5.2. SYSTEMDESIGN
79
Table5.9: Decisionresultsforthedrivesystems.
A
O
U
R
S
F
C
Priority
Rank
Impact
6.7%
4.2%
17.0%
14.6%
37.4%
6.7%
13.4%
D1
16.7%
3.9%
27.0%
42.0%
0.0%
16.7%
19.9%
15.8%
5
D2
16.7%
19.2%
27.0%
19.2%
9.5%
16.7%
19.9%
16.6%
3
D3
16.7%
19.2%
27.0%
8.0%
19.0%
16.7%
8.3%
17.0%
2
D4
16.7%
19.2%
12.1%
19.2%
16.1%
16.7%
38.4%
19.1%
1
D5
16.7%
19.2%
3.5%
8.0%
25.5%
16.7%
9.2%
15.6%
6
D6
16.7%
19.2%
3.5%
3.7%
29.9%
16.7%
4.2%
15.9%
4
Given these e priorities, the e robot platform is s designed based on the drive e system D4. . The
decisionforthisversionwas primarycausedbytheadequate costsandagoodrobustnessof
thisconcept. Theselecteddrivesystemconsistsoftwodrivenwheelsandonecastorwheelat
thebackside. Theroundishshapeisalsoapplicabletotheshoppingrobotapplication.
InteractionSubsystem
ThissubsystemiscomposedoftheDisplay/MultimediaSegment,theRobotHeadSegment,and
theLow-Level Interaction n Segment. . The e Display/MultimediaSegment t is s the communication
interfacebetweentherobotandtheuser. Itmainlyconsistsofthetouchscreen,loudspeakers,
and microphones. . The e touch screen can be used to present informationandtoreceive user
inputs. Therobotcangeneratesoundorspeechoutputsbyitsloudspeakers. Theintegrated
microphonescanbeusedforvideoconferencing.
Arobotheadisinstalledonthetopoftherobotplatformtocreateacartoon-likeappearance
andtoshowmovementintentionsandbasicemotionstotheuser.Theheadandtheintegrated
eyescanberotatedortiled.Theeyelidscanbeopenedandclosedtogeneratetheimpression
ofwinkingorsleeping. Atthetopofthehead,asignallightisintegratedthatshowsthecurrent
robotstatus.
TheLow-Level InteractionSegment t contains s additionalinput andoutputs devices, , primarily
fortheinteractionwithoperators. OneexamplesistheRFIDreaderthatcanbeusedtoset
therobotapplicationinanadministratormode.
Sensor Subsystem
This subsystem m includes three segments s for dierent t types s of sensors: : the e Distance Sensor
Segment,theMotionSensorSegment,andtheVisionSensorSegment. The e Distance Sensor
Segment consistsofalaserrangenderandultrasonicsensors. . Thelaserrangenderisinte-
gratedtodetectobstaclesandpersonsforcollisionavoidance.Itisfurtherusedbylocalization
algorithmstocomputethecurrentposition. Thetimeof ightofthesensorsignalre ectedby
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80
CHAPTER5. DEVELOPMENTOFTHESHOPPINGROBOTPLATFORM
anobjectistheinformationforthecalculationoftheobjectdistance.Thephysicalconstraints
duetomirroredortransparentsurfacesareaddressedbytheintegrationofultrasonicsensorsas
aredundantsystem. Thesesensorsproduceanacousticbeamthatisbetterre ectedbyglass
surfaces.Ultrasonicsensorsalsoprovideahigherbeamangle,whichisnecessarytodetect at
objectsonthe oor.
TheMotionSensorSegment includessensorsthatarerequiredforareliableandsafemotion
of therobot platform. . Thissegment t contains a bumper that detectscollisions. . This s sensor
workslikeabuttonthatispressedassoonastherobothitsanobject. Inthiscase,themotor
controllerhastostopthedrivesystemimmediately.Asimilarfunctionalityisgivenbyoptional
emergencybuttonsthatcanbeactivatedbyauser.
VisionsensorsoftheVisionSensorSegment areintegratedformultiplereasons. . First,these
sensorscanbeusedtodetectpersonsintherobot’senvironment,whichisimportanttorealize
a smart robot behavior. . Second, , they y can n be usedfor r the detection n of highobstacles that
protrudeinthewayoftherobot. Visionsensorscanfurtherbeusedduringvideoconferencing
toshowapictureoftherobot’ssurrounding.
DecompositionofSegmentsintoUnits
Thebreakdownof segments intounits is thenalstepofthe systemdecompositionprocess
inthis section. . InadditiontothethreestandardunitssuggestedbytheV-Model(hardware,
software,andexternalunits),afourthstandardunitforembeddedsystemsisdenedtosimplify
thedecompositionprocess(thecapitallettersinbracketsareusedinthegures):
HardwareUnit(H): Thisgroupincludeshardwareelementscomposedofhardwarecompo-
nentswithoutsoftware. Examplesareconnectorboards,toggleswitches,orbuttons.
Software Unit (S): : This s groupcombines exclusively software elements. . Softwareunits s are
composedhierarchicallyofsoftwarecomponents.
ExternalUnit(X): External units s are e not developed d in the e scope e of this s project. . They
includeo-the-shelfproducts ormodulesdevelopedinadvance. . AnExternal l Unit t may
includehardwareandsoftwarecomponents.
EmbeddedSystemUnit(E): This s groupconsists of modules that integrate software and
hardware components, , which h might be further decomposed. . Examples s are uC based
controlmodules,embeddedPCs,orsensorsystems.
Theassignmentofsystemunitstosegmentsisambiguousforsomecomponents. Forexample,
thebarcodereaderbelongstotheLow-LevelInteractionSegment,becauseauserreceivesprod-
uctinformationafterscanningtheproduct’sbarcode. Itcanalsobeclassiedas s anelement
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5.2. SYSTEMDESIGN
81
oftheVisionSensorSegment,becauseofthecamerabasedsensorconcept. Thenaldecision
forthebestttingsegmentofaunitdependsonthesystemdesigner.
In the following, the e decomposition of f segments into units will be e described. . The e amount
of dierent segments makes it t impossible to discuss all l units in this s document. . Therefore,
threeexamplesegmentationsthataremostrelevantforthesystemdevelopmentprocesswillbe
presented. FurthersegmentationscanbefoundinAppendixB.
Main ControlSegment
TheMainControlSegment(Figure5.8)containstheEmbeddedPCUnit,aUSB-CAN-Converter
Unit, andtheInterface e Unit. . Therstunit t is equippedwithanembeddedPCtorunhigh-
performancesoftwarealgorithms. ThisembeddedPCisconnectedtootherunitsbystandard
communicationinterfaces,e.g.,aLowVoltageDierentialSignaling(LVDS)interfacetothedis-
play,anRS232interfacetothetouchsensorofthedisplay,orUSBinterfacestothemultimedia
andcamerasystem.
Embedded PC
Unit
Main Control Segment
USB-CAN-Converter
Unit
X
X
USB-Interface
Display-Control-Unit
LVDS-Interface
Display-Control-Unit
RS232-Interface
Display-Control-Unit
USB-Interface
Robot-Head-Unit
USB-Interface
Front-Camera-Unit
Interface
Unit
E
EBC-Interface
Display-Control-Unit
EBC-Interface
Backplane-Unit
Figure5.8: SystemdecompositionoftheMainControlSegment.
TheUSB-CAN-Converter Unit representsthegatewaybetweenthe EmbeddedPC Unit,con-
nectedbyUSB,andtheInterfaceUnit,providingthedataexchangetoothercontrolunitsof
therobotbytheCANbus.
ControlModulesSegment
ThesecondsegmentoftheControlSubsystemistheControlModulesSegment (Figure5.9). . It
isplannedtocontainseveralcontrolunits:ThePowerControlUnitisdesignatedtoconnectthe
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82
CHAPTER5. DEVELOPMENTOFTHESHOPPINGROBOTPLATFORM
incomingpowerandcommunicationchannelsoftheBatteryControlUnit withtheBackplane
Unit. TheBackplaneUnit t isahardwareinterface,whereothercontrolunitscanbepluggedin
tobeconnectedtotherobot’spowersupplyandcommunicationinterfaces. TheSensorControl
Unit isresponsibleforthecontroloftheultrasonicsensors. Itgeneratesthepowersupplyfor
thesemodulesandcontrolstheexchangeofthesensorinformation.
Power Control
Unit
Control Modules Segment
H
EBC-Interface
Interface-Unit
Backplane
Unit
H
EBC-Interface
Battery-Control-Unit
Power-Interface
Battery-Control-Unit
Sens-Interface
Ultrasonic-Unit
EBC-Interface
Laser-Sensor-Unit
Data-Interface
Motor-Left-Unit
Power-Interface
Motor-Left-Unit
Data-Interface
Motor-Right-Unit
Power-Interface
Motor-Right-Unit
EBC-Interface
Status-Display-Unit
EBC-Interface
User-RFID-Unit
Interface
Emerg.-Button-Unit
Interface
Collision-Sens.-Unit
EBC-Interface
Robot-Head-Unit
Sensor Control
Unit
E
Motor Control
Unit
E
External Bus
Controller (EBC)
Unit
E
Figure5.9: SystemdecompositionoftheControlModulesSegment.
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5.2. SYSTEMDESIGN
83
Robot Head Control
Unit
Robot Head Segment
Robot Head Light
Unit
Head Pan Motor
Unit
Head Tilt Motor
Unit
Eyes Pan Motor
Unit
E
H
Eye Lid Left Motor
Unit
X
Eye Lid Right Motor
Unit
USB-Interface
PC-Unit
Power-Interface
Head-Camera-Unit
USB-Interface
Head-Camera-Unit
EBC-Interface
EBC-Unit
X
X
X
X
Figure5.10: SystemdecompositionoftheRobotHeadSegment.
TheMotorControlUnitcontrolsthemovementoftheplatforminreal-time,generatesnecessary
powersignalsforthemotors,andanalyzesincomingincrementalsensorinformation.Thisunit
computestherobot’sodometry.Securitysensors,e.g.,thecollisionsensororoptionalemergency
buttonsaredirectlyconnectedtothismoduletostopthemovementofthemotorsincaseofa
collisionoruserinterference.
TheExternalBusConnector(EBC)Unit generatespowervoltagesforconnectedmoduleslike
theRobotHeadUnit.Thevoltagelevelsare5.0V,12.0V,andabout25.9V(batteryvoltage).It
shouldbepossibletoturnonandoeveryvoltagechannelseparatelyandtomonitorforover-
current. Thisunit t providestheEBC-interfacefor connecteddevices containingallgenerated
powerlevelsandaCANbusinterface.
RobotHeadSegment
TheRobot HeadSegment (Figure5.10) includestheRobot HeadControl Unit,whichcontrols
themovement ofallmotorunits oftherobothead,theRobotHeadLight Unit,andtheHead
CameraUnit. TheRobotHead d Control Unit t consistsofauC,whichisrunningthermware,
andanFPGA,whichisgeneratingfastoutputsignals(e.g.,PWMoutputs).
ARobotHeadLightUnit isintegratedtoshowthestatusoftherobotbyanLEDarray.Several
MotorUnitsareintegratedtomovethemechanicalpartsoftherobothead.Possiblemovements
are: rotatingandtiltingofthehead,rotatingoftheeyes,andopeningandclosingoftheeye
lidindependently.
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84
CHAPTER5. DEVELOPMENTOFTHESHOPPINGROBOTPLATFORM
5.2.3 InterfaceOverview
Communicationinterfacesallowforthedatatransitionbetweensystemelements.Dependingon
theinformationtobeexchanged,specicrequirementsexistforeachcommunicationchannel.
Forexample,videoorsoundsignalsrequirehigh-speedtransfers;informationaboutthebattery
status orascannedbarcodecanbetransmittedatlowerspeeds. . Thefollowinginterfacesare
implementedfortheinterconnectionofsystemunits:
ControllerAreaNetwork(CAN)Interface
The CANinterface e was developed d by the company Bosch for the e usage in n the automotive
sector [Robert BoschGmbH, , 1991]. . It t belongs to the groupof eldbuses and d supports s an
asynchronous,serialdataexchangewithdataratesupto1MBit/s. Ahightransmissionrelia-
bilityisrealizedbytheintegrationofredundancybasedonbitstungandaCRCchecksum.
CAN bus nodes s can n be accessed based on assigned message identiers. . The e CANprotocol
denesanaddressingrangeof2
11
identiersinthestandardformatand2
29
identiersforthe
extendedformat. TheCANinterfaceusestheCarrierSenseMultipleAccess/CollisionAvoid-
ance(CSMA/CA)methodisusedtodetectdatacollisions,ifmultiplecommunicationnodestry
tosendmessagesatthesametime. This s communicationprincipleallowsthat messageswith
loweridentiershaveahigherprobabilityforasuccessfultransmission.
TheCANbus isthegeneralcommunicationinterface for the datatransfer betweenlow-level
systemunits,liketheMotorControlUnit,theDisplayControlUnit,ortheHeadControlUnit.
Itis connectedtotheembeddedPCbyaUSB-CAN-Converter. . ThesignalsoftheCANbus
arecombinedwithswitchablepoweroutputstotheEBC-interfacetosimplifytheintegration
ofadditionalmodules.
Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C)interface
TheI2C interface, developedby the company Philips Semiconductors, is used for the inter-
communication betweencircuits s on n aPrintedCircuit t Board d (PCB) ) [Philips Semiconductors,
2000]. It t is asynchronous communicationsystem m based intheSerialData Line (SDA) ) and
SerialClockLine(SCL)signals. Thecommunicationrequiresamastertoinitializethecommu-
nicationprocessandtogeneratetheclocksignal. Dierentslavescanbeaccessedbasedona
sevenbitaddressspace. Toallowfortheconnectionofmultipleslaves,open-collectoroutputs
areintegratedincombinationwithpull-upresistors. This s requireslow speedcommunication
frequenciesoflessthan400kHz.
TheI2CbusisappliedforthecommunicationbetweentheSensorModule andtheUltrasonic
SensorModules. Thisisreasonable,becausethelowdataratesofthesesensorsdonotrequire
theintegration of the more complex x CANbus. . This s enables the usage of small l uCs,which
reducethesystemcomplexity,thepowerconsumption,andsystemcosts.
5.2. SYSTEMDESIGN
85
RS232 Interface
Thisinterface is usedforlow speedandlowcostcommunicationdevices. . It t wasintroduced
bytheElectronicIndustriesAlliance(EIA)in1960. TheRS232communicationinterfaceisan
asynchronousserialdatainterfaceandconsistsoftwounidirectionaldatasignalsandmultiple
controlsignals(e.g.,forhardwarehandshake).Thecommunicationisbyteorientedandcanbe
extendedwithaparity bittoimprovethetransmissionreliability. . Thecommunicationspeed
canreach500kBit/s.
TheRS232communicationinterfaceisavailablefordevicesthatstillsupportthiscommunication
interface.Forexample,RS232isusedtoconnectthetouchsensorofthedisplaytotheembedded
PC.
UniversalSerial Bus(USB)Interface
The USBinterface was s developed for the e connection of PCs s to o peripheral devices [Compaq
etal.,2000].Itconsistsoftwotwistedpairsofsignalsandpowersupplylines. EveryUSBport
canbeconnectedtoonedevice. AnextensionofavailableUSBportscanbeachievedbyUSB
hubsthatdistributeoneinputporttomultipleoutputports.Theresultingtreestructureofthis
communicationsystemallows upto127devicestobeconnectedtoaPC. . Possibletransition
speeds are1.5MBit/s forlowspeed,12MBit/sfor fullspeed,and480MBit/s for highspeed
devices.ThepowersupplyoftheUSBportprovides5.0Vwithupto500mA.
Fortherobotplatform,thisinterfaceisusedfortheconnectionofsignalconvertersandstandard
PCdevicestotheembeddedPC.AnexampleistheUSB-CAN-Converterfortheaccessofthe
embeddedPCtotheCANbus.
LowVoltage DierentialSignaling (LVDS)Interface
The LVDS S interface was s developed for the transfer of high speed information. . It t is based
ondierentialsignals withatypicalsignal l swingof 350mV[NationalSemiconductor,2008].
Paralleldata signals,synchronizedtoaclock signal,allow for maximumdataratesofupto
3GBit/s.
LVDS is s usedfor theinterface ofthe embeddedPCto the touchdisplay of therobot. . The
integrationofthiscommunicationprovidesa exiblechoiceofavailabledisplays,becausemost
displayssupporttheLVDSinterface.
86
CHAPTER5. DEVELOPMENTOFTHESHOPPINGROBOTPLATFORM
5.3 DetailedSystemDesign
Inthisdevelopmentstage,thehardwareandsoftwarearchitecturesofthesystemunitshaveto
be created. . Functionalandnon-functionalrequirementsoftheunitshavetobederivedfrom
higherhierarchicallevelsofthesystemandanevaluationspecicationforthelatertestingof
therealizedunitsmustbeprepared.Inthisdocument,thedevelopmentprocessatunitlevelis
exemplarilydescribedontheexampleofthedesignoftheRobotHeadControlUnit. Thehigh
complexityandthevariousinterfacesofthisunitmakeitsuitableforthedetaileddescription
ofthesystemdesignprocess. TherealizationofthisunitispresentedinSection5.4.
Basedonthesystemdecompositionprocess,theRobotHeadControlUnitisresponsibleforthe
controlofallcomponentsoftherobothead(Figure5.10). This s includes severalstepper and
DirectCurrent(DC)motorsforthemovementofheadcomponents(e.g.,theeyelids)andthe
RobotHeadLight Unit. . Anoptionalomni-directionalcamera,placedonthetopoftherobot,
shouldalsobeconnectedtothisunit,whichrequiresdatainterfacesandapowersupply. The
RobotHeadControlUnit hastohandlethefollowingfunctionalities:
 Controloffoursteppermotors.
 ControlofoneDCmotor.
 OutputofeightPWMsignalsfortheLED-matrixoftheRobotHeadLightUnit.
 Powersupplyanddatainterface(USB)fortheomni-directionalcamera.
 Datainterfacetoothercontrolunits(CAN).
5.3.1 HardwareArchitectureandSpecication
Given this variety of f functionalities, a a hardware architecture e has to be chosen that allows
to generate synchronized output signals (motor r control, LED control), to o process s incoming
information(motor positions), , to communicate withother r controlunits s (CANbus), andto
handleanalogsignals(powersupplyoftheomni-directionalcamera). Therearethreepossible
solutionsforthecontrolofthesefunctionalities: theintegrationofapowerfuluCthatisableto
processfastsignals;theintegrationofanFPGAwithanIntellectualPropertyCore(IP-Core)for
theimplementationofsoftwarealgorithms;orthecombinationofalow-poweruCforsoftware
algorithmswithasmallFPGAfortheprocessingoffastsignals.
ThehardwarearchitectureoftheRobot HeadControl Unit isbasedonacombinationofauC
andanFPGA(Figure5.11). TheuCexecutessoftwarealgorithms,communicateswithother
controlunits,andmonitorstheanalogsignals.TheFPGAgeneratesallsignalsforthecontrol
5.3. DETAILEDSYSTEMDESIGN
87
Motor Elements
Stepper Motor Driver
(TMC246A)
Stepper Motor Driver
(TMC246A)
Stepper Motor Driver
(TMC246A)
Stepper Controller
(TMC428-I)
Stepper Motor Driver
(HW-Components)
DC Motor Driver
(HW-Components)
LED Driver
(HW-Components)
FPGA
(EP1C3T100C8N)
Microcontroller
(AT90CAN128)
CAN-Interface
(SN65HVD233D)
Power Supply
(HW-Components)
Power Output
(HW-Components)
Memory
(AT45DB321D-SU)
digital
digital
digital
SPI
SPI
SPI
SPI
SPI
SPI
dig.
ana.
LED Elements
Control Elements
Peripheral Elements
SPI
Figure5.11: HardwarearchitectureoftheRobotHeadControlUnit.
oftheDCmotor,onesteppermotor,andtheLEDs. Forthecontroloftheotherthreestepper
motors,specialmotorcontrolIntegratedCircuits(ICs)areusedthatcangeneratethefeeding
currentsofthemotorsinreal-time.
In comparisontoanarchitecture witha single powerfuluC, this s architectureallows for the
parallelprocessingofinputandoutputinformationusinganadditionalFPGA. Comparedto
asingle FPGAarchitecture,this solutionprovidesa higheradaptation exibilityof software
functionalities(bootloader capability)andrequireslesspowerthananFPGAwithintegrated
IP-Core.Moreover,theusageofauC,thatisalsoappliedinothercontrolunits,allowsforthe
re-usageofdevelopedsoftwarealgorithms.
HardwareElementOverview
ControlElements
An 8-bit t uC is s integrated as s the maincontrol l element of the Robot Head Control l Unit. . It
executesallsoftwarealgorithmsandcontrolsthefunctionalitiesofallunitelements(bymeans
of the FPGA). . The e applied d type of uC must t allow for the implementation n of f all l required
softwareandcommunicationfunctionalities,likethehandlingoftheCANopencommunication
stackfordataexchangewithothercontrolunits(e.g.,theembeddedPC)orthecontroland
monitoringofthepoweroutputoftheomni-directionalcamera.
88
CHAPTER5. DEVELOPMENTOFTHESHOPPINGROBOTPLATFORM
The FPGA A is s used d for the control of fast-changingsignals. . This s includes the generationof
digitaloutput signalsfortheDC motorandonesteppermotor. . Forthecontroloftheother
steppermotors,theFPGAprovidesanSerialPeripheralInterface(SPI)gatewaybetweenthe
uCandtheStepperController. AnotherfunctionalityoftheFPGAisthegenerationofeight
PWMsignalsforthebrightnesscontroloftheLEDmatrix.
TheMemorystoresthecongurationdataoftheFPGA.Thismemorycanbeprogrammedby
theuC,whichenablestheprogrammabilityoftheFPGAinsidethesystem.
PeripheralElements
Peripheral Elementsincludecomponentsfor theCANcommunication,thepowersupply,and
the power r output for the e omni-directional camera. . The e components of the e CAN N Interface
include a driver IC that converts the Transistor-Transistor-Logik (TTL) signal levels s of f the
uC todierential signals, used by the CANbus. . The e PowerSupply y converts s the e incoming
supplyvoltagetorequiredvoltagelevels ofallunitcomponents. . ThePowerOutput t contains
components for the powering g and monitoring (voltage e and d current) of f the omni-directional
camera.
Motor Elements
The ve motors s of the e robot t head are e connected to o the Motor r Elements. . These e elements
containelectricalcomponentsforthegenerationofrequiredvoltageandcurrentsequences.The
DCmotor(headrotation)andonesteppermotor(headtilting)aredirectlycontrolledbythe
FPGA,whereas theotherstepper motors (eyetiltingandeye lids)are connectedto Stepper
MotorDrivers. Thereasonfortheintegrationofspecialmotordriversisthehighacceleration
requiredforthesemotors(toinitiatenaturalmovements). Thereal-timecontrolsequencesof
thesemotordriversaregeneratedbytheStepperController.
LED Elements
TheLEDDriver consistsofMetal-Oxide-SemiconductorField-EectTransistors(MOSFETs)
thatamplifytheoutputsignalsoftheFPGAtodrivetheLEDsoftheRobotHeadLightUnit.
InterfaceSpecication
Interfacescanbeclassiedintoexternalinterfacesbetweenunitsandinternalinterfacesbetween
systemcomponents.TheRobotHeadControlUnit supportsseveraltypesofexternalinterfaces
fortheinteractionwithotherunits. TheconnectionoftheRobot t HeadControlUnit toother
controlunitsoftherobotisbasedontheEBC-interface(containingtheCANbusandvoltage
levels of f 5.0V, 12.0V, and about 25.9V). Anincoming USB interface is s directly y connected
totheomni-directionalcameraport. Thiscameraportfurthercontainstheswitchablepower
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested