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REGIONAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
80
Tables SA1–SA3, SA6–SA19, SA21, SA24–SA26
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.
1
Excluding fragile countries. 
2
Fiscal year data.   
3
In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of 
price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates. 
4
Excluding South Sudan.
Tables SA4–SA5
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.
1
Excluding fragile countries. 
2
In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of 
price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates. 
3
Excluding South Sudan. 
Table SA20
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.
1
Including grants. 
2
Excluding fragile countries. 
Fiscal year data. 
4
In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of 
price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates. 
5
Excluding South Sudan.
Tables SA22–SA23
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.
1
An increase indicates appreciation. 
2
Excluding fragile countries. 
3
Excluding South Sudan.
Table SA27
Source: IMF, International Financial Statistics. 
1
Excluding fragile countries. 
2
Includes offshore banking assets.
Table SA28
Source: IMF, International Financial Statistics. 
1
Excluding fragile countries. 
Note: Loan-to-deposit ratio includes deposits and loans of commercial banks to the public sector.
Note: “...” denotes data not available.
List of Sources and Footnotes for Appendix Tables SA1—SA28
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STATISTICAL APPENDIX
81
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Oil-exporting countries
9.2
7.0
8.5
4.6
3.8
5.7
5.9
3.6
4.2
Excluding Nigeria
10.7
1.7
4.2
3.7
2.4
6.5
4.7
2.5
3.8
Angola
17.3
2.4
3.4
3.9
5.2
6.8
4.8
3.5
3.5
Cameroon
3.1
1.9
3.3
4.1
4.6
5.6
5.7
5.3
5.4
Chad
9.7
4.2
13.5
0.1
8.9
5.7
6.9
6.9
4.2
Congo, Rep. of
4.3
7.5
8.7
3.4
3.8
3.3
6.8
1.0
6.5
Equatorial Guinea
13.0
-4.5
-3.8
1.9
5.8
-6.5
-0.3
-10.2
-0.8
Gabon
1.3
-2.3
6.3
7.1
5.3
5.6
4.3
3.5
4.9
Nigeria
8.6
9.0
10.0
4.9
4.3
5.4
6.3
4.0
4.3
South Sudan
...
...
...
...
-52.4
29.3
2.9
-5.3
0.7
Middle-income countries
1
5.0
0.2
4.6
4.7
3.5
3.7
2.7
2.6
2.9
Excluding South Africa
5.4
3.4
7.5
7.3
5.6
6.1
4.7
4.6
5.3
Botswana
6.0
-7.7
8.6
6.0
4.8
9.3
4.4
2.6
3.2
Cabo Verde
7.1
-1.3
1.5
4.0
1.1
1.0
1.8
3.5
3.7
Ghana
6.3
5.8
7.9
14.0
8.0
7.3
4.0
3.5
5.7
Kenya
4.6
3.3
8.4
6.1
4.6
5.7
5.3
6.5
6.8
Lesotho
4.0
4.5
6.9
4.5
5.3
3.6
3.4
2.6
2.9
Mauritius
4.3
3.0
4.1
3.9
3.2
3.2
3.6
3.2
3.8
Namibia
4.3
0.3
6.0
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.5
4.8
5.0
Senegal
4.5
2.4
4.2
1.8
4.4
3.6
4.7
5.1
5.9
Seychelles
4.8
-1.1
5.9
7.9
6.6
6.0
3.3
3.5
3.7
South Africa
4.8
-1.5
3.0
3.2
2.2
2.2
1.5
1.4
1.3
Swaziland
4.4
1.9
1.4
1.2
3.0
2.9
2.5
1.9
0.7
Zambia
7.7
9.2
10.3
6.4
6.8
6.7
5.6
4.3
4.0
Low-income and fragile countries
5.7
5.1
6.5
6.2
6.5
6.6
6.9
5.9
6.5
Low-income excluding fragile countries
7.8
6.5
7.7
7.8
6.2
7.2
7.4
6.2
6.8
Benin
3.9
2.7
2.6
3.3
5.4
5.6
5.4
5.5
5.3
Burkina Faso
5.9
3.0
8.4
6.6
6.5
6.6
4.0
5.0
6.0
Ethiopia
2
11.8
10.0
10.6
11.4
8.7
9.8
10.3
8.7
8.1
Mali
4.6
4.5
5.8
2.7
0.0
1.7
7.2
5.0
5.0
Mozambique
7.7
6.5
7.1
7.4
7.1
7.4
7.4
7.0
8.2
Niger
5.2
-0.7
8.4
2.2
11.8
4.6
6.9
4.3
5.4
Rwanda
9.0
6.2
6.3
7.5
8.8
4.7
6.9
6.5
7.0
Sierra Leone
5.8
3.2
5.3
6.0
15.2
20.1
7.1
-23.9
-0.7
Tanzania
6.5
5.4
6.4
7.9
5.1
7.3
7.0
6.9
7.0
Uganda
8.3
8.1
7.7
6.8
2.6
3.9
4.8
5.2
5.5
Fragile countries
2.7
2.6
4.4
3.2
6.9
5.6
5.8
5.2
5.9
Burundi
4.4
3.8
5.1
4.2
4.0
4.5
4.7
-7.2
5.2
Central African Rep.
3.3
1.7
3.0
3.3
4.1
-36.0
1.0
5.5
5.7
Comoros
1.3
1.8
2.1
2.2
3.0
3.5
2.0
1.0
2.2
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
6.1
2.9
7.1
6.9
7.1
8.5
9.2
8.4
7.3
Côte d'Ivoire
1.8
3.3
2.0
-4.4
10.7
8.7
7.9
8.2
7.6
Eritrea
-2.1
3.9
2.2
8.7
7.0
1.3
1.7
0.2
2.2
Gambia, The
3.3
6.4
6.5
-4.3
5.6
4.8
-0.2
4.7
5.5
Guinea
2.9
-0.3
1.9
3.9
3.8
2.3
1.1
0.0
4.9
Guinea-Bissau
3.1
3.3
4.4
9.4
-1.8
0.8
2.5
4.7
4.8
Liberia
7.3
5.1
6.1
7.4
8.2
8.7
0.7
0.9
5.6
Madagascar
5.8
-4.7
0.3
1.5
3.0
2.3
3.3
3.4
4.6
Malawi
6.1
8.3
6.9
4.9
1.9
5.2
5.7
4.0
5.0
São Tomé & Príncipe
5.7
4.0
4.5
4.8
4.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.2
Togo
2.4
3.5
4.1
4.8
5.9
5.4
5.0
5.4
5.6
Zimbabwe
3
-7.5
7.5
11.4
11.9
10.6
4.5
3.3
1.4
2.4
Sub-Saharan Africa
6.8
4.1
6.6
5.0
4.3
5.2
5.0
3.8
4.3
Median
4.8
3.3
6.0
4.8
5.1
5.1
4.5
4.0
5.0
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
6.8
3.8
6.2
5.9
5.2
6.4
5.7
4.7
5.5
Oil-importing countries 
5.3
2.0
5.3
5.3
4.6
4.8
4.4
4.0
4.4
Excluding South Africa
5.6
4.5
6.9
6.6
6.2
6.4
6.1
5.4
6.1
CFA franc zone
4.6
2.0
4.6
2.3
6.1
4.3
5.6
4.5
5.5
WAEMU
3.6
2.9
4.4
1.1
6.8
5.8
6.3
6.1
6.3
CEMAC
5.7
1.1
4.8
3.5
5.4
2.7
4.8
2.6
4.5
EAC-5
6.2
5.2
7.4
6.9
4.6
5.8
5.9
6.1
6.6
ECOWAS
7.4
7.6
8.8
5.0
5.0
5.7
6.0
4.0
4.7
SADC
6.2
0.5
4.2
4.3
3.7
4.2
3.5
3.0
3.1
SACU
4.8
-1.6
3.3
3.4
2.4
2.6
1.8
1.6
1.6
COMESA (SSA members)
6.2
5.6
7.8
7.2
5.8
6.2
6.5
5.9
6.1
MDRI countries
6.5
5.3
7.0
7.3
6.0
6.5
6.5
5.4
6.2
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
4.5
2.0
4.6
2.6
6.0
4.3
5.3
4.3
5.2
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
7.3
4.4
6.9
5.3
4.3
5.2
5.0
3.8
4.2
Sub-Saharan Africa
a
4
6.8
4.1
6.6
5.0
4.6
5.0
5.0
3.9
4.3
Table SA1. Real GDP Growth 
(Percent)
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REGIONAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
82
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Oil-exporting countries
13.2
6.2
7.5
6.0
5.8
8.3
6.7
4.4
4.7
Excluding Nigeria
13.2
6.2
7.5
7.8
5.5
8.3
5.1
2.5
3.6
Angola
17.6
8.1
7.6
9.5
5.5
10.9
8.2
2.1
3.4
Cameroon
3.6
2.9
4.1
4.6
4.6
5.5
5.4
5.1
5.5
Chad
6.3
6.4
17.2
0.2
11.6
8.0
7.1
1.3
3.6
Congo, Rep. of
5.7
3.9
6.5
7.4
9.7
8.1
7.9
2.2
3.3
Equatorial Guinea
31.8
13.0
1.1
9.8
0.3
3.3
-0.5
-0.1
-0.7
Gabon
4.9
-3.3
13.0
10.4
7.0
7.8
4.9
5.1
6.1
Nigeria
...
...
...
5.3
5.9
8.3
7.3
5.0
5.1
South Sudan
...
...
...
...
-0.8
4.1
-17.5
-1.2
1.1
Middle-income countries
1
5.0
0.2
4.6
4.2
3.4
3.6
2.7
2.5
2.8
Excluding South Africa
5.4
3.4
7.5
6.0
5.5
5.9
4.6
4.3
5.1
Botswana
6.0
-7.7
8.6
6.0
4.8
9.3
4.4
2.6
3.2
Cabo Verde
7.1
-1.3
1.5
4.0
1.1
1.0
1.8
3.5
3.7
Ghana
6.3
5.8
7.9
8.4
7.3
6.7
4.0
2.3
4.7
Kenya
4.6
3.3
8.4
6.1
4.6
5.7
5.3
6.5
6.8
Lesotho
4.0
4.5
6.9
4.5
5.3
3.6
3.4
2.6
2.9
Mauritius
4.3
3.0
4.1
3.9
3.2
3.2
3.6
3.2
3.8
Namibia
4.3
0.3
6.0
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.5
4.8
5.0
Senegal
4.5
2.4
4.2
1.8
4.4
3.6
4.7
5.1
5.9
Seychelles
4.8
-1.1
5.9
7.9
6.6
6.0
3.3
3.5
3.7
South Africa
4.8
-1.5
3.0
3.2
2.2
2.2
1.5
1.4
1.3
Swaziland
4.4
1.9
1.4
1.2
3.0
2.9
2.5
1.9
0.7
Zambia
7.7
9.2
10.3
6.4
6.8
6.7
5.6
4.3
4.0
Low-income and fragile countries
5.7
4.9
6.5
6.1
6.6
6.6
6.9
5.8
6.5
Low-income excluding fragile countries
7.8
6.5
7.7
7.8
6.0
7.1
7.5
6.2
6.8
Benin
3.9
2.7
2.6
3.3
5.4
5.6
5.4
5.5
5.3
Burkina Faso
5.9
3.0
8.4
6.6
6.5
6.6
4.0
5.0
6.0
Ethiopia
2
11.8
10.0
10.6
11.4
8.7
9.8
10.3
8.7
8.1
Mali
4.6
4.5
5.8
2.7
0.0
1.7
7.2
5.0
5.0
Mozambique
7.7
6.5
7.1
7.4
7.1
7.4
7.4
7.0
8.2
Niger
5.2
-0.7
8.4
1.3
4.2
2.1
8.3
3.7
6.0
Rwanda
9.0
6.2
6.3
7.5
8.8
4.7
6.9
6.5
7.0
Sierra Leone
5.8
3.2
5.3
6.0
15.2
20.1
7.1
-23.9
-0.7
Tanzania
6.5
5.4
6.4
7.9
5.1
7.3
7.0
6.9
7.0
Uganda
8.3
8.1
7.7
6.8
2.6
3.9
4.8
5.2
5.5
Fragile countries
2.6
2.3
4.5
3.1
7.7
5.6
5.9
5.1
5.9
Burundi
4.4
3.8
5.1
4.2
4.0
4.5
4.7
-7.2
5.2
Central African Rep.
3.3
1.7
3.0
3.3
4.1
-36.0
1.0
5.5
5.7
Comoros
1.3
1.8
2.1
2.2
3.0
3.5
2.0
1.0
2.2
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
5.9
2.8
7.2
7.0
7.2
8.6
9.2
8.5
7.3
Côte d'Ivoire
1.8
2.1
2.6
-4.8
13.5
8.8
8.3
7.8
7.6
Eritrea
-2.1
3.9
2.2
8.7
7.0
1.3
1.7
0.2
2.2
Gambia, The
3.3
6.4
6.5
-4.3
5.6
4.8
-0.2
4.7
5.5
Guinea
2.9
-0.3
1.9
3.9
3.8
2.3
1.1
0.0
4.9
Guinea-Bissau
3.1
3.3
4.4
9.4
-1.8
0.8
2.5
4.7
4.8
Liberia
7.3
5.1
6.1
7.4
8.2
8.7
0.7
0.9
5.6
Madagascar
5.8
-4.7
0.3
1.5
3.0
2.3
3.3
3.4
4.6
Malawi
6.1
8.3
6.9
4.9
1.9
5.2
5.7
4.0
5.0
São Tomé & Príncipe
5.7
4.0
4.5
4.8
4.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.2
Togo
2.4
3.5
4.1
4.8
5.9
5.4
5.0
5.4
5.6
Zimbabwe
3
-7.5
7.5
11.4
11.9
10.6
4.5
3.3
1.4
2.4
Sub-Saharan Africa
6.5
2.6
5.7
5.4
5.1
6.3
5.4
4.1
4.5
Median
4.9
3.3
6.0
5.2
5.1
5.1
4.7
4.0
5.0
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
7.4
4.8
7.1
6.5
6.0
6.8
5.9
4.6
5.4
Oil-importing countries 
5.3
1.9
5.3
4.9
4.6
4.8
4.4
3.9
4.4
Excluding South Africa
5.6
4.4
6.9
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.1
5.3
6.0
CFA franc zone
6.6
3.4
5.9
3.5
6.6
5.6
5.8
4.7
5.4
WAEMU
3.6
2.5
4.6
0.9
7.1
5.6
6.5
5.9
6.3
CEMAC
9.7
4.4
7.3
6.2
6.0
5.7
5.0
3.4
4.2
EAC-5
6.2
5.2
7.4
6.9
4.6
5.8
5.9
6.1
6.6
ECOWAS
4.4
3.3
5.4
4.9
6.2
7.8
6.8
4.7
5.3
SADC
6.3
1.2
4.8
5.0
3.7
4.7
3.9
2.9
3.1
SACU
4.8
-1.6
3.3
3.4
2.4
2.6
1.8
1.6
1.6
COMESA (SSA members)
6.2
5.6
7.9
7.2
5.8
6.2
6.5
5.9
6.1
MDRI countries
6.6
5.3
7.0
6.8
6.0
6.5
6.5
5.3
6.0
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
6.2
3.2
5.7
3.6
6.4
5.4
5.5
4.6
5.1
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
6.8
2.4
5.6
5.6
4.9
6.4
5.6
4.1
4.5
Sub-Saharan Africa
4
6.5
2.6
5.7
5.4
5.1
6.3
5.5
4.1
4.5
Table SA2. Real Non-Oil GDP Growth
(Percent)
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STATISTICAL APPENDIX
83
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Oil-exporting countries
6.2
4.1
5.6
1.8
1.0
2.9
3.0
0.8
1.4
Excluding Nigeria
7.6
-1.0
1.4
1.0
-0.4
3.6
1.9
-0.2
1.2
Angola
13.8
-0.6
0.4
0.9
2.1
3.7
1.7
0.5
0.5
Cameroon
0.3
-0.8
0.8
1.6
2.0
3.0
3.1
2.8
2.8
Chad
7.0
1.7
10.8
-2.4
6.2
3.1
4.3
4.3
1.7
Congo, Rep. of
1.4
4.4
5.7
0.5
0.9
1.1
4.5
-1.2
4.3
Equatorial Guinea
9.7
-7.2
-6.5
-0.9
2.8
-9.1
-3.0
-12.6
-3.4
Gabon
-1.0
-3.7
4.7
5.6
3.7
4.1
2.8
2.1
3.5
Nigeria
5.7
6.1
7.0
2.1
1.5
2.6
3.5
1.2
1.5
South Sudan
...
...
...
... -54.7
23.4
-1.6
-9.4
-1.3
Middle-income countries
1
3.3
-1.6
2.9
2.9
1.6
1.8
0.8
0.8
1.0
Excluding South Africa
3.2
1.1
5.3
4.9
3.1
3.6
2.3
2.2
2.9
Botswana
4.6
-8.9
7.2
4.8
3.6
8.0
3.2
1.4
2.0
Cabo Verde
6.4
-1.5
1.1
3.3
-2.0
-0.2
0.6
2.2
2.4
Ghana
3.6
3.1
5.2
11.2
5.3
4.6
1.4
0.9
3.1
Kenya
1.8
0.5
6.1
3.4
1.5
2.9
2.6
3.7
4.0
Lesotho
3.9
4.3
6.6
4.3
5.0
3.3
3.2
2.4
2.7
Mauritius
3.8
2.8
3.9
3.7
2.9
3.0
3.6
3.1
3.8
Namibia
2.9
-1.2
4.5
3.6
3.7
3.7
3.0
3.9
4.2
Senegal
1.7
-0.4
1.3
-1.1
1.4
0.7
1.7
2.1
2.9
Seychelles
3.7
-1.5
3.0
6.7
5.4
4.8
2.1
2.3
2.5
South Africa
3.4
-2.9
1.5
1.7
0.7
0.6
-0.1
-0.2
-0.2
Swaziland
5.6
0.7
0.3
0.0
1.8
1.7
1.2
0.7
-0.5
Zambia
4.8
6.1
7.0
3.1
3.4
3.3
2.2
0.9
0.6
Low-income and fragile countries
2.9
2.4
3.8
3.6
3.8
4.1
4.4
3.4
4.0
Low-income excluding fragile countries
4.7
3.8
5.0
5.2
3.7
4.7
5.0
3.9
4.4
Benin
0.6
-0.3
-0.3
0.5
2.6
2.9
2.7
2.9
2.8
Burkina Faso
2.8
0.0
5.3
3.6
3.4
3.6
1.1
2.0
3.0
Ethiopia
2
9.2
8.3
8.8
9.6
7.0
8.1
8.6
7.0
6.4
Mali
1.3
1.2
2.6
-0.3
-2.9
-1.3
3.9
1.7
1.8
Mozambique
4.8
3.7
4.4
4.8
4.4
4.8
4.7
4.5
5.5
Niger
1.5
-4.1
5.1
-0.9
8.5
1.4
3.7
1.2
2.3
Rwanda
6.8
4.1
3.1
5.4
5.7
1.8
4.1
3.6
4.3
Sierra Leone
2.4
1.2
3.3
3.9
13.0
17.6
4.9
-25.0
-2.5
Tanzania
3.6
2.7
3.8
5.3
2.7
5.2
4.9
4.8
4.9
Uganda
4.6
4.5
4.2
3.5
-0.8
0.3
1.7
2.1
2.4
Fragile countries
0.1
0.0
1.7
0.4
4.1
2.9
3.1
2.6
3.2
Burundi
2.3
1.4
2.6
1.7
1.6
2.0
2.3
-9.3
2.7
Central African Rep.
1.5
-0.2
1.1
1.3
2.1
-37.3
-0.9
3.5
3.7
Comoros
-1.1
-1.2
-0.9
-0.8
0.0
0.5
-1.0
-1.9
-0.8
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
3.0
-0.1
4.0
3.8
4.0
5.3
6.0
5.3
4.2
Côte d'Ivoire
-0.8
0.6
-0.6
-6.8
7.9
5.9
5.2
5.5
4.9
Eritrea
-5.7
0.6
-1.1
5.2
3.6
-1.9
-1.5
-3.0
-1.0
Gambia, The
0.4
3.6
3.7
-6.9
2.8
2.0
-2.9
1.9
2.7
Guinea
0.6
-2.9
-0.7
1.3
1.2
-0.3
-1.4
-2.4
2.3
Guinea-Bissau
0.9
1.1
2.1
6.8
-4.0
-1.4
0.3
2.4
2.5
Liberia
5.7
0.8
1.8
4.7
5.5
5.9
-1.9
-1.7
3.1
Madagascar
2.8
-7.4
-2.5
-1.4
0.2
-0.6
0.5
0.6
1.7
Malawi
3.5
5.3
3.9
1.9
-1.0
2.3
2.7
1.1
2.1
São Tomé & Príncipe
3.0
1.0
1.5
1.9
1.8
1.4
1.9
2.5
2.7
Togo
-0.5
0.9
1.4
2.1
3.2
2.7
2.3
2.7
2.9
Zimbabwe3
3
-8.3
6.6
10.4
9.1
7.8
3.3
2.1
0.3
1.3
Sub-Saharan Africa
4.3
1.7
4.2
2.6
1.8
2.8
2.6
1.4
1.9
Median
3.0
0.8
3.2
2.6
2.8
2.9
2.3
2.0
2.7
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
4.1
1.2
3.7
3.3
2.6
3.9
3.2
2.2
3.1
Oil-importing countries 
3.2
-0.1
3.2
3.1
2.4
2.7
2.3
1.9
2.3
Excluding South Africa
3.0
1.9
4.4
4.1
3.6
3.9
3.6
3.0
3.6
CFA franc zone
1.8
-0.7
1.9
-0.3
3.4
1.7
2.9
1.9
2.8
WAEMU
0.7
0.0
1.6
-1.7
3.9
2.9
3.3
3.2
3.4
CEMAC
2.9
-1.4
2.3
1.1
2.9
0.4
2.5
0.3
2.2
EAC-5
3.2
2.3
4.7
4.1
1.6
3.1
3.3
3.5
4.0
ECOWAS
4.5
4.7
5.9
2.2
2.2
2.9
3.2
1.3
1.9
SADC
4.4
-1.4
2.3
2.3
3.7
2.2
1.5
1.0
1.1
SACU
3.5
-3.0
1.9
1.9
0.9
1.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
COMESA (SSA members)
3.6
3.1
5.4
4.7
3.2
3.7
4.0
3.5
3.7
MDRI countries
3.6
2.6
4.2
4.6
3.3
3.8
3.9
2.8
3.7
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
1.8
-0.6
2.0
0.1
3.4
1.8
2.8
1.9
2.8
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
4.9
2.0
4.5
2.9
1.9
2.7
2.6
1.4
1.8
Sub-Saharan Africa4
4
4.3
1.7
4.2
2.6
2.2
2.6
2.6
1.5
1.9
Table SA3. Real Per Capita GDP Growth
(Percent)
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
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REGIONAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
84
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Oil-exporting countries
10.9
11.5
12.1
10.0
11.2
7.5
7.1
8.7
9.3
Excluding Nigeria
9.2
8.8
7.8
7.7
8.5
4.9
4.6
7.8
8.3
Angola
20.9
13.7
14.5
13.5
10.3
8.8
7.3
10.3
14.2
Cameroon
2.7
3.0
1.3
2.9
2.4
2.1
1.9
2.0
2.1
Chad
1.5
10.1
-2.1
1.9
7.7
0.2
1.7
4.3
3.1
Congo, Rep. of
3.9
4.3
5.0
1.8
5.0
4.6
0.9
0.9
1.7
Equatorial Guinea
4.4
5.7
5.3
4.8
3.4
3.2
4.3
3.5
2.9
Gabon
0.9
1.9
1.4
1.3
2.7
0.5
4.5
0.6
2.5
Nigeria
11.6
12.5
13.7
10.8
12.2
8.5
8.1
9.1
9.7
South Sudan
...
...
...
...
45.1
0.0
1.7
41.1
14.4
Middle-income countries
1
6.8
7.9
4.6
6.5
6.2
6.1
6.7
5.9
6.1
Excluding South Africa
9.2
9.4
5.2
9.1
7.1
6.8
7.7
7.5
6.5
Botswana
9.4
8.1
6.9
8.5
7.5
5.8
3.9
4.0
4.4
Cabo Verde
2.9
1.0
2.1
4.5
2.5
1.5
-0.2
1.0
2.5
Ghana
13.3
13.1
6.7
7.7
7.1
11.7
15.5
15.3
10.1
Kenya
8.3
10.6
4.3
14.0
9.4
5.7
6.9
6.3
5.9
Lesotho
6.9
5.9
3.4
6.0
5.5
5.0
3.8
3.9
4.1
Mauritius
7.4
2.5
2.9
6.5
3.9
3.5
3.2
2.0
3.0
Namibia
5.4
9.5
4.9
5.0
6.7
5.6
5.3
4.8
6.0
Senegal
3.3
-2.2
1.2
3.4
1.4
0.7
-1.1
0.6
2.1
Seychelles
9.0
31.8
-2.4
2.6
7.1
4.3
1.4
4.3
2.9
South Africa
5.6
7.1
4.3
5.0
5.7
5.8
6.1
4.8
5.9
Swaziland
6.2
7.4
4.5
6.1
8.9
5.6
5.7
5.2
5.7
Zambia
13.7
13.4
8.5
8.7
6.6
7.0
7.8
7.3
7.5
Low-income and fragile countries
9.4
10.0
6.8
13.8
11.0
5.6
4.5
5.3
5.5
Low-income excluding fragile countries
9.1
8.5
5.8
16.4
14.1
5.7
4.7
5.9
6.3
Benin
3.7
0.9
2.2
2.7
6.7
1.0
-1.1
0.5
2.3
Burkina Faso
3.8
0.9
-0.6
2.8
3.8
0.5
-0.3
0.7
1.8
Ethiopia
18.0
8.5
8.1
33.2
24.1
8.1
7.4
10.0
9.0
Mali
3.1
2.2
1.3
3.1
5.3
-0.6
0.9
2.4
3.6
Mozambique
10.2
3.3
12.7
10.4
2.1
4.2
2.3
4.0
5.6
Niger
4.0
4.3
-2.8
2.9
0.5
2.3
-0.9
1.3
2.1
Rwanda
10.9
10.3
2.3
5.7
6.3
4.2
1.8
2.1
4.2
Sierra Leone
12.5
9.2
17.8
18.5
13.8
9.8
8.3
10.2
12.7
Tanzania
6.6
12.1
7.2
12.7
16.0
7.9
6.1
5.6
5.9
Uganda
7.5
13.1
4.0
18.7
14.0
4.8
4.6
5.7
6.5
Fragile countries
9.9
12.5
8.7
9.0
5.7
5.3
4.1
4.2
4.0
Burundi
11.4
10.6
6.5
9.6
18.2
7.9
4.4
7.4
6.2
Central African Rep.
3.5
3.5
1.5
1.2
5.9
6.6
11.6
5.7
4.9
Comoros
4.0
4.8
3.9
2.2
5.9
1.6
1.3
2.0
2.2
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
14.7
46.2
23.5
15.5
2.1
0.8
1.0
1.0
1.7
Côte d'Ivoire
3.2
1.0
1.4
4.9
1.3
2.6
0.4
1.6
1.5
Eritrea
16.4
33.0
12.7
13.3
12.3
12.3
12.3
12.3
12.3
Gambia, The
6.2
4.6
5.0
4.8
4.6
5.2
6.2
6.5
5.3
Guinea
25.0
4.7
15.5
21.4
15.2
11.9
9.7
9.0
8.7
Guinea-Bissau
4.0
-1.6
1.1
5.1
2.1
0.8
-1.0
1.3
2.3
Liberia
9.8
7.4
7.3
8.5
6.8
7.6
9.9
7.9
8.2
Madagascar
12.5
9.0
9.2
9.5
5.7
5.8
6.1
7.6
7.4
Malawi
11.5
8.4
7.4
7.6
21.3
28.3
23.8
20.1
14.0
São Tomé & Príncipe
20.8
17.0
13.3
14.3
10.6
8.1
7.0
5.8
4.6
Togo
3.8
3.7
1.4
3.6
2.6
1.8
0.2
1.9
2.1
Zimbabwe
2
39.9
6.2
3.0
3.5
3.7
1.6
-0.2
-1.6
0.0
Sub-Saharan Africa
8.8
9.8
8.2
9.5
9.4
6.6
6.4
6.9
7.3
Median
7.2
7.3
4.4
5.8
6.3
4.8
4.3
4.3
4.6
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
9.2
9.5
6.6
11.0
9.3
5.8
5.4
6.5
6.4
Oil-importing countries 
7.7
8.7
5.4
9.2
8.0
5.9
5.8
5.6
5.9
Excluding South Africa
9.3
9.8
6.2
12.0
9.6
6.0
5.6
6.1
5.8
CFA franc zone
3.1
2.6
1.4
3.1
3.3
1.7
1.2
1.7
2.2
WAEMU
3.4
0.9
0.8
3.7
2.7
1.3
-0.1
1.3
2.1
CEMAC
2.7
4.5
2.0
2.6
3.8
2.1
2.6
2.2
2.4
EAC-5
7.8
11.6
5.2
14.0
12.6
6.2
5.8
5.7
5.9
ECOWAS
10.3
10.4
11.1
9.6
10.3
7.6
7.3
8.3
8.5
SADC
8.0
9.8
6.9
7.6
3.7
6.3
6.0
5.6
6.8
SACU
5.8
7.2
4.4
5.2
5.8
5.7
5.9
4.8
5.8
COMESA (SSA members)
11.5
13.0
7.4
16.1
11.7
6.2
6.1
6.6
6.4
MDRI countries
9.2
10.0
6.5
11.9
10.0
6.1
5.7
6.4
6.0
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
3.6
3.6
1.9
3.5
3.8
2.2
1.7
2.2
2.7
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
9.8
11.0
9.3
10.6
10.1
7.4
7.2
7.6
8.1
Sub-Saharan Africa
3
8.8
9.8
8.2
9.5
9.2
6.6
6.4
6.8
7.3
Table SA4. Consumer Prices
(Annual average, percent change)
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STATISTICAL APPENDIX
85
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Oil-exporting countries
9.8
12.2
10.9
9.6
10.6
6.9
7.2
10.5
9.5
Excluding Nigeria
8.4
7.8
8.4
7.5
6.8
4.0
5.2
10.5
9.6
Angola
17.3
14.0
15.3
11.4
9.0
7.7
7.5
13.9
13.0
Cameroon
3.1
0.9
2.6
2.7
2.5
1.7
2.6
2.0
2.1
Chad
3.2
4.7
-2.2
10.8
2.1
0.9
3.7
3.2
3.0
Congo, Rep. of
4.4
2.5
5.4
1.8
7.5
2.1
0.5
1.8
2.2
Equatorial Guinea
4.3
5.0
5.4
4.9
2.6
4.9
4.3
3.5
2.9
Gabon
1.1
0.9
0.7
2.3
2.2
3.3
1.7
1.1
2.5
Nigeria
10.4
13.9
11.7
10.3
12.0
7.9
7.9
10.5
9.5
South Sudan
...
...
...
...
25.2
-8.8
9.9
68.9
53.9
Middle-income countries
1
7.4
6.4
4.4
7.7
5.6
6.1
6.5
6.1
5.7
Excluding South Africa
9.7
6.5
6.1
10.5
5.5
7.4
7.6
7.2
5.7
Botswana
9.9
5.8
7.4
9.2
7.4
4.1
3.7
4.3
4.4
Cabo Verde
3.5
-0.4
3.4
3.6
4.1
0.1
-0.4
2.0
2.5
Ghana
13.7
9.5
6.9
8.4
8.1
13.5
17.0
12.0
8.0
Kenya
9.0
8.0
5.8
18.9
3.2
7.1
6.0
6.3
5.4
Lesotho
7.2
3.8
3.6
7.2
5.0
5.6
2.6
4.1
5.0
Mauritius
7.3
1.5
6.1
4.9
3.2
4.1
0.2
3.0
3.0
Namibia
6.1
7.9
3.1
7.4
6.4
4.9
4.6
5.2
5.5
Senegal
3.8
-4.5
4.3
2.7
1.1
-0.1
-0.8
3.0
1.4
Seychelles
16.1
-2.5
0.4
5.5
5.8
3.4
0.5
4.9
3.8
South Africa
6.4
6.3
3.5
6.1
5.7
5.4
5.8
5.5
5.7
Swaziland
7.7
4.5
4.5
7.8
8.3
4.4
6.2
6.1
5.4
Zambia
13.4
9.9
7.9
7.2
7.3
7.1
7.9
8.0
7.0
Low-income and fragile countries
10.2
8.4
7.4
15.8
8.2
4.6
4.3
6.4
5.2
Low-income excluding fragile countries
9.7
7.2
7.3
20.1
8.9
4.7
4.3
7.3
5.9
Benin
4.1
-0.5
4.0
1.8
6.8
-1.8
-0.8
2.3
2.4
Burkina Faso
4.1
-1.8
-0.3
5.1
1.7
0.1
-0.1
1.6
1.8
Ethiopia
19.3
7.1
14.6
35.9
15.0
7.7
7.1
12.3
8.2
Mali
3.7
1.7
1.9
5.3
2.4
0.0
1.2
3.1
2.6
Mozambique
9.2
4.2
16.6
5.5
2.2
3.0
1.1
5.5
5.6
Niger
5.3
-3.1
1.4
1.4
0.7
1.1
-0.6
2.6
1.5
Rwanda
11.4
5.7
0.2
8.3
3.9
3.6
2.1
3.5
5.0
Sierra Leone
12.4
10.8
18.4
16.9
12.0
8.5
9.8
12.0
10.3
Tanzania
7.1
12.2
5.6
19.8
12.1
5.6
4.8
6.6
5.4
Uganda
8.4
11.0
3.1
27.0
5.3
4.3
4.9
6.4
6.6
Fragile countries
10.9
10.6
7.8
8.2
6.8
4.4
4.1
4.5
3.8
Burundi
12.5
4.6
4.1
14.9
11.8
9.0
3.7
11.8
4.4
Central African Rep.
4.7
-1.2
2.3
4.3
5.9
5.9
8.4
9.4
2.5
Comoros
4.4
2.2
6.7
4.9
1.0
3.5
0.0
4.0
0.1
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
17.2
53.4
9.8
15.4
2.7
1.0
1.2
0.9
2.5
Côte d'Ivoire
3.9
-1.7
5.1
2.0
3.4
0.4
0.9
2.0
1.8
Eritrea
17.5
22.2
14.2
12.3
12.3
12.3
12.3
12.3
12.3
Gambia, The
5.2
2.7
5.8
4.4
4.9
5.5
6.9
6.0
4.7
Guinea
24.6
7.9
20.8
19.0
12.8
10.5
9.0
9.4
8.0
Guinea-Bissau
4.6
-6.4
5.7
3.4
1.6
-0.1
-0.1
2.0
2.5
Liberia
9.5
9.7
6.6
11.4
7.7
8.5
7.7
8.0
8.5
Madagascar
13.6
8.0
10.2
6.9
5.8
6.3
6.0
8.1
7.2
Malawi
11.6
7.6
6.3
9.8
34.6
23.5
24.2
18.7
9.1
São Tomé & Príncipe
21.9
16.1
12.9
11.9
10.4
7.1
6.4
5.2
4.0
Togo
4.9
0.6
3.8
1.5
2.9
1.8
1.8
2.2
2.3
Zimbabwe2
2
...
-7.7
3.2
4.9
2.9
0.3
-0.8
-0.7
0.5
Sub-Saharan Africa
8.9
9.2
7.7
10.2
8.3
6.1
6.3
8.0
7.2
Median
7.3
4.7
5.4
7.0
5.7
4.3
3.7
5.2
4.4
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
9.6
7.8
7.3
12.3
7.1
5.2
5.4
7.5
6.3
Oil-importing countries 
8.4
7.1
5.5
10.7
6.6
5.5
5.6
6.2
5.5
Excluding South Africa
10.0
7.7
6.9
13.8
7.2
5.6
5.5
6.6
5.4
CFA franc zone
3.6
0.2
2.9
3.5
2.9
1.2
1.4
2.3
2.1
WAEMU
4.0
-1.7
3.3
2.9
2.7
0.1
0.2
2.3
1.9
CEMAC
3.2
2.4
2.4
4.0
3.2
2.4
2.6
2.3
2.4
EAC-5
8.4
9.9
4.8
20.3
6.9
5.9
5.1
6.4
5.6
ECOWAS
9.6
10.8
10.2
9.2
10.2
7.2
7.4
9.3
8.1
SADC
8.4
8.9
6.1
8.4
3.7
5.6
5.6
6.6
6.4
SACU
6.5
6.3
3.6
6.2
5.8
5.3
5.6
5.4
5.6
COMESA (SSA members)
12.5
10.7
7.8
18.6
7.7
6.3
5.8
7.4
6.0
MDRI countries
9.8
8.5
6.9
13.7
7.8
5.6
5.7
7.0
5.5
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
4.2
1.1
3.2
4.0
3.4
1.7
1.8
2.7
2.6
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
9.8
10.8
8.5
11.3
9.0
7.0
7.0
8.6
7.7
Sub-Saharan Africa3
3
8.9
9.2
7.7
10.2
8.2
6.2
6.2
7.7
6.9
Table SA5. Consumer Prices
(End of period, percent change)
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
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REGIONAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
86
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Oil-exporting countries
17.6
22.4
18.9
17.3
16.7
16.8
17.7
18.4
17.8
Excluding Nigeria
19.0
24.7
23.5
20.2
21.4
22.0
22.8
21.3
21.2
Angola
12.6
15.2
14.4
12.9
14.9
14.8
15.0
10.4
11.3
Cameroon
16.5
20.6
20.3
20.2
20.7
21.6
22.4
22.7
22.5
Chad
22.6
30.2
34.5
28.5
31.5
27.5
30.5
29.0
28.8
Congo, Rep. of
20.9
22.5
20.5
25.3
26.0
30.9
42.2
41.7
39.0
Equatorial Guinea
38.2
71.3
63.9
55.6
48.0
54.0
47.9
55.2
48.8
Gabon
23.2
29.1
29.8
30.6
23.3
26.5
26.8
31.9
31.5
Nigeria
17.0
21.6
17.3
16.2
14.9
14.9
15.8
17.4
16.5
South Sudan
...
...
...
5.5
10.7
12.5
12.8
13.9
16.8
Middle-income countries
1
21.4
21.7
21.4
21.7
23.1
22.0
22.3
22.4
22.6
Excluding South Africa
23.9
23.5
24.9
26.3
28.2
25.2
25.4
26.1
26.8
Botswana
30.0
37.3
38.0
37.8
38.5
33.4
31.5
32.8
33.4
Cabo Verde
36.7
36.5
37.7
37.2
40.3
39.6
37.6
40.7
41.6
Ghana
22.0
20.7
25.7
26.6
32.0
23.5
24.8
23.8
25.2
Kenya
18.9
19.3
20.7
21.7
21.5
20.1
21.4
23.8
24.2
Lesotho
25.5
29.5
29.0
35.0
36.7
35.0
33.0
33.3
33.2
Mauritius
25.6
21.3
23.7
26.0
24.8
25.1
22.9
25.4
26.3
Namibia
22.7
27.3
24.1
22.4
26.9
24.9
28.0
29.6
32.7
Senegal
26.3
22.4
22.0
25.6
29.1
27.9
27.9
26.9
27.1
Seychelles
28.6
27.3
36.6
35.0
37.4
37.9
37.3
33.7
34.1
South Africa
20.2
20.7
19.5
19.1
20.1
20.1
20.4
19.9
19.8
Swaziland
22.8
14.4
6.5
4.6
5.5
7.7
9.2
10.1
8.0
Zambia
33.2
30.3
29.9
33.5
34.2
33.6
31.1
30.9
30.7
Low-income and fragile countries
21.6
21.8
23.0
24.9
24.8
26.3
25.9
27.6
28.5
Low-income excluding fragile countries
24.1
23.9
26.0
30.4
29.5
31.7
31.3
33.5
33.7
Benin
18.3
20.9
17.6
18.7
17.6
23.6
18.4
22.5
22.0
Burkina Faso
18.5
17.9
18.0
15.4
14.9
20.2
10.8
13.8
17.0
Ethiopia
2
22.7
23.3
24.4
31.2
30.8
35.8
36.8
39.5
36.9
Mali
28.4
27.8
35.4
26.3
18.3
18.5
25.0
30.5
32.8
Mozambique
21.8
16.0
17.8
36.8
56.5
58.6
48.4
48.6
51.6
Niger
23.2
32.1
49.5
43.9
40.1
40.6
40.6
43.8
48.1
Rwanda
20.1
23.6
23.2
23.5
25.9
26.5
26.3
25.3
25.4
Sierra Leone
10.2
10.0
31.1
42.1
27.9
12.7
13.3
15.2
15.1
Tanzania
26.3
25.1
27.3
33.2
28.5
30.3
31.0
30.9
31.0
Uganda
29.1
27.6
26.0
29.5
29.5
29.2
30.2
33.4
34.8
Fragile countries
17.3
18.2
17.6
14.6
16.2
16.1
15.5
16.0
18.4
Burundi
18.1
19.0
19.2
19.3
19.5
19.6
19.6
14.7
19.7
Central African Rep.
10.1
13.2
14.3
12.2
15.0
8.7
10.2
14.6
16.3
Comoros
10.7
12.4
15.4
14.9
16.8
20.4
18.6
18.4
20.8
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
12.7
14.8
12.3
12.2
12.7
15.3
15.7
15.6
14.8
Côte d'Ivoire
12.8
11.6
14.9
10.5
16.5
17.0
16.8
18.5
19.1
Eritrea
15.9
9.3
9.3
10.0
9.5
8.8
8.0
7.8
7.6
Gambia, The
21.1
19.6
21.3
18.9
27.8
20.0
24.5
18.0
24.1
Guinea
17.3
10.3
9.4
13.4
24.7
20.4
9.4
12.5
47.3
Guinea-Bissau
6.8
6.0
6.6
5.3
7.3
7.0
10.8
12.4
14.2
Liberia
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Madagascar
29.7
35.6
23.4
17.6
17.6
15.9
15.6
16.3
17.6
Malawi
21.5
30.8
28.4
14.8
15.7
15.3
14.1
13.4
13.4
São Tomé & Príncipe
54.9
37.1
54.3
42.9
35.6
31.5
25.7
32.1
26.8
Togo
19.2
22.8
23.9
23.5
23.8
23.6
23.6
24.6
24.6
Zimbabwe
3
...
15.1
23.9
22.4
13.5
13.0
13.1
12.9
12.8
Sub-Saharan Africa
19.9
22.0
20.7
20.5
20.8
20.8
21.1
21.9
21.9
Median
21.6
21.6
23.4
22.9
24.2
22.5
23.2
23.8
24.9
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
21.6
23.0
23.7
24.1
25.0
24.9
25.0
25.7
26.3
Oil-importing countries 
21.5
21.7
22.0
22.9
23.8
23.7
23.7
24.5
25.0
Excluding South Africa
22.5
22.5
23.7
25.4
26.1
25.9
25.7
27.0
27.9
CFA franc zone
21.1
25.9
26.9
24.8
24.4
25.7
25.8
27.5
27.5
WAEMU
19.4
19.4
22.7
20.0
20.9
22.2
21.2
23.4
24.7
CEMAC
22.9
33.0
31.4
29.8
28.1
29.6
31.0
32.3
30.8
EAC-5
23.4
23.3
24.2
27.4
25.8
25.9
26.8
28.2
28.8
ECOWAS
17.8
21.0
18.8
17.8
17.4
16.8
17.3
18.8
18.9
SADC
20.9
21.4
20.5
20.9
3.7
21.8
21.7
21.1
21.3
SACU
20.7
21.5
20.3
19.9
21.0
20.8
21.0
20.8
20.8
COMESA (SSA members)
23.0
23.1
22.7
24.3
24.0
25.0
25.4
27.0
26.8
MDRI countries
23.0
23.6
24.4
26.8
27.3
27.7
27.9
28.9
29.2
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
21.3
25.5
26.1
24.1
24.1
25.2
25.4
27.1
27.2
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
19.7
21.5
19.8
20.2
20.4
20.2
20.6
21.2
21.2
Sub-Saharan Africa
4
19.9
22.0
20.7
20.7
20.8
20.8
21.2
21.9
22.0
Table SA6. Total Investment
(Percent of GDP)
STATISTICAL APPENDIX
87
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Oil-exporting countries
29.9
23.0
21.9
21.2
20.7
19.6
16.8
14.6
14.9
Excluding Nigeria
28.0
13.3
24.2
26.3
24.7
22.4
19.1
12.1
13.8
Angola
27.3
5.2
23.5
25.5
26.9
21.5
13.5
2.8
5.8
Cameroon
15.5
17.6
17.5
17.5
17.1
17.8
17.8
17.6
17.3
Chad
23.1
21.1
25.5
22.8
22.8
18.3
21.6
18.6
19.6
Congo, Rep. of
18.2
8.4
27.9
29.9
23.6
26.5
32.8
26.5
24.5
Equatorial Guinea
52.7
24.4
22.7
34.4
36.3
29.4
25.3
23.6
24.0
Gabon
39.6
33.8
38.5
43.4
39.2
38.7
35.0
25.3
27.5
Nigeria
30.7
26.6
21.2
19.2
19.3
18.5
16.0
15.6
15.4
South Sudan
...
...
...
23.5
-8.9
11.3
15.4
9.0
13.2
Middle-income countries
1
16.3
16.7
17.3
16.8
14.4
14.4
14.5
17.2
17.1
Excluding South Africa
21.8
20.5
20.0
18.1
17.2
17.0
17.6
19.5
19.7
Botswana
40.9
29.9
34.6
40.5
39.9
42.3
47.6
35.6
33.6
Cabo Verde
27.2
21.9
25.3
20.9
27.7
34.6
30.0
31.0
35.0
Ghana
14.7
18.4
19.6
19.0
16.8
13.5
15.2
15.4
18.0
Kenya
16.4
14.9
14.8
12.5
13.1
11.2
11.0
14.1
14.5
Lesotho
43.2
33.1
19.2
20.0
26.5
24.4
24.8
26.9
19.2
Mauritius
20.0
15.0
14.3
13.1
18.4
19.7
18.3
20.3
20.8
Namibia
30.1
25.7
20.6
19.3
21.2
20.9
18.0
17.5
16.5
Senegal
16.4
15.6
17.6
17.4
18.3
17.5
19.1
20.8
21.9
Seychelles
14.8
12.4
17.6
13.5
17.5
26.5
16.3
18.6
19.4
South Africa
16.0
18.0
18.0
17.0
15.1
14.4
14.9
15.6
15.3
Swaziland
19.6
2.8
-2.1
-2.2
8.6
12.9
12.2
11.2
5.2
Zambia
32.1
36.2
37.4
38.1
39.7
33.0
29.7
29.5
28.1
Low-income and fragile countries
16.0
13.4
16.7
17.0
16.2
15.6
16.2
16.9
18.0
Low-income excluding fragile countries
18.5
15.9
19.5
21.7
21.1
20.5
20.8
21.5
22.4
Benin
11.0
11.9
8.9
10.9
9.3
13.2
10.4
13.2
12.8
Burkina Faso
8.1
13.2
15.8
13.9
10.4
13.6
4.6
5.9
9.2
Ethiopia2
19.7
15.4
24.5
33.1
31.2
29.7
28.8
27.0
27.6
Mali
20.8
20.5
22.8
20.1
15.7
15.1
17.7
27.1
28.7
Mozambique
11.1
5.0
7.1
13.7
14.2
18.5
13.6
10.5
9.5
Niger
14.1
7.7
25.5
21.6
25.5
25.2
25.3
24.8
24.7
Rwanda
18.4
16.4
17.8
16.4
14.7
19.1
14.4
14.7
15.9
Sierra Leone
4.5
-1.7
9.6
-17.0
4.6
2.3
1.4
1.2
3.2
Tanzania
20.9
18.3
21.2
21.6
19.3
15.1
21.9
22.7
23.9
Uganda
24.9
21.2
16.9
18.7
21.5
22.0
20.6
22.8
23.6
Fragile countries
11.8
9.2
11.7
8.2
7.1
6.4
7.3
8.1
9.3
Burundi
12.2
21.7
7.8
6.4
2.7
1.6
2.4
3.7
10.3
Central African Rep.
4.6
4.1
4.1
4.6
10.4
5.7
4.1
2.8
5.1
Comoros
4.4
6.2
15.2
10.0
12.2
11.8
11.6
9.3
9.8
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
8.0
7.1
5.7
4.7
5.8
4.7
6.1
4.3
3.8
Côte d'Ivoire
13.9
18.3
16.8
21.0
15.3
15.7
16.1
17.5
17.2
Eritrea
-19.9
-9.7
-9.3
1.2
5.9
4.0
2.4
1.0
0.6
Gambia, The
12.6
7.1
5.0
6.7
19.9
9.8
11.4
4.5
13.9
Guinea
12.0
2.4
-0.3
-5.4
-4.0
-3.6
-14.9
-4.2
10.5
Guinea-Bissau
5.6
0.8
-2.2
4.9
-2.6
2.6
9.6
8.8
9.4
Liberia
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Madagascar
20.4
14.5
13.7
10.8
10.8
10.3
15.3
14.9
15.4
Malawi
14.9
26.9
31.8
6.2
6.4
6.6
6.0
8.9
6.1
São Tomé & Príncipe
27.8
13.8
32.6
17.4
14.3
8.1
-2.0
19.7
11.6
Togo
10.4
17.2
17.6
15.4
16.3
10.5
10.7
12.2
12.5
Zimbabw
e
3
...
-32.0
8.0
-8.5
-11.0
-12.5
-8.9
-10.1
-7.1
Sub-Saharan Africa
22.2
19.4
19.7
19.2
18.5
17.5
16.6
16.0
16.4
Median
16.4
15.4
17.6
17.2
16.0
15.1
15.3
15.5
15.4
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
20.6
15.3
19.7
20.3
19.7
18.3
17.8
16.5
17.5
Oil-importing countries 
17.2
16.8
18.1
17.7
16.9
16.0
16.4
17.1
17.4
Excluding South Africa
18.2
16.0
18.2
18.2
18.0
17.0
17.3
17.9
18.6
CFA franc zone
20.6
18.0
20.7
22.3
20.3
19.9
19.6
19.1
19.6
WAEMU
14.0
15.8
17.4
17.9
15.3
15.8
15.1
17.5
18.2
CEMAC
27.7
20.3
24.2
27.0
25.7
24.4
24.5
21.0
21.2
EAC-5
19.6
17.7
17.4
17.0
16.8
15.0
16.8
18.8
19.7
ECOWAS
26.0
23.7
20.1
18.4
18.1
17.4
15.4
15.6
15.9
SADC
19.0
15.9
19.2
18.4
3.7
16.1
16.1
14.7
14.8
SACU
17.5
18.5
18.5
17.8
16.3
15.8
16.5
16.6
16.0
COMESA (SSA members)
18.5
15.2
18.0
17.8
18.5
17.4
17.1
17.6
17.9
MDRI countries
17.6
16.9
19.6
20.1
19.6
18.3
19.0
19.2
19.9
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
20.5
17.6
19.6
21.1
19.9
19.6
19.1
18.7
18.9
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
22.5
20.1
19.9
19.1
18.8
17.5
16.5
15.9
16.2
Sub-Saharan Africa4
4
22.2
19.4
19.7
19.2
18.7
17.6
16.6
16.1
16.4
Table SA7. Gross National Savings
(Percent of GDP)
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
REGIONAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
88
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Oil-exporting countries
5.6
-5.4
-2.3
2.3
0.6
-2.1
-3.1
-4.3
-3.4
Excluding Nigeria
7.3
-4.4
2.4
6.0
1.5
-1.7
-5.8
-5.5
-3.9
Angola
4.6
-7.4
3.4
8.7
4.6
-0.3
-6.4
-3.5
-1.4
Cameroon
8.6
0.0
-1.1
-2.6
-1.6
-4.0
-5.2
-5.1
-5.6
Chad
1.2
-9.2
-4.2
2.4
0.5
-2.1
-4.2
-1.1
-0.9
Congo, Rep. of
13.5
4.8
16.1
16.5
6.4
-1.8
-7.7
-9.4
-2.6
Equatorial Guinea
18.4
-9.5
-5.8
1.0
-9.0
-7.5
-6.8
-5.9
-3.2
Gabon
8.5
6.8
2.7
2.5
1.6
1.8
2.7
-3.6
-2.5
Nigeria
4.9
-6.0
-4.2
0.4
0.3
-2.3
-2.0
-3.9
-3.2
South Sudan
...
...
...
5.4
-11.3
-5.9
-11.4
-24.5
-23.7
Middle-income countries
1
-0.3
-4.8
-5.0
-4.1
-4.4
-4.7
-4.5
-4.9
-4.4
Excluding South Africa
-1.1
-5.0
-5.7
-4.5
-5.2
-5.8
-5.9
-6.2
-5.6
Botswana
4.5
-13.6
-7.8
-0.1
0.8
5.3
4.3
-0.5
0.4
Cabo Verde
-3.3
-5.9
-10.7
-7.7
-10.3
-8.9
-7.4
-4.1
-3.5
Ghana
-4.9
-7.0
-9.4
-7.3
-12.2
-11.1
-10.9
-5.9
-4.3
Kenya
-1.9
-4.3
-4.4
-4.1
-5.0
-5.7
-7.2
-8.1
-7.3
Lesotho
9.0
-4.0
-4.2
-10.6
5.0
-2.5
0.6
-3.2
-10.4
Mauritius
-3.9
-3.6
-3.2
-3.2
-1.8
-3.5
-3.2
-5.0
-3.9
Namibia
2.0
-0.1
-4.5
-6.7
-2.3
-3.4
-3.7
-5.9
-7.4
Senegal
-3.8
-4.9
-5.2
-6.1
-5.2
-5.5
-4.9
-4.7
-4.2
Seychelles
-0.7
4.8
0.5
3.3
2.7
0.3
3.5
1.1
2.5
South Africa
0.0
-4.7
-4.8
-3.9
-4.1
-4.1
-3.8
-4.1
-3.7
Swaziland
1.4
-2.9
-8.8
-3.6
4.2
0.5
-1.6
-4.4
-6.7
Zambia
2.1
-2.1
-2.4
-1.8
-2.9
-6.5
-6.1
-7.8
-6.5
Low-income and fragile countries
-1.4
-2.6
-2.4
-2.9
-2.3
-2.5
-3.0
-3.2
-3.1
Low-income excluding fragile countries
-1.1
-3.0
-3.3
-2.7
-2.6
-3.0
-3.8
-3.7
-3.7
Benin
-0.7
-3.3
-0.4
-1.4
-0.3
-2.1
-2.5
-2.6
-3.5
Burkina Faso
-0.8
-4.7
-3.0
-1.4
-3.1
-3.9
-1.9
-2.5
-3.0
Ethiopia
2
-3.4
-0.9
-1.3
-1.6
-1.2
-1.9
-2.6
-2.8
-2.8
Mali
4.0
-4.2
-2.9
-4.2
-1.1
-2.8
-3.5
-3.2
-4.0
Mozambique
-2.9
-5.0
-3.9
-4.8
-3.9
-2.7
-10.3
-6.5
-5.1
Niger
7.1
-5.3
-2.4
-1.5
-1.1
-2.6
-8.3
-8.0
-5.3
Rwanda
0.2
0.3
0.4
-1.8
-1.6
-2.6
-3.6
-3.2
-3.1
Sierra Leone
2.2
-2.3
-5.0
-4.6
-5.2
-2.4
-3.6
-4.0
-5.2
Tanzania
-2.5
-4.5
-4.8
-3.6
-4.1
-3.9
-3.2
-4.0
-3.9
Uganda
-0.8
-2.1
-5.7
-2.7
-3.0
-4.0
-3.5
-3.6
-4.2
Fragile countries
-1.7
-2.0
-1.3
-3.1
-1.8
-1.7
-1.8
-2.5
-2.0
Burundi
-2.7
-5.1
-3.6
-3.9
-3.5
-1.7
-3.4
-6.0
-4.8
Central African Rep.
0.5
-0.6
-1.5
-2.4
0.0
-6.3
3.0
-4.9
-3.4
Comoros
-1.7
0.6
7.0
1.4
3.3
17.8
-0.5
0.6
-2.5
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
-0.3
1.3
2.4
-0.5
1.8
3.0
1.3
1.9
1.2
Côte d'Ivoire
-1.0
-1.4
-1.8
-5.4
-3.1
-2.2
-2.3
-3.2
-3.2
Eritrea
-17.9
-14.7
-16.0
-16.2
-15.3
-15.2
-14.5
-14.5
-14.4
Gambia