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REGIONAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
90
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Oil-exporting countries
25.9
17.8
19.0
24.6
21.3
17.9
16.3
12.1
12.3
Excluding Nigeria
34.7
30.3
34.8
38.2
36.6
33.5
30.3
24.3
24.2
Angola
45.5
34.5
43.5
48.8
45.9
40.4
34.6
27.4
27.6
Cameroon
18.2
16.7
16.0
17.5
17.5
17.6
18.0
17.2
16.3
Chad
14.1
12.3
18.9
23.2
21.8
18.5
15.9
13.4
15.1
Congo, Rep. of
39.6
29.1
37.5
42.0
42.5
46.5
41.9
40.6
42.4
Equatorial Guinea
38.3
49.1
34.2
35.0
34.7
31.8
33.6
30.2
27.9
Gabon
28.7
29.4
25.8
29.0
30.1
30.2
26.1
21.5
23.4
Nigeria
21.8
11.2
12.4
17.7
14.3
11.0
10.5
7.5
7.6
South Sudan
...
...
...
26.7
8.2
14.7
22.9
11.8
10.8
Middle-income countries
1
25.4
25.0
24.8
25.4
25.5
25.4
26.2
26.5
26.5
Excluding South Africa
21.6
20.3
20.1
21.3
21.6
21.3
22.4
21.9
21.8
Botswana
41.4
36.8
33.6
35.0
35.8
37.2
39.4
34.1
32.5
Cabo Verde
22.7
21.9
21.7
22.7
21.6
22.2
21.3
22.5
23.7
Ghana
13.6
13.4
14.4
17.1
17.0
16.3
17.7
18.3
19.3
Kenya
18.7
18.1
19.2
19.0
18.7
19.3
19.2
19.9
21.0
Lesotho
57.0
60.4
44.7
44.4
57.9
55.6
58.5
56.5
47.2
Mauritius
19.4
21.2
21.2
20.7
20.8
21.0
20.5
21.8
21.4
Namibia
28.5
30.8
27.8
29.8
31.2
31.0
33.2
32.6
29.5
Senegal
19.5
18.6
19.3
20.5
20.5
19.9
21.0
20.8
21.2
Seychelles
36.5
32.9
34.2
35.6
34.2
31.9
32.4
31.6
31.4
South Africa
26.8
27.0
26.7
27.0
27.2
27.6
28.2
29.1
29.5
Swaziland
30.5
29.3
20.5
20.1
29.7
28.7
28.7
26.8
21.9
Zambia
15.2
13.3
14.2
16.9
17.4
16.9
18.5
17.1
16.0
Low-income and fragile countries
13.0
13.5
14.7
15.1
15.7
16.0
16.1
16.3
16.5
Low-income excluding fragile countries
12.8
13.0
13.7
14.3
14.7
15.5
15.5
15.9
16.2
Benin
18.2
18.5
18.6
17.6
18.8
19.4
18.2
18.7
18.8
Burkina Faso
13.1
13.6
15.3
15.7
17.5
18.5
17.3
17.3
17.9
Ethiopia
2
13.9
11.9
14.0
13.4
13.8
14.3
14.0
14.7
14.5
Mali
16.9
17.1
17.2
17.0
17.1
17.3
17.6
19.0
19.3
Mozambique
12.9
15.8
17.9
19.7
22.4
26.9
27.8
25.5
25.7
Niger
13.7
14.3
13.6
14.2
15.2
17.0
18.0
18.7
19.1
Rwanda
12.7
12.6
13.0
13.8
15.0
16.4
16.7
15.2
15.3
Sierra Leone
8.8
9.1
9.9
11.5
11.4
10.7
9.9
9.4
9.9
Tanzania
10.8
12.1
12.0
12.3
12.7
13.1
13.2
13.7
14.5
Uganda
10.9
10.8
10.6
12.8
11.6
11.7
12.5
13.7
14.0
Fragile countries
13.3
14.3
16.2
16.4
17.4
16.9
17.0
17.0
17.1
Burundi
13.9
13.9
14.5
15.3
14.5
13.3
13.7
12.4
13.0
Central African Rep.
9.4
10.8
11.6
10.8
11.5
5.7
4.9
6.7
7.5
Comoros
14.1
13.9
14.3
16.1
19.3
15.5
14.5
17.1
17.1
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
8.6
10.7
12.1
11.8
14.4
12.9
13.3
13.6
13.9
Côte d'Ivoire
17.5
18.0
17.7
18.8
18.4
18.5
18.6
17.5
17.9
Eritrea
22.3
13.3
13.3
14.2
14.2
14.1
14.2
14.1
14.0
Gambia, The
15.8
16.2
14.9
16.1
16.4
16.3
18.7
19.6
20.6
Guinea
14.1
16.2
15.3
16.8
20.1
18.4
17.9
20.3
20.8
Guinea-Bissau
9.4
9.1
10.8
10.1
9.1
8.1
12.0
12.6
13.9
Liberia
15.1
20.6
25.0
24.3
26.0
25.0
23.5
22.7
23.5
Madagascar
11.7
9.9
11.2
9.7
9.6
9.6
10.1
10.3
10.6
Malawi
16.4
19.4
21.8
18.4
18.3
21.6
21.8
21.2
21.2
São Tomé & Príncipe
27.7
16.3
17.5
18.4
16.3
20.6
15.6
16.7
17.2
Togo
16.3
15.8
18.0
16.7
17.6
18.0
17.7
18.2
18.6
Zimbabwe
3
6.1
11.4
23.3
26.7
28.0
27.7
27.3
28.1
27.0
Sub-Saharan Africa
23.4
19.8
20.7
23.3
21.9
20.2
19.4
17.8
18.1
Median
16.4
16.2
17.6
17.7
18.3
18.5
18.2
18.7
19.1
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
21.8
20.3
22.2
24.6
24.0
23.0
22.1
19.9
19.9
Oil-importing countries 
21.9
21.2
21.8
22.4
22.3
22.2
22.4
22.5
22.5
Excluding South Africa
16.5
16.1
16.9
17.7
18.1
18.1
18.4
18.3
18.4
CFA franc zone
21.5
20.9
21.0
23.0
23.1
22.6
21.7
19.9
20.2
WAEMU
16.9
17.0
17.3
17.7
18.1
18.4
18.5
18.4
18.8
CEMAC
25.9
25.0
24.6
27.6
27.6
26.8
25.0
21.7
21.8
EAC-5
14.2
14.3
14.7
15.2
15.1
15.5
15.7
16.5
17.3
ECOWAS
20.0
12.6
13.4
17.7
15.1
12.5
12.1
9.9
10.3
SADC
26.7
25.7
26.9
28.4
3.7
27.8
27.2
25.9
25.9
SACU
27.6
27.6
27.0
27.4
27.8
28.3
29.0
29.6
29.6
COMESA (SSA members)
14.8
14.4
15.8
16.2
16.6
16.7
16.8
17.1
17.1
MDRI countries
14.8
14.2
15.4
16.5
16.7
16.9
17.0
16.7
17.0
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
22.6
22.0
21.7
23.5
24.0
23.5
22.8
21.2
21.0
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
23.6
19.5
20.5
23.2
21.6
19.7
18.8
17.3
17.6
Sub-Saharan Africa
4
23.4
19.8
20.7
23.3
22.0
20.2
19.4
17.8
18.1
Table SA10. Government Revenue, Excluding Grants
(Percent of GDP)
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STATISTICAL APPENDIX
91
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Oil-exporting countries
20.7
23.3
21.3
22.5
20.8
20.2
19.5
16.6
15.9
Excluding Nigeria
28.8
35.0
32.6
32.7
35.6
35.8
36.6
30.5
29.0
Angola
41.1
41.9
40.0
40.2
41.3
40.8
41.1
30.9
29.0
Cameroon
15.9
17.5
17.7
20.5
19.5
21.9
23.5
22.4
22.1
Chad
14.9
24.2
24.4
22.4
23.9
22.9
22.1
17.6
18.3
Congo, Rep. of
26.4
24.7
21.4
26.1
36.2
48.7
50.1
50.6
45.5
Equatorial Guinea
20.0
58.6
40.0
34.0
43.8
39.3
40.4
36.1
31.1
Gabon
20.2
22.6
23.1
26.5
28.5
28.4
23.5
25.1
25.9
Nigeria
16.9
17.2
16.7
17.3
14.0
13.4
12.5
11.3
10.7
South Sudan
...
...
...
24.8
24.1
26.4
40.0
43.5
44.6
Middle-income countries
1
26.3
30.3
30.3
29.8
30.3
30.4
31.0
31.7
31.3
Excluding South Africa
25.1
27.0
27.1
27.0
28.0
27.9
29.1
29.1
28.2
Botswana
37.6
51.4
41.8
35.6
35.1
32.1
35.4
34.8
32.2
Cabo Verde
31.7
32.8
38.7
33.3
34.7
33.6
30.3
29.6
29.2
Ghana
21.8
23.5
26.1
26.5
30.7
27.8
29.3
25.6
24.9
Kenya
21.6
23.1
24.2
23.6
24.2
25.5
27.0
28.5
28.7
Lesotho
49.8
67.4
56.2
62.8
61.5
62.9
59.9
63.4
61.2
Mauritius
23.7
26.3
25.1
24.6
23.3
24.9
23.9
27.4
25.5
Namibia
26.6
31.1
32.4
36.7
33.7
34.6
37.1
38.5
37.0
Senegal
25.3
26.5
27.1
28.8
28.5
27.9
29.2
28.4
28.4
Seychelles
38.3
32.1
34.6
34.7
36.1
35.6
31.9
33.1
30.9
South Africa
26.8
31.7
31.5
30.9
31.3
31.7
32.0
33.2
33.2
Swaziland
29.6
32.7
29.4
23.8
25.6
28.6
31.9
31.7
29.1
Zambia
21.0
17.8
18.1
19.3
22.0
24.9
25.4
25.7
23.3
Low-income and fragile countries
19.2
20.1
21.3
21.4
20.8
21.3
21.5
22.0
21.8
Low-income excluding fragile countries
20.1
20.7
21.1
21.0
20.3
21.5
21.7
22.1
21.9
Benin
21.2
25.0
20.4
21.6
21.0
22.4
21.8
23.8
24.8
Burkina Faso
23.3
24.2
22.8
22.1
25.5
27.8
23.3
24.8
25.6
Ethiopia
2
21.5
17.1
18.5
18.2
16.6
17.8
17.7
18.8
18.4
Mali
23.8
25.9
23.0
25.0
18.5
23.5
23.8
26.5
26.0
Mozambique
22.7
29.4
30.0
31.9
31.4
34.9
43.2
36.9
34.3
Niger
21.3
23.9
20.6
19.4
22.3
27.8
31.9
31.6
29.0
Rwanda
22.7
23.9
25.9
26.5
25.9
27.6
27.7
25.7
24.0
Sierra Leone
16.4
17.5
20.2
21.6
20.4
15.6
17.9
18.7
18.6
Tanzania
18.0
20.2
20.2
19.1
19.8
19.4
18.0
19.1
19.9
Uganda
16.2
15.3
18.8
17.2
16.5
16.8
17.1
18.7
19.5
Fragile countries
18.0
19.3
21.6
22.1
21.7
20.9
21.2
21.9
21.7
Burundi
32.6
38.0
40.8
39.8
34.9
31.4
30.1
30.3
29.4
Central African Rep.
14.9
16.6
18.6
15.7
16.4
14.7
12.6
16.2
15.6
Comoros
21.9
23.0
22.1
22.1
25.3
25.2
24.4
25.3
27.4
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
10.6
13.9
17.7
15.7
15.4
12.2
13.3
14.2
15.5
Côte d'Ivoire
19.5
19.9
20.0
24.6
22.1
22.1
23.2
22.7
22.9
Eritrea
47.1
30.6
34.6
33.6
30.7
29.8
29.1
29.0
28.7
Gambia, The
20.6
23.1
23.6
26.0
29.7
27.1
32.4
30.0
27.4
Guinea
16.5
23.7
29.7
21.5
26.1
25.1
26.1
30.0
26.7
Guinea-Bissau
22.1
20.9
18.7
17.5
13.7
13.4
22.4
19.6
22.1
Liberia
15.8
33.2
32.5
29.0
30.1
32.8
32.3
40.9
39.4
Madagascar
20.9
14.1
14.0
14.1
13.4
14.9
14.7
16.7
15.4
Malawi
28.6
30.5
29.8
25.8
29.0
34.7
29.2
31.0
27.7
São Tomé & Príncipe
42.6
48.8
47.3
48.0
44.9
31.6
31.5
40.6
36.2
Togo
19.0
21.2
22.5
23.8
26.4
25.5
24.6
26.7
27.0
Zimbabwe
3
9.6
14.0
22.6
27.9
28.6
29.7
28.7
29.3
27.5
Sub-Saharan Africa
23.0
25.5
25.0
25.2
24.4
23.9
23.6
22.8
22.4
Median
21.7
24.1
23.9
24.8
25.9
27.6
27.7
28.4
27.4
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
23.8
26.3
26.3
26.8
27.5
27.7
28.2
26.2
25.4
Oil-importing countries 
24.3
26.9
27.6
27.3
27.2
27.2
27.4
27.9
27.5
Excluding South Africa
21.6
22.7
23.6
23.7
23.7
23.9
24.3
24.6
24.1
CFA franc zone
20.3
24.9
23.1
24.8
26.3
27.5
27.3
26.2
25.7
WAEMU
21.8
23.2
22.2
24.2
23.2
24.6
24.9
25.3
25.4
CEMAC
18.7
26.7
24.0
25.3
29.2
30.3
29.7
27.2
26.0
EAC-5
19.6
20.9
22.3
21.4
21.6
22.1
22.3
23.7
24.2
ECOWAS
18.2
19.0
18.4
19.1
16.7
16.1
15.3
14.5
14.3
SADC
27.4
31.3
30.9
30.6
3.7
31.2
31.5
30.2
29.5
SACU
27.3
32.5
32.0
31.3
31.6
31.9
32.5
33.6
33.4
COMESA (SSA members)
20.1
19.7
21.5
21.0
20.9
21.6
21.8
22.8
22.4
MDRI countries
20.0
20.6
21.4
21.8
22.4
23.1
23.4
23.0
22.6
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
21.7
26.1
24.7
26.2
27.4
28.4
28.4
27.7
27.0
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
23.3
25.5
25.1
25.0
23.9
23.2
22.7
21.8
21.5
Sub-Saharan Africa
4
23.0
25.5
25.0
25.2
24.4
23.9
23.5
22.6
22.2
Table SA11. Government Expenditure
(Percent of GDP)
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
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REGIONAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
92
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Oil-exporting countries
21.7
19.1
15.0
14.4
14.4
16.1
17.5
21.7
22.6
Excluding Nigeria
34.2
37.3
28.2
22.9
23.1
28.9
34.6
47.4
45.3
Angola
28.2
49.9
38.8
31.4
28.7
36.2
42.2
57.4
53.0
Cameroon
30.1
10.1
11.5
13.2
15.4
18.7
25.4
32.2
35.1
Chad
24.8
31.7
20.7
20.7
17.9
18.7
24.6
25.2
23.8
Congo, Rep. of
114.4
61.6
22.9
33.1
34.1
38.2
41.8
57.5
54.1
Equatorial Guinea
2.1
6.4
10.1
7.4
9.1
7.9
12.0
16.1
15.7
Gabon
41.2
23.1
20.5
17.9
19.9
29.2
28.9
38.7
41.7
Nigeria
16.0
9.6
9.6
10.2
10.4
10.5
10.5
11.9
13.7
South Sudan
...
...
...
0.0
4.5
12.4
20.3
49.4
51.7
Middle-income countries
1
31.2
31.5
34.9
37.2
39.9
43.0
46.9
49.8
51.0
Excluding South Africa
35.1
34.1
36.3
36.2
38.7
42.3
48.5
52.1
52.9
Botswana
8.0
18.1
20.4
19.6
18.9
17.5
14.5
12.4
11.3
Cabo Verde
73.8
65.2
72.4
78.8
91.1
100.7
114.0 124.7
123.3
Ghana
39.3
36.1
46.3
42.6
49.1
56.2
69.0
72.8
70.5
Kenya
45.2
41.1
44.4
43.0
41.7
44.2
52.6
56.2
55.9
Lesotho
57.5
37.6
35.2
38.0
40.3
43.4
47.8
53.4
55.8
Mauritius
49.5
52.1
51.9
52.1
51.5
53.9
56.2
56.0
54.3
Namibia
23.0
15.9
15.5
23.3
24.1
23.8
24.7
25.8
26.1
Senegal
32.5
34.0
35.5
40.7
42.8
46.6
53.1
55.0
61.9
Seychelles
140.1
121.3
81.9
73.9
77.1
64.1
65.3
64.5
59.5
South Africa
29.8
30.3
34.4
37.6
40.5
43.3
46.0
48.4
49.8
Swaziland
14.6
10.3
13.5
13.9
14.4
14.8
13.6
17.6
21.5
Zambia
20.4
20.5
18.9
20.6
25.5
28.6
35.2
41.9
44.9
Low-income and fragile countries
61.7
43.1
37.5
38.7
32.1
33.2
34.9
37.5
37.5
Low-income excluding fragile countries
41.3
26.2
28.4
28.3
27.0
29.5
32.4
35.3
36.2
Benin
26.8
27.3
30.2
31.9
29.2
29.8
34.0
35.2
36.1
Burkina Faso
32.6
28.5
29.3
29.8
28.3
28.7
28.5
33.2
32.2
Ethiopia
2
57.1
24.9
27.4
25.7
20.9
21.6
22.3
22.6
23.5
Mali
32.5
23.9
28.8
30.5
29.8
30.6
36.7
42.5
41.7
Mozambique
50.2
42.5
43.1
37.6
40.8
52.2
57.5
61.0
59.6
Niger
43.3
27.7
24.3
27.7
26.5
27.9
32.2
43.7
45.9
Rwanda
47.1
22.4
22.6
23.1
20.1
27.6
30.2
32.7
34.8
Sierra Leone
94.1
48.1
46.8
44.9
36.9
35.0
37.7
47.2
49.5
Tanzania
33.5
24.4
27.3
27.8
29.2
30.9
35.2
40.2
41.8
Uganda
34.8
19.2
22.9
23.6
24.2
27.6
31.4
35.0
37.9
Fragile countries
89.5
69.3
50.9
53.8
40.2
39.1
39.0
41.2
39.7
Burundi
134.4
25.7
40.3
36.9
37.1
32.8
30.5
33.7
29.6
Central African Rep.
86.6
32.5
32.3
32.9
33.1
52.3
47.6
42.1
37.1
Comoros
65.1
53.5
50.3
46.1
42.5
18.1
24.5
24.7
25.7
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
96.6
89.8
27.0
22.3
19.9
18.3
19.0
20.5
21.5
Côte d'Ivoire
76.6
64.2
63.0
93.3
44.8
39.9
36.6
34.7
33.4
Eritrea
145.2
144.6
143.8 133.0
127.6
130.4
132.1 137.6
136.9
Gambia, The
107.3
62.6
69.6
77.3
77.0
83.3
101.1 107.7
101.7
Guinea
117.9
89.3
99.6
77.8
35.4
39.5
41.1
40.9
36.3
Guinea-Bissau
197.4
159.2
67.5
49.5
52.1
53.2
54.3
52.2
47.6
Liberia
548.8
173.9
33.4
29.6
27.0
27.5
33.5
41.2
46.1
Madagascar
56.8
33.4
31.9
32.4
33.7
34.0
34.7
35.4
43.6
Malawi
62.9
35.6
29.6
30.6
43.9
59.4
62.2
62.5
57.8
São Tomé & Príncipe
207.2
68.0
75.3
71.7
78.3
71.4
69.0
91.2
90.1
Togo
97.4
73.4
50.0
44.5
46.1
50.1
58.7
61.1
60.2
Zimbabwe
3
50.6
68.3
63.2
51.8
56.7
54.2
53.4
69.3
57.5
Sub-Saharan Africa
32.7
28.9
27.1
27.6
27.2
28.6
30.4
34.5
35.6
Median
49.8
34.8
32.9
32.4
33.7
34.0
36.6
42.1
44.9
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
46.0
39.0
34.4
32.7
31.0
34.3
38.3
44.1
43.7
Oil-importing countries 
39.7
35.3
35.7
37.7
37.4
39.5
42.4
45.0
45.6
Excluding South Africa
50.9
39.7
37.0
37.7
34.7
36.8
40.0
42.8
43.1
CFA franc zone
46.3
34.1
29.6
34.2
27.6
29.5
32.8
37.5
38.3
WAEMU
53.2
44.6
42.9
53.0
37.5
37.1
38.9
40.9
41.5
CEMAC
39.9
23.0
16.6
17.7
18.6
22.1
26.5
33.4
34.3
EAC-5
41.2
30.0
33.3
33.0
32.9
35.5
41.3
45.7
46.7
ECOWAS
28.2
20.0
18.4
19.9
17.5
18.1
18.3
20.6
22.6
SADC
32.8
35.7
33.9
34.6
3.7
39.0
42.0
46.8
46.7
SACU
28.8
29.4
33.2
36.4
39.0
41.4
43.6
45.9
47.2
COMESA (SSA members)
53.5
40.5
34.5
32.9
32.6
34.1
37.4
40.1
40.4
MDRI countries
51.4
34.0
29.1
29.3
30.1
33.1
36.7
39.9
41.0
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
45.5
34.3
30.2
34.9
29.5
31.3
34.5
39.5
40.4
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
30.3
27.6
26.3
26.7
26.8
28.2
29.7
33.2
34.5
Sub-Saharan Africa
4
32.7
28.9
27.1
28.0
27.4
28.8
30.5
34.3
35.4
Table SA12. Government Debt
(Percent of GDP)
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STATISTICAL APPENDIX
93
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Oil-exporting countries
16.9
28.0
22.4
21.0
23.1
21.9
23.7
25.1
25.0
Excluding Nigeria
17.9
30.3
27.1
26.6
27.8
28.9
31.4
36.5
36.4
Angola
21.9
42.5
35.3
37.6
35.0
36.7
40.3
46.7
45.6
Cameroon
19.4
22.3
23.4
24.2
22.7
23.3
24.0
24.3
24.4
Chad
9.0
11.1
11.5
12.1
12.4
13.3
15.7
16.2
16.9
Congo, Rep. of
16.0
22.5
23.8
28.0
33.0
34.8
39.2
50.9
48.6
Equatorial Guinea
7.3
15.4
15.8
13.2
18.4
21.4
20.3
22.3
21.6
Gabon
17.0
20.3
19.5
20.5
23.2
24.8
24.4
25.5
26.2
Nigeria
16.5
27.1
20.8
18.8
21.3
19.3
20.9
21.0
20.9
South Sudan
...
...
...
9.5
19.8
14.3
18.6
34.7
44.4
Middle-income countries
1
60.5
64.4
63.4
62.1
60.6
59.4
59.7
59.7
59.5
Excluding South Africa
36.2
39.1
40.5
40.0
39.8
40.0
41.4
42.0
42.2
Botswana
46.7
52.7
50.1
42.4
45.9
44.5
44.4
44.5
44.7
Cabo Verde
75.1
77.5
80.1
78.5
82.1
90.1
95.8
95.0
99.0
Ghana
22.8
28.0
29.9
30.4
30.0
28.8
32.5
33.7
34.1
Kenya
35.7
36.5
40.1
40.6
40.5
42.2
43.5
44.3
45.1
Lesotho
32.6
39.1
39.9
36.2
36.1
39.4
37.4
35.8
36.3
Mauritius
98.5
99.5
100.4
98.9
100.5
99.8
103.0
103.2
98.7
Namibia
44.5
65.8
64.4
67.2
59.7
55.4
51.1
50.5
49.8
Senegal
34.7
36.8
39.7
40.0
39.9
42.3
45.0
45.5
45.2
Seychelles
84.6
55.5
62.1
57.6
48.6
54.9
60.5
60.5
60.5
South Africa
72.5
77.7
75.8
74.6
72.7
71.1
71.0
71.0
71.0
Swaziland
19.8
25.4
25.0
24.4
23.9
25.4
24.3
24.1
24.4
Zambia
18.0
17.8
18.4
18.9
20.0
21.4
21.4
21.7
22.5
Low-income and fragile countries
22.0
23.2
25.3
25.9
25.2
25.8
27.0
27.8
28.6
Low-income excluding fragile countries
23.9
23.9
25.8
25.9
25.5
26.4
28.0
29.2
30.2
Benin
33.2
41.7
44.5
45.8
44.7
49.1
54.9
60.6
66.3
Burkina Faso
23.9
28.0
29.7
29.7
30.5
31.9
35.1
37.8
40.3
Ethiopia2
34.6
24.8
27.0
27.6
25.3
27.1
28.4
29.2
30.5
Mali
28.8
28.1
27.7
29.6
32.2
33.6
33.1
34.7
35.8
Mozambique
17.2
24.6
24.7
27.5
31.3
34.2
39.0
40.6
41.0
Niger
15.6
18.5
20.3
20.2
22.4
23.9
28.0
26.5
26.1
Rwanda
16.7
17.5
18.5
20.3
20.1
21.1
22.7
23.7
23.9
Sierra Leone
16.7
22.6
23.5
23.2
22.0
19.8
22.0
24.8
24.6
Tanzania
20.9
23.3
25.1
24.7
23.8
22.7
23.4
24.2
24.7
Uganda
16.5
17.9
21.7
19.8
19.7
20.1
21.3
21.7
22.6
Fragile countries
19.1
22.0
24.4
25.9
24.7
24.7
25.1
25.2
25.4
Burundi
22.3
24.3
25.3
22.5
20.6
19.7
18.9
18.9
18.9
Central African Rep.
15.9
16.1
17.8
19.2
18.3
28.1
28.7
28.8
28.8
Comoros
25.6
30.4
34.1
34.9
38.3
36.9
38.4
38.4
38.4
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
6.6
10.2
10.5
10.7
11.6
11.5
11.9
11.6
11.6
Côte d'Ivoire
11.3
14.1
15.7
18.9
15.1
15.0
15.7
16.6
17.3
Eritrea
130.2
121.6
123.2
114.7 114.1
120.4
123.4
126.3
125.5
Gambia, The
39.0
48.7
49.9
55.7
54.5
56.6
59.2
59.2
61.4
Guinea
20.2
26.9
38.2
33.6
28.9
30.4
30.7
33.3
33.3
Guinea-Bissau
19.1
24.6
29.7
33.2
32.0
36.9
44.6
44.6
45.8
Liberia
19.5
31.4
35.5
42.0
36.3
34.8
34.6
34.7
34.7
Madagascar
23.6
24.5
24.7
26.1
25.7
25.2
25.4
23.2
23.5
Malawi
15.8
19.8
22.1
25.1
25.7
26.0
24.5
25.2
26.1
São Tomé & Príncipe
33.2
34.9
36.6
34.9
38.0
38.3
40.1
40.1
41.2
Togo
33.3
41.3
45.6
46.9
45.3
46.5
48.4
49.5
50.6
Zimbabwe
3
10.7
16.9
24.7
28.3
29.6
28.8
31.6
33.1
34.1
Sub-Saharan Africa
35.2
40.3
37.8
36.7
36.8
35.9
36.8
37.4
37.4
Median
21.4
26.1
27.4
28.3
30.0
30.4
32.5
34.7
34.7
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
25.1
29.3
30.0
30.0
29.9
30.5
32.1
33.8
34.2
Oil-importing countries 
46.8
49.1
49.0
48.4
46.9
46.2
46.5
46.6
46.6
Excluding South Africa
27.3
29.0
30.9
31.2
30.6
31.0
32.3
32.9
33.5
CFA franc zone
18.8
22.6
23.9
25.2
25.4
26.9
28.4
30.3
30.9
WAEMU
22.6
26.0
27.9
29.7
28.7
29.9
31.9
33.2
34.3
CEMAC
14.8
19.0
19.6
20.4
21.9
23.5
24.5
26.9
26.8
EAC-5
25.6
26.7
29.6
29.2
28.8
29.2
30.2
30.9
31.6
ECOWAS
18.4
27.2
23.0
21.8
23.5
22.1
23.8
24.3
24.5
SADC
53.3
58.6
56.6
55.8
3.7
53.1
53.2
53.8
53.3
SACU
69.8
75.5
73.5
72.1
70.3
68.6
68.3
68.3
68.2
COMESA (SSA members)
29.7
28.5
30.7
30.9
30.5
31.3
32.2
32.5
33.0
MDRI countries
22.1
23.7
25.4
25.9
25.8
26.4
27.9
29.0
29.6
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
23.0
27.3
28.4
29.6
29.4
30.7
31.8
33.4
33.8
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
37.7
42.7
39.5
38.3
38.2
37.0
37.7
38.1
37.9
Sub-Saharan Africa
a
4
35.2
40.3
37.8
37.0
36.9
36.0
36.9
37.4
37.3
Table SA13. Broad Money
(Percent of GDP)
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
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REGIONAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
94
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Oil-exporting countries
36.8
16.3
8.7
9.3
24.3
3.3
18.1
9.3
12.7
Excluding Nigeria
36.3
14.4
13.9
26.0
12.2
9.9
12.3
8.6
12.8
Angola
64.6
21.5
5.3
37.1
4.9
14.1
16.5
11.5
16.9
Cameroon
10.5
6.9
11.3
10.6
1.4
10.8
10.5
8.6
7.7
Chad
23.6
-4.6
25.3
14.2
13.4
8.6
26.5
3.5
14.0
Congo, Rep. of
28.7
5.0
38.9
34.5
21.1
0.7
13.1
1.4
4.8
Equatorial Guinea
30.7
29.9
33.5
7.7
57.8
7.3
-14.1
-15.2
-1.5
Gabon
14.2
2.2
19.2
26.5
15.7
6.1
1.6
-5.2
5.3
Nigeria
37.2
17.1
6.9
4.0
29.1
1.0
20.4
9.6
12.7
South Sudan
...
...
...
...
33.9
-1.6
21.2
67.9
37.5
Middle-income countries
1
19.1
5.8
11.9
11.8
8.8
9.3
11.4
9.3
9.6
Excluding South Africa
19.7
13.8
21.6
18.2
15.2
15.1
18.4
14.3
13.3
Botswana
17.4
-1.3
12.4
4.3
13.9
8.3
12.5
7.7
9.0
Cabo Verde
12.5
3.5
5.4
4.6
6.3
11.4
7.4
4.7
10.7
Ghana
31.3
26.0
34.4
32.2
24.3
19.1
36.8
22.5
16.7
Kenya
14.9
16.0
21.6
19.1
14.1
15.6
16.7
15.6
15.7
Lesotho
16.8
17.7
14.5
1.6
7.0
21.2
4.0
3.1
8.7
Mauritius
13.0
2.4
6.9
6.4
8.2
5.8
8.7
5.2
2.2
Namibia
30.4
7.0
7.5
13.8
5.3
8.6
7.7
9.8
9.7
Senegal
9.5
10.9
14.1
6.7
6.8
8.0
11.4
7.7
7.7
Seychelles
7.9
7.0
13.5
4.5
-0.6
23.7
17.5
5.7
6.6
South Africa
18.9
1.8
6.9
8.3
5.2
5.9
7.3
6.3
7.2
Swaziland
15.7
26.8
7.9
5.5
10.0
15.9
3.9
7.4
6.9
Zambia
25.6
7.7
29.9
21.7
17.9
20.8
12.6
13.4
15.2
Low-income and fragile countries
18.5
26.1
25.8
20.8
15.6
14.1
17.2
15.0
14.9
Low-income excluding fragile countries
17.9
18.5
24.6
20.9
20.1
15.0
19.2
17.2
16.5
Benin
15.6
6.2
11.6
9.1
9.0
17.3
16.7
17.1
17.6
Burkina Faso
6.9
18.2
19.1
13.8
15.9
10.6
12.4
14.5
15.1
Ethiopia
2
18.0
19.9
24.4
36.5
32.9
24.2
26.9
24.2
22.0
Mali
5.6
16.0
9.0
15.3
15.2
7.4
7.1
13.2
11.6
Mozambique
22.2
34.6
17.6
23.9
25.6
21.2
27.4
17.1
15.4
Niger
15.7
18.3
22.0
6.2
31.2
10.1
25.7
0.3
5.6
Rwanda
23.6
13.0
16.9
26.7
14.0
15.5
19.0
15.8
13.2
Sierra Leone
24.5
31.3
28.5
22.6
22.5
16.7
16.6
10.5
12.2
Tanzania
22.4
17.7
25.4
18.2
12.5
10.0
15.6
16.2
14.7
Uganda
19.1
16.6
41.5
10.5
14.9
9.5
15.2
13.3
15.4
Fragile countries
19.7
40.1
27.9
20.5
7.8
12.7
13.5
10.9
12.0
Burundi
21.1
19.8
19.4
6.1
10.9
11.9
8.7
0.0
11.5
Central African Rep.
7.5
11.7
16.1
13.8
1.6
5.6
14.6
12.5
12.7
Comoros
8.1
13.3
19.4
9.6
16.0
2.8
8.1
2.9
5.9
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
52.5
50.4
30.8
23.2
21.1
18.1
14.2
6.7
8.5
Côte d'Ivoire
12.0
24.4
19.3
17.2
-7.6
9.7
13.8
17.4
13.9
Eritrea
11.2
15.7
15.6
14.6
17.9
17.5
14.8
12.9
12.2
Gambia, The
16.5
19.4
13.7
11.0
7.8
15.1
11.2
11.0
15.0
Guinea
35.5
25.9
74.4
9.4
1.0
14.1
12.2
15.7
13.3
Guinea-Bissau
25.7
4.4
29.6
39.1
-6.0
14.8
31.0
11.3
10.1
Liberia
33.6
30.6
28.0
41.3
-2.1
7.6
2.1
0.4
4.7
Madagascar
17.2
10.2
9.6
16.4
6.9
5.3
11.1
1.7
14.2
Malawi
27.6
23.9
33.9
35.7
22.9
35.1
20.7
27.8
22.2
São Tomé & Príncipe
29.8
8.2
25.1
10.4
20.3
13.9
16.8
15.1
11.4
Togo
15.7
16.2
16.3
15.9
8.9
10.3
9.8
10.5
10.6
Zimbabwe
3
1.4
340.0
68.6
33.1
19.1
5.3
12.6
5.1
5.8
Sub-Saharan Africa
25.5
14.3
13.4
12.6
16.7
7.8
15.6
10.6
12.2
Median
17.7
16.1
19.2
14.0
13.9
10.6
13.1
10.5
11.6
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
22.8
19.7
21.7
21.2
14.7
13.3
16.3
13.2
14.0
Oil-importing countries 
18.9
12.9
16.9
15.1
11.4
11.2
13.7
11.6
11.8
Excluding South Africa
18.9
21.4
24.2
19.8
15.5
14.5
17.7
14.7
14.3
CFA franc zone
14.4
12.8
19.2
14.8
11.1
8.8
10.7
7.2
9.7
WAEMU
10.8
17.2
16.4
13.1
6.1
10.1
13.6
13.0
12.2
CEMAC
18.4
8.3
22.3
16.5
16.7
7.5
7.5
0.9
6.7
EAC-5
18.7
16.7
26.7
16.9
13.6
12.2
15.9
15.0
15.1
ECOWAS
31.3
17.9
10.9
7.5
24.4
4.0
20.3
11.1
12.9
SADC
23.8
11.2
11.6
14.7
3.7
9.4
10.7
8.7
10.2
SACU
19.0
2.2
7.2
8.2
5.7
6.3
7.5
6.4
7.4
COMESA (SSA members)
19.1
24.6
26.2
22.0
18.7
16.5
17.1
14.5
15.2
MDRI countries
20.8
18.1
24.5
21.3
17.5
14.8
18.7
14.7
14.4
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
15.0
12.9
18.0
14.2
10.8
9.3
10.3
7.4
9.6
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
27.9
13.3
12.3
12.2
17.5
7.6
16.4
10.9
12.5
Sub-Saharan Africa4
4
25.5
14.3
13.4
12.6
16.6
7.8
15.6
10.3
12.1
Table SA14. Broad Money Growth
(Percent)
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STATISTICAL APPENDIX
95
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Oil-exporting countries
44.1
24.8
0.4
7.6
10.5
11.7
16.1
Excluding Nigeria
37.8
32.7
19.4
21.6
21.8
18.2
11.1
Angola
71.9
60.5
19.2
28.8
24.2
15.0
1.1
Cameroon
8.2
9.1
8.2
28.3
2.6
14.9
14.4
Chad
17.3
21.0
30.2
24.4
32.1
6.1
37.8
Congo, Rep. of
26.6
30.4
49.3
42.3
44.3
17.0
25.6
Equatorial Guinea
50.1
13.8
30.6
30.7
-13.6
34.3
18.4
Gabon
10.0
-7.9
1.9
42.0
24.1
23.6
-2.0
Nigeria
47.0
22.0
-5.6
2.6
6.6
9.4
18.0
South Sudan
...
