures
Thealternativesystemarchitecturesareevaluatedbasedonthepreviousdenedcriteriaforthe
servicerobotdevelopmentprocess(Section4.2.1).Thefollowingstatementsandratingscanbe
derived:
Adaptability (A): : ThesystemarchitecturesA1,A2,andA3allowforacomparableadapta-
tiontonewrequirements,becauseadditionalcomponents canbeconnectedtoavailable
interfaces oftheembeddedPC(s). . Notably, , systemarchitecture A4is s evaluatedas es-
sentiallymoreadaptabletonewfunctionalities,becauseitadditionallyprovidesahighly
exiblelow-levelcommunicationbusfortheconnectionofadditionalmodules.
OperationTime(O): Thesystemcomponentswiththehighestpowerconsumptionsareem-
beddedPCs. Othermodules,likehubsorlow-levelcontrolmodulesconsumesignicant
lessenergy.Therefore,architecturesA1andA2areexpectedtoconsumeasimilaramount
ofenergy;architectureA4slightlymorethanA1andA2. Thepowerconsumptionofar-
chitectureA3isexpectedtobeconsiderablyhigher,becauseofthemultiplePCssystems.
Usability(U): Allcarefuldesignedsystemarchitecturesshouldfulllthiscriteriongiventhe
systemrequirements.Therefore,thiscriteriondoesnotapplytotheevaluationprocessof
thesystemarchitecture.
Robustness(R): Fortheevaluationofthiscriterion,failuresofhardwarecomponentsandin-
ternalcommunicationsystemsarenotconsidered,becausemalfunctionsofthesesystems
are(almost)avoidablebyreliabledesignandproductionprocesses.Therefore,robustness
ofasystemarchitectureisprimarilyin uencedbythecomplexityoftheembeddedsoft-
ware. Apartitioningofsoftwaretasksamongcontrolmoduleswould,therefore,improve
therobustnessofasystem.ArchitectureA1isexpectedtoprovidethelowestrobustness,
becauseallsoftwarefunctionalitiesareexecutedononesinglecomputationalunit. Archi-
tecturesA2andA3provideahigherrobustness,becauseof thedistributionoftasksto
severalcontrolunits. Themodular r concept ofarchitectureA4allows for a exibleallo-
cationofsoftwarefunctionalitiestoseveralresponsiblemodules,whichfurtherincreases
thesystemrobustness.
Safeness(S): Similartorobustness,thiscriterionisalsoin uencedbythedistributionoftasks
todierentmodules. This s allowsforredundancyinthesystem(A3andA4). . Another
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested