11 
new-nfinn-wired-wireless-bridges-0612-v02.ppt 
For IEEE 802 plenary, San Diego CA USA, July 2012 
Four different models 
1.  Form an 802.11s mesh out of a subnetwork of 
interconnected APs and their station/bridges.  This 
subnetwork peers with other (wired) subnetworks. 
2.  The collection of a single AP/bridge and all of its 
associated no-AP station/bridges (but excluding its non-
bridge non-AP stations) cooperate to appear, to the rest of 
the network, to be a single virtual bridge with only wired 
external ports. 
3.  The 802.11 AP and its non-AP stations appear to the 
logical bridge functions that may reside in some or all of 
the AP and its associated non-AP stations to be a single 
shared medium, rather similar to the original 802.3 “fat 
yellow coax”. 
4.  An 802.11 AP and its non-AP stations export to the rest of 
the network, and utilize themselves, a view of the 802.11 
medium as a set of point-to-point links such that every 
non-AP station has a link to the AP.  There may also be 
links among some pairs of non-AP stations. 
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12 
new-nfinn-wired-wireless-bridges-0612-v02.ppt 
For IEEE 802 plenary, San Diego CA USA, July 2012 
Models: “802.11 is just another medium” 
 In order to compare these ideas, we will use a 
reference network: 
AP1 
AP2 
S
S
S
Wired bridge 
Access Points (loosely) 
Non-bridge non-AP stations 
non-AP station bridges (loosely) 
wired bridges 
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13 
new-nfinn-wired-wireless-bridges-0612-v02.ppt 
For IEEE 802 plenary, San Diego CA USA, July 2012 
Current 802.11 architecture 
AP1 
AP2 
S
S
S
 In the current 802.11 
architecture, an Access 
Point with multiple wired 
connections should normally 
be modeled as a wired 
bridge with a single 
connection to the AP. 
 Non-AP station bridges 
cannot exist. 
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14 
new-nfinn-wired-wireless-bridges-0612-v02.ppt 
For IEEE 802 plenary, San Diego CA USA, July 2012 
Mesh subnetwork + wired subnetwork 
AP1 
AP2 
S
S
S
 There can be only one active 
connection between each 
pair of clouds. 
 The interior of each cloud is 
opaque to the other cloud(s). 
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15 
new-nfinn-wired-wireless-bridges-0612-v02.ppt 
For IEEE 802 plenary, San Diego CA USA, July 2012 
Mesh subnetwork + wired subnetwork 
 The wireless world is integrated into an 802.11s mesh 
subnetwork.  Each wired subnet forms its own 
independent subnetwork. 
 Direct links between stations can be utilized within the 
mesh network. 
 Problems with this approach are listed in the issues 
section, following. 
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16 
new-nfinn-wired-wireless-bridges-0612-v02.ppt 
For IEEE 802 plenary, San Diego CA USA, July 2012 
Virtual Bridge 
 Each AP and its station 
bridges become a single 
bridge. 
 Note that each station/bridge 
is split into two parts, the 
wired and wireless part, with 
a simulated wire connecting 
them. 
 One device (the station 
bridge that is a station to 
both AP1 and AP2) required 
two separate wireless parts. 
AP1 
S
S
AP2 
S
S
17 
new-nfinn-wired-wireless-bridges-0612-v02.ppt 
For IEEE 802 plenary, San Diego CA USA, July 2012 
Virtual Bridge 
 This offers a general solution to the problem. 
 We will assume that the boundaries of the virtual 
bridges do not contain the whole of each non-AP 
station / bridge element and their wired connections. 
o This would not be possible for the case of a non-AP station 
bridge that is connected to two different APs. 
o This would greatly amplify the “hidden costs” problem described 
in the next section; some pairs of wires would have 0 cost 
across the virtual bridge, and some very high cost. 
 Problems with this approach are listed in the issues 
section, following. 
18 
new-nfinn-wired-wireless-bridges-0612-v02.ppt 
For IEEE 802 plenary, San Diego CA USA, July 2012 
802.11 shared medium 
 Each AP and all of its 
stations become a single 
shared medium (fat yellow 
coax), as seen by the wired 
bridges. 
 Each AP uses its bridge 
knowledge to optimize 
forwarding through the 
802.11 medium, rather than 
broadcasting every frame. 
 Direct station-station or AP-
AP links have to be modeled 
independently. 
19 
new-nfinn-wired-wireless-bridges-0612-v02.ppt 
For IEEE 802 plenary, San Diego CA USA, July 2012 
802.11 shared medium 
 This solution may be the least-difficult to standardize for 
bridges employing the Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol.  
The techniques are well-known, and require relatively 
little coordination among the non-AP stations. 
 Problems with this approach are listed in the issues 
section, following. 
20 
new-nfinn-wired-wireless-bridges-0612-v02.ppt 
For IEEE 802 plenary, San Diego CA USA, July 2012 
Set of point-to-point links 
S
S
S
 The Access Points and their 
co-resident bridging 
functions become integrated 
AP bridges (APBs). 
 Devices with non-AP station 
capability(ies) and wired 
connections become “non-
AP station bridges”. 
APB1 
APB2 
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