...
... -34.0
125.7
45.4
49.8
Middle-income countries1
20.5
5.1
8.1
12.5
13.3
11.1
12.9
Excluding South Africa
26.3
9.2
17.4
25.5
20.6
19.0
22.8
Botswana
21.2
10.3
11.1
21.8
21.9
13.4
14.0
Cabo Verde
20.4
11.8
9.0
13.3
-0.6
2.0
-0.9
Ghana
44.1
16.2
24.8
29.0
32.9
29.0
42.0
Kenya
19.9
13.9
20.3
30.9
10.4
20.1
22.2
Lesotho
29.2
20.7
26.9
25.1
42.2
10.3
6.0
Mauritius
15.4
0.5
12.5
12.3
17.4
14.2
-2.2
Namibia
16.9
10.0
11.1
9.3
16.9
14.5
16.5
Senegal
13.1
3.8
10.1
19.0
10.0
12.6
6.4
Seychelles
21.9
-9.2
23.6
5.2
8.5
4.5
25.2
South Africa
17.8
3.0
3.3
5.7
9.3
6.6
7.2
Swaziland
21.4
13.1
-0.5
26.0
-1.7
20.2
9.8
Zambia
43.2
-5.7
15.4
28.2
37.0
12.6
26.4
Low-income and fragile countries
24.6
22.2
25.0
23.3
19.3
14.3
17.6
Low-income excluding fragile countries
26.2
15.2
23.5
24.7
21.3
12.3
17.3
Benin
16.4
11.9
8.5
11.5
9.4
10.6
6.0
Burkina Faso
14.4
1.7
14.7
23.5
24.1
26.3
18.9
Ethiopia
2
24.9
14.5
28.1
25.0
37.7
10.8
19.9
Mali
7.2
11.0
13.5
24.1
4.8
11.7
18.7
Mozambique
27.5
58.6
18.3
19.4
16.0
17.5
18.2
Niger
26.1
18.4
11.7
16.0
24.2
4.0
10.4
Rwanda
30.2
5.7
9.9
27.6
35.0
11.1
19.6
Sierra Leone
35.5
45.4
31.5
21.8
-6.9
11.9
5.4
Tanzania
36.6
9.6
20.0
27.2
18.2
15.3
19.4
Uganda
27.5
17.3
41.8
28.3
11.8
6.2
14.1
Fragile countries
22.7
35.4
27.6
20.9
15.7
18.1
18.0
Burundi
8.4
25.5
30.2
39.3
12.4
8.3
8.8
Central African Rep.
8.7
8.7
30.2
19.2
31.0
-18.1
5.4
Comoros
11.4
44.1
25.9
8.9
22.4
12.6
7.6
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
91.1
41.1
19.0
16.7
25.6
26.5
22.8
Côte d'Ivoire
9.3
10.8
8.7
0.4
12.2
22.9
21.7
Eritrea
6.3
1.2
1.6
14.6
-1.5
2.7
4.0
Gambia, The
13.2
10.3
14.8
8.8
4.3
20.5
-7.6
Guinea
19.2
15.8
43.8
93.4
-3.2
35.0
44.0
Guinea-Bissau
50.9
24.9
58.2
46.7
27.2
3.6
-8.2
Liberia
36.0
31.5
40.1
32.4
11.2
27.2
5.6
Madagascar
24.8
6.5
11.2
7.0
4.8
16.2
18.4
Malawi
41.2
39.5
52.4
20.5
25.4
14.4
20.0
São Tomé & Príncipe
53.5
39.3
35.8
15.4
11.0
-3.3
-1.4
Togo
8.4
21.3
21.6
41.1
18.9
13.5
11.6
Zimbabwe
3
5.8
388.2
143.3
62.8
30.0
2.7
4.1
Sub-Saharan Africa
29.9
16.6
8.2
12.6
13.4
12.1
15.3
Median
21.3
13.8
19.1
23.5
16.9
13.4
14.1
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
28.1
20.9
21.5
23.5
20.3
16.6
17.4
Oil-importing countries 
21.9
11.2
14.2
16.5
15.6
12.4
14.8
Excluding South Africa
25.2
17.3
22.1
24.1
19.8
16.0
19.4
CFA franc zone
15.0
10.5
15.6
22.7
13.2
17.0
15.8
WAEMU
12.3
9.7
11.7
14.5
13.6
16.6
15.0
CEMAC
18.1
11.3
19.9
32.1
12.8
17.5
16.7
EAC-5
26.8
13.0
24.3
29.1
14.6
14.7
19.1
ECOWAS
39.0
19.6
-0.3
7.1
9.2
12.2
19.2
SADC
26.4
15.2
11.0
13.7
3.7
10.6
9.7
SACU
18.0
3.7
3.9
6.8
10.0
7.4
7.8
COMESA (SSA members)
26.9
20.7
26.6
25.8
21.5
13.8
18.3
MDRI countries
29.2
15.0
22.0
24.9
21.8
15.4
20.1
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
15.2
10.6
14.8
21.8
13.0
16.5
15.2
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
33.5
16.3
6.4
11.7
12.8
11.3
15.2
Sub-Saharan Africa
a
4
29.9
16.6
8.2
13.4
13.0
11.9
15.1
Table SA15. Claims on Nonfinancial Private Sector
(Percent change)
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
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REGIONAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
96
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Oil-exporting countries
10.9
21.1
15.4
13.9
13.8
13.9
14.6
Excluding Nigeria
7.3
14.7
14.0
13.1
15.0
16.4
16.6
Angola
8.5
21.5
20.2
20.2
22.3
23.5
22.4
Cameroon
9.5
10.8
11.0
13.1
12.5
13.3
14.2
Chad
2.6
3.9
4.2
4.8
5.8
6.1
7.8
Congo, Rep. of
2.6
4.8
5.5
6.8
9.6
11.7
14.6
Equatorial Guinea
3.1
8.6
8.6
8.7
6.6
9.7
12.6
Gabon
9.1
10.1
8.3
9.8
11.9
14.8
14.0
Nigeria
12.4
23.5
15.9
14.2
13.3
13.0
13.8
South Sudan
...
...
...
0.2
0.6
0.7
1.0
Middle-income countries
1
55.6
58.0
55.0
53.3
53.9
53.4
53.6
Excluding South Africa
23.5
26.2
26.9
28.2
29.0
30.4
31.7
Botswana
22.1
28.9
27.2
26.8
31.1
31.6
32.0
Cabo Verde
41.4
58.0
61.9
65.7
64.3
64.6
63.4
Ghana
11.7
15.5
15.4
15.3
16.1
16.8
19.7
Kenya
23.5
25.8
28.0
31.2
30.1
32.6
35.2
Lesotho
9.4
12.5
14.1
15.8
20.9
20.8
20.1
Mauritius
75.1
82.7
87.9
91.4
100.8 108.1
100.3
Namibia
48.6
48.7
49.2
49.3
48.7
47.6
47.5
Senegal
22.5
24.6
25.6
28.8
29.5
32.7
33.2
Seychelles
25.1
20.1
24.4
22.8
21.0
20.1
23.6
South Africa
71.4
74.6
70.4
67.6
68.4
67.4
67.2
Swaziland
18.7
20.6
18.7
21.7
19.1
21.0
21.2
Zambia
8.8
10.0
9.2
9.9
12.2
12.2
13.6
Low-income and fragile countries
10.6
12.5
13.5
14.4
14.5
14.8
15.6
Low-income excluding fragile countries
11.4
13.2
14.0
14.6
14.6
14.9
15.7
Benin
17.8
22.5
23.3
24.5
24.0
24.9
25.3
Burkina Faso
16.7
17.0
17.3
18.8
20.7
24.8
28.7
Ethiopia
2
11.5
9.3
10.4
9.8
9.3
8.9
8.8
Mali
17.9
17.6
18.1
20.8
20.6
22.4
24.4
Mozambique
12.6
24.2
24.5
26.2
27.6
29.2
30.9
Niger
8.4
12.2
12.3
13.3
14.0
14.0
14.5
Rwanda
10.0
11.9
11.9
13.1
15.3
15.6
16.8
Sierra Leone
4.0
7.2
7.7
7.5
5.4
4.7
4.7
Tanzania
10.0
13.2
13.7
14.4
14.7
14.6
15.6
Uganda
8.2
10.6
12.9
13.7
13.2
13.0
13.7
Fragile countries
9.5
11.2
12.6
13.9
14.2
14.7
15.6
Burundi
14.1
13.7
15.5
18.1
16.8
15.6
15.0
Central African Rep.
6.9
7.2
8.9
10.1
12.3
14.7
13.8
Comoros
8.9
14.8
17.5
17.8
20.6
21.7
22.5
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
2.1
4.4
4.2
4.0
4.5
4.8
5.4
Côte d'Ivoire
14.3
16.4
16.6
17.1
16.6
18.4
20.6
Eritrea
24.5
16.6
14.8
13.7
11.4
10.5
9.8
Gambia, The
12.6
15.4
15.9
17.4
16.5
17.9
15.6
Guinea
5.8
5.2
6.0
9.4
7.8
9.6
12.5
Guinea-Bissau
2.3
5.6
8.2
9.7
12.6
13.1
11.1
Liberia
6.9
12.0
14.8
16.4
16.1
18.3
18.8
Madagascar
10.1
11.3
11.5
11.2
10.8
11.7
12.6
Malawi
6.7
10.9
13.8
13.9
14.6
12.5
11.7
São Tomé & Príncipe
24.9
32.8
37.4
37.3
37.4
32.1
28.3
Togo
18.0
19.8
22.8
28.6
30.1
31.8
33.6
Zimbabwe
3
3.8
8.4
17.6
24.7
28.3
26.8
27.2
Sub-Saharan Africa
28.5
32.8
29.3
28.0
28.1
27.9
28.1
Median
10.8
14.2
15.5
15.8
16.1
16.8
16.8
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
13.5
16.8
17.4
17.9
18.7
19.6
20.3
Oil-importing countries 
39.6
41.0
39.4
38.5
38.7
38.3
38.3
Excluding South Africa
15.4
17.5
18.4
19.5
19.9
20.6
21.5
CFA franc zone
11.5
13.5
13.8
15.3
15.6
17.6
19.2
WAEMU
16.3
18.3
18.9
20.7
20.9
23.0
24.7
CEMAC
6.3
8.4
8.3
9.6
10.0
11.7
13.0
EAC-5
15.0
17.2
18.8
20.5
20.1
21.0
22.4
ECOWAS
13.0
21.8
16.3
15.3
14.7
14.9
15.9
SADC
48.1
50.8
48.2
46.6
3.7
46.7
46.1
SACU
67.8
71.0
67.0
64.4
65.3
64.3
64.1
COMESA (SSA members)
15.5
16.6
18.1
19.2
19.5
19.9
20.3
MDRI countries
10.6
12.7
13.2
14.0
14.4
14.8
15.9
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
14.0
15.9
16.1
17.6
17.8
19.5
20.9
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
31.4
35.8
31.5
30.1
30.0
29.5
29.5
Sub-Saharan Africa
4
28.5
32.8
29.3
28.4
28.3
28.1
28.3
Table SA16. Claims on Nonfinancial Private Sector
(Percent of GDP)
STATISTICAL APPENDIX
97
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Oil-exporting countries
40.3
31.9
32.3
36.8
32.7
29.7
24.4
17.9
18.8
Excluding Nigeria
64.5
51.9
57.9
62.6
58.2
53.5
47.9
38.7
40.0
Angola
77.3
54.9
62.4
65.4
62.3
56.0
46.8
37.6
40.1
Cameroon
27.8
22.4
24.4
28.3
27.9
26.6
25.3
23.4
22.8
Chad
45.7
35.4
37.9
40.7
38.3
33.5
31.5
29.7
31.5
Congo, Rep. of
79.1
67.4
76.7
81.4
78.5
75.8
73.3
66.1
74.5
Equatorial Guinea
94.5
97.4
94.6
93.4
96.8
92.6
95.6
97.1
96.1
Gabon
59.1
52.0
54.3
58.4
67.1
63.0
56.8
44.8
43.8
Nigeria
29.0
21.6
21.7
23.8
21.0
19.2
14.7
10.0
10.4
South Sudan
...
...
...
72.4
9.3
27.3
36.7
18.3
16.5
Middle-income countries
1
30.6
28.7
29.8
32.0
31.7
32.4
32.7
33.3
32.5
Excluding South Africa
33.8
30.5
32.9
35.9
36.0
35.1
35.4
32.9
31.8
Botswana
50.9
34.6
38.4
44.3
42.4
61.2
62.4
54.7
51.1
Cabo Verde
35.8
33.2
38.3
42.2
45.0
47.3
49.1
50.1
52.0
Ghana
23.8
29.3
29.3
36.9
40.1
33.9
39.5
34.3
34.1
Kenya
23.5
19.9
22.5
23.6
21.9
19.6
18.2
18.1
17.7
Lesotho
52.1
46.8
43.8
44.5
41.9
37.1
37.7
39.0
39.8
Mauritius
55.6
47.0
50.9
51.8
52.9
47.3
50.0
54.2
54.5
Namibia
38.5
42.8
41.7
41.4
42.0
43.1
41.6
41.4
41.3
Senegal
26.3
24.3
24.9
26.4
27.9
28.1
27.4
26.0
25.2
Seychelles
85.8
108.0
93.8
95.8
92.8
85.5
83.1
78.6
78.1
South Africa
29.6
27.9
28.6
30.4
29.7
31.0
31.3
33.6
33.0
Swaziland
59.9
49.4
45.4
44.4
44.1
45.8
49.8
43.6
43.0
Zambia
35.1
32.0
39.7
39.7
42.1
43.2
41.6
40.5
37.6
Low-income and fragile countries
24.3
22.4
26.5
28.5
26.2
25.2
24.2
23.6
24.2
Low-income excluding fragile countries
17.7
16.6
19.4
21.6
20.9
20.3
18.4
18.0
18.4
Benin
14.9
15.5
19.0
17.1
15.0
17.8
17.7
19.9
20.0
Burkina Faso
11.1
12.5
20.7
26.2
26.2
24.3
21.9
21.2
20.7
Ethiopia
2
14.6
10.6
15.5
18.2
13.9
12.5
11.7
9.6
9.9
Mali
27.2
23.7
25.8
26.2
32.1
29.7
25.8
25.5
24.2
Mozambique
29.3
25.0
28.5
29.2
33.3
30.3
27.7
31.0
32.7
Niger
17.6
20.3
22.2
20.9
21.7
23.2
20.0
19.3
19.5
Rwanda
11.4
11.2
10.9
14.2
14.1
15.6
16.5
16.1
16.2
Sierra Leone
15.0
15.0
16.2
18.4
35.4
43.9
39.8
21.1
32.1
Tanzania
18.2
18.9
20.6
22.4
20.9
19.4
18.9
20.3
21.2
Uganda
14.6
18.1
17.2
20.4
20.0
20.8
17.1
20.3
19.9
Fragile countries
33.2
31.5
36.9
38.5
34.6
33.1
33.5
32.8
33.6
Burundi
7.8
6.7
8.9
9.5
8.7
8.2
9.4
9.2
8.9
Central African Rep.
13.2
10.7
11.8
13.5
12.5
14.3
12.3
12.2
12.6
Comoros
14.8
14.5
15.7
16.6
14.9
15.6
17.0
16.3
15.6
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
29.5
27.4
43.0
41.6
32.0
32.3
34.3
33.6
35.3
Côte d'Ivoire
48.5
50.7
50.5
53.8
48.4
41.8
42.3
42.5
42.0
Eritrea
5.8
4.5
4.8
14.4
19.1
17.3
18.9
14.8
13.4
Gambia, The
30.6
25.4
23.8
26.5
30.9
29.4
29.6
25.3
33.1
Guinea
33.4
28.5
29.7
32.2
30.6
25.6
23.1
23.2
23.7
Guinea-Bissau
16.0
18.9
20.1
25.6
15.4
18.6
18.5
22.3
22.3
Liberia
57.3
40.2
42.1
46.3
50.0
47.0
38.1
32.6
32.4
Madagascar
26.9
22.4
24.1
26.8
29.2
30.3
32.8
34.9
37.9
Malawi
17.1
17.0
19.6
17.6
23.5
29.9
28.8
28.9
33.3
São Tomé & Príncipe
11.2
9.8
11.7
11.6
12.7
16.1
26.2
28.7
28.5
Togo
37.3
37.8
40.9
44.9
44.7
45.7
44.8
45.0
45.6
Zimbabwe
3
27.3
22.1
36.7
42.8
32.7
29.4
27.9
24.8
23.8
Sub-Saharan Africa
33.0
28.7
30.3
33.5
31.1
29.8
27.1
24.3
24.7
Median
28.4
24.6
27.1
29.2
30.9
29.9
29.6
28.7
32.1
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
38.5
33.2
37.6
42.0
39.1
36.8
34.5
30.1
30.3
Oil-importing countries 
28.8
26.6
28.8
31.0
29.9
29.9
29.5
29.5
29.2
Excluding South Africa
28.1
25.5
29.1
31.5
30.1
29.1
28.4
27.0
27.0
CFA franc zone
42.9
39.1
42.7
46.2
46.4
42.9
40.6
36.6
36.4
WAEMU
31.2
31.3
33.2
34.6
33.9
31.9
30.9
31.0
30.5
CEMAC
54.0
47.2
51.8
56.4
57.9
53.8
50.4
43.1
43.4
EAC-5
19.1
18.5
19.8
21.7
20.5
19.3
18.0
18.9
18.9
ECOWAS
29.1
24.1
24.0
26.5
24.4
22.3
18.6
14.8
15.5
SADC
35.5
32.3
34.7
37.1
3.7
36.6
35.2
34.4
34.6
SACU
31.0
28.9
29.6
31.5
30.8
32.7
33.1
34.8
34.1
COMESA (SSA members)
26.0
22.0
27.4
29.3
26.4
25.7
24.7
23.7
23.4
MDRI countries
24.9
22.8
27.3
30.2
29.3
28.2
27.2
25.3
25.8
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
42.6
39.0
42.0
45.3
45.4
42.4
40.4
36.6
36.4
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
31.3
26.9
28.4
31.0
29.2
27.9
24.9
22.6
22.9
Sub-Saharan Africa
4
33.0
28.7
30.3
33.0
31.3
29.8
27.0
24.4
24.7
Table SA17. Exports of Goods and Services
(Percent of GDP)
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
REGIONAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
98
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Oil-exporting countries
25.5
29.2
25.7
27.3
24.1
22.3
22.3
20.2
20.4
Excluding Nigeria
41.2
50.3
43.8
40.6
40.6
39.2
39.9
38.1
37.4
Angola
48.3
55.4
42.9
42.2
39.7
39.6
39.9
38.1
38.0
Cameroon
28.4
26.9
27.5
30.9
30.8
29.4
29.0
27.4
26.8
Chad
44.4
47.9
49.1
48.0
49.0
43.2
44.1
44.1
43.2
Congo, Rep. of
52.6
69.2
58.6
55.6
54.3
59.6
64.6
66.1
68.3
Equatorial Guinea
44.3
69.6
74.8
48.6
55.7
50.0
54.6
55.9
49.7
Gabon
27.5
34.6
31.9
31.1
33.0
34.2
32.4
35.2
34.0
Nigeria
18.1
18.3
18.1
20.6
16.6
14.8
15.0
13.4
13.7
South Sudan
...
...
...
30.4
34.1
26.5
29.4
25.6
24.0
Middle-income countries1
33.7
31.9
31.8
34.6
36.4
37.8
37.8
38.0
37.5
Excluding South Africa
42.0
42.2
43.1
46.9
48.2
46.5
46.2
44.4
42.9
Botswana
40.3
51.6
49.7
51.1
58.0
61.1
55.4
55.5
52.4
Cabo Verde
64.5
63.4
66.8
73.8
68.1
63.2
67.2
69.0
66.9
Ghana
40.0
42.3
43.5
49.3
52.5
47.1
49.8
46.1
43.8
Kenya
31.9
30.5
33.8
39.0
35.5
33.6
33.7
33.0
32.2
Lesotho
117.6
123.3
110.5
104.7
107.3
97.7
95.4
91.8
89.6
Mauritius
64.2
57.5
63.0
65.6
66.0
61.6
62.4
65.5
66.0
Namibia
41.2
56.0
52.1
50.6
55.8
58.5
62.4
62.6
62.8
Senegal
45.1
41.2
40.3
44.7
48.9
48.8
46.3
43.0
41.5
Seychelles
95.4
117.1
108.0
111.4
109.4
92.9
98.2
88.7
87.4
South Africa
30.6
27.5
27.4
29.6
31.0
33.2
33.1
34.3
34.1
Swaziland
69.2
62.9
57.8
56.7
54.4
52.4
55.2
50.8
49.0
Zambia
30.4
26.7
27.6
31.8
37.1
41.0
38.5
37.7
35.4
Low-income and fragile countries
34.6
35.2
38.8
41.7
40.9
38.8
38.1
38.0
38.1
Low-income excluding fragile countries
30.2
30.0
33.5
38.4
38.1
36.2
34.8
35.5
35.4
Benin
27.2
29.1
31.0
27.9
27.8
33.3
30.4
33.7
34.1
Burkina Faso
25.9
23.1
28.0
33.0
34.7
34.2
30.9
32.4
31.3
Ethiopia
2
36.3
27.9
33.1
36.5
32.8
28.9
29.5
31.0
28.3
Mali
36.1
31.3
39.7
36.0
37.9
47.6
46.4
40.5
39.2
Mozambique
39.1
40.6
44.6
57.4
81.2
76.1
68.0
75.6
80.3
Niger
31.2
46.7
49.0
47.8
39.0
40.0
39.1
41.7
46.2
Rwanda
26.3
29.1
29.0
34.6
34.4
32.5
33.7
31.3
29.7
Sierra Leone
24.4
30.5
43.9
84.7
60.1
47.1
63.8
40.4
49.0
Tanzania
26.8
28.4
29.5
34.2
33.0
30.2
28.4
28.0
27.7
Uganda
24.2
28.1
30.6
35.3
31.5
30.3
28.3
32.3
32.3
Fragile countries
40.4
43.2
46.5
46.6
45.4
43.1
43.5
42.0
42.6
Burundi
34.3
28.2
43.4
41.0
43.4
39.3
37.4
31.3
28.7
Central African Rep.
22.1
23.2
26.5
24.4
23.9
24.7
37.1
33.5
33.7
Comoros
39.5
47.9
49.9
50.3
54.3
52.0
50.5
53.5
52.5
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
34.9
36.9
51.9
48.0
38.6
38.0
41.8
38.2
37.8
Côte d'Ivoire
41.2
39.8
43.2
37.3
44.2
38.8
39.4
40.0
40.2
Eritrea
41.6
23.4
23.3
23.2
22.8
22.1
24.5
21.7
20.5
Gambia, The
45.5
41.9
42.7
41.1
44.3
41.1
49.1
47.5
48.3
Guinea
36.0
30.8
35.3
50.9
57.6
46.7
45.6
40.4
58.9
Guinea-Bissau
27.8
35.3
35.3
30.7
25.5
26.3
28.2
32.6
33.3
Liberia
191.2
135.9
134.7
132.1
119.8
108.3 113.1
116.4
101.5
Madagascar
43.4
46.0
37.5
38.0
38.7
38.7
37.1
38.8
43.2
Malawi
35.0
31.7
34.9
28.0
37.9
42.6
39.3
39.5
44.8
São Tomé & Príncipe
55.2
51.4
57.8
58.0
52.5
63.4
71.4
67.9
71.7
Togo
54.7
53.4
57.6
66.4
58.6
65.8
64.1
63.9
63.8
Zimbabwe
3
36.5
76.1
61.5
78.4
62.9
59.3
53.9
52.4
48.6
Sub-Saharan Africa
30.7
31.5
30.5
32.6
31.7
30.8
30.4
30.0
30.2
Median
37.8
40.2
43.1
42.2
43.4
41.1
41.8
40.4
43.2
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
38.6
41.5
41.5
42.8
42.8
41.0
40.7
39.7
39.2
Oil-importing countries 
33.9
33.0
33.9
36.7
37.8
38.2
37.9
38.0
37.7
Excluding South Africa
37.6
37.8
40.5
43.9
43.8
41.9
41.1
40.3
39.9
CFA franc zone
37.1
40.3
42.3
39.8
41.8
41.0
40.9
40.1
39.6
WAEMU
38.0
37.1
40.2
39.1
41.4
41.7
40.5
40.2
40.1
CEMAC
36.2
43.7
44.3
40.4
42.1
40.4
41.3
40.1
38.9
EAC-5
28.4
29.3
31.7
36.5
34.0
31.9
31.1
31.1
30.6
ECOWAS
24.3
24.3
23.9
26.5
23.6
21.7
21.3
20.0
20.9
SADC
34.5
35.8
33.7
35.9
3.7
38.4
38.2
38.5
38.5
SACU
32.1
30.0
29.6
31.6
33.4
35.7
35.6
36.6
36.4
COMESA (SSA members)
36.3
35.7
38.8
42.1
39.0
37.5
37.1
36.6
35.4
MDRI countries
34.7
34.6
37.5
40.9
40.9
39.7
39.1
38.2
37.8
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
39.5
42.7
44.3
41.9
43.8
42.9
43.1
42.4
41.7
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
29.0
29.1
28.0
30.8
29.6
28.7
28.2
28.0
28.3
Sub-Saharan Africa
4
30.7
31.5
30.5
32.7
31.7
30.8
30.4
30.0
30.2
Table SA18. Imports of Goods and Services
(Percent of GDP)
STATISTICAL APPENDIX
99
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Oil-exporting countries
23.0
13.4
15.3
18.3
16.5
14.3
9.0
3.8
4.3
Excluding Nigeria
38.9
21.1
31.7
38.3
32.7
28.2
21.8
13.8
15.0
Angola
50.4
24.1
41.1
45.2
41.1
33.7
23.6
15.7
17.5
Cameroon
1.9
-1.4
-0.9
-2.2
-1.0
-0.6
-1.7
-2.2
-2.2
Chad
24.5
4.8
8.0
10.9
7.7
6.6
2.8
0.9
3.0
Congo, Rep. of
49.1
25.7
42.3
47.9
43.5
34.7
27.1
19.7
27.2
Equatorial Guinea
62.7
51.3
39.7
59.6
58.0
58.3
59.8
60.1
63.2
Gabon
41.7
29.8
33.1
37.9
45.4
39.7
34.7
21.3
20.5
Nigeria
15.6
9.4
8.4
8.3
9.1
8.1
3.7
0.0
0.0
South Sudan
...
...
...
49.1
-19.6
4.4
13.7
-2.9
-3.4
Middle-income countries
1
-3.0
-2.6
-1.2
-1.9
-4.7
-5.2
-4.9
-5.0
-5.2
Excluding South Africa
-9.3
-11.4
-9.9
-10.7
-13.0
-11.3
-10.6
-12.1
-11.7
Botswana
9.5
-12.8
-7.9
-4.6
-13.1
-2.3
3.3
-5.9
-6.5
Cabo Verde
-39.0
-39.6
-40.9
-45.1
-36.6
-33.8
-32.9
-34.6
-32.5
Ghana
-14.9
-8.5
-9.2
-7.7
-10.0
-8.0
-3.6
-8.0
-5.8
Kenya
-12.1
-13.4
-15.6
-20.0
-18.5
-18.6
-18.8
-18.0
-17.5
Lesotho
-43.1
-54.8
-48.4
-43.0
-49.3
-46.2
-44.1
-41.2
-39.1
Mauritius
-15.2
-17.5
-19.5
-20.9
-21.5
-19.0
-17.9
-16.7
-17.4
Namibia
-3.3
-14.1
-9.9
-8.8
-16.5
-15.3
-20.1
-20.3
-20.6
Senegal
-18.4
-15.8
-14.9
-17.5
-20.2
-19.9
-18.3
-15.9
-15.5
Seychelles
-29.8
-37.6
-39.3
-41.1
-41.4
-31.6
-38.1
-35.6
-34.0
South Africa
-0.6
1.1
2.2
1.7
-1.0
-1.9
-1.8
-0.8
-1.2
Swaziland
-3.6
-3.7
-3.3
-0.8
1.6
3.7
4.8
2.7
4.1
Zambia
4.7
6.3
13.7
9.7
6.4
6.1
6.1
4.9
3.8
Low-income and fragile countries
-6.3
-8.8
-7.8
-8.4
-9.8
-9.3
-9.3
-10.1
-9.3
Low-income excluding fragile countries
-10.5
-11.0
-11.4
-13.1
-13.2
-12.6
-12.9
-14.7
-14.0
Benin
-11.7
-10.7
-10.9
-10.6
-12.7
-13.3
-10.2
-11.3
-11.9
Burkina Faso
-9.5
-5.7
-1.5
0.0
-1.4
-3.3
-1.9
-3.6
-4.0
Ethiopia2
-20.6
-15.8
-16.3
-16.6
-16.9
-17.6
-19.1
-21.4
-18.8
Mali
-3.0
-2.3
-7.0
-3.1
1.1
-2.3
-4.8
-1.2
-1.7
Mozambique
-5.6
-11.5
-11.3
-17.0
-27.2
-27.9
-24.2
-28.9
-31.3
Niger
-6.9
-14.7
-14.2
-14.4
-6.6
-5.7
-9.7
-13.2
-13.3
Rwanda
-10.3
-14.4
-13.8
-17.4
-19.1
-15.3
-16.1
-14.6
-13.5
Sierra Leone
-7.5
-14.3
-20.2
-57.1
-16.3
7.4
0.1
-15.7
-11.6
Tanzania
-9.8
-10.0
-9.5
-12.2
-13.0
-12.2
-11.2
-10.0
-9.1
Uganda
-8.0
-8.1
-10.9
-11.7
-10.0
-8.4
-8.5
-9.1
-9.5
Fragile countries
-0.7
-5.3
-2.5
-1.6
-4.4
-4.1
-3.4
-2.6
-1.5
Burundi
-16.4
-14.5
-30.2
-27.3
-29.9
-27.6
-25.6
-19.3
-17.8
Central African Rep.
-4.0
-7.8
-8.8
-5.7
-6.2
-7.3
-18.8
-15.8
-16.1
Comoros
-22.9
-28.2
-28.8
-28.6
-33.4
-31.8
-28.7
-31.0
-31.8
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
0.2
-3.2
2.1
2.3
0.6
0.9
0.3
2.4
4.5
Côte d'Ivoire
15.0
17.5
14.5
23.5
11.3
9.6
10.9
10.5
10.7
Eritrea
-33.9
-19.9
-19.6
-10.3
-4.6
-5.5
-6.1
-7.3
-7.3
Gambia, The
-21.3
-22.4
-22.8
-21.2
-22.0
-19.1
-25.7
-23.4
-22.1
Guinea
3.9
3.2
1.1
-8.7
-10.6
-10.8
-14.0
-8.1
-11.8
Guinea-Bissau
-6.0
-9.8
-8.3
-0.2
-5.1
-2.9
-5.0
-4.9
-5.5
Liberia
-33.1
-30.8
-30.1
-33.3
-26.9
-23.5
-29.5
-41.7
-33.0
Madagascar
-13.4
-19.5
-12.3
-10.1
-11.1
-7.7
-5.1
-3.1
-4.0
Malawi
-12.8
-10.3
-10.7
-7.9
-11.1
-8.7
-7.3
-7.3
-7.0
São Tomé & Príncipe
-35.4
-37.3
-40.9
-41.3
-37.2
-38.3
-37.7
-31.4
-39.0
Togo
-14.2
-13.0
-14.1
-22.4
-14.2
-20.5
-19.7
-19.3
-18.6
Zimbabwe3
3
-7.3
-47.1
-20.3
-28.7
-23.3
-23.1
-19.7
-21.1
-18.3
Sub-Saharan Africa
6.1
2.4
4.5
5.7
3.8
3.1
0.9
-2.1
-2.0
Median
-7.7
-11.1
-10.8
-10.1
-11.1
-8.0
-8.5
-9.1
-9.5
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
5.7
-0.7
3.4
6.7
2.9
2.1
0.1
-4.2
-3.7
Oil-importing countries 
-4.0
-4.7
-3.2
-3.8
-6.4
-6.6
-6.6
-7.0
-6.8
Excluding South Africa
-7.5
-9.8
-8.6
-9.4
-11.1
-10.1
-9.8
-10.8
-10.2
CFA franc zone
13.9
7.9
9.6
14.8
13.3
10.5
8.5
4.8
5.2
WAEMU
-1.8
-0.7
-1.6
0.7
-2.3
-3.4
-2.7
-2.4
-2.4
CEMAC
28.9
17.0
20.3
27.2
27.5
24.1
19.8
13.4
14.4
EAC-5
-10.5
-11.4
-12.9
-15.8
-15.3
-14.6
-14.4
-13.7
-13.3
ECOWAS
9.5
5.6
5.2
5.2
5.6
5.0
2.0
-1.3
-1.1
SADC
3.8
1.2
5.2
5.8
3.7
2.4
1.0
-0.7
-0.7
SACU
-0.6
-0.1
1.2
0.9
-2.1
-2.6
-2.4
-1.9
-2.3
COMESA (SSA members)
-9.7
-12.5
-10.0
-11.5
-11.8
-11.3
-11.6
-11.9
-11.1
MDRI countries
-6.3
-7.6
-5.6
-6.1
-7.5
-7.3
-7.5
-9.1
-8.3
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
10.4
4.6
6.2
11.1
9.3
7.2
5.3
1.8
2.2
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
5.5
2.5
4.5
4.6
3.4
2.7
0.3
-2.5
-2.4
Sub-Saharan Africa
4
6.1
2.4
4.5
5.2
4.0
3.1
0.8
-2.1
-2.0
Table SA19. Trade Balance on Goods
(Percent of GDP)
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
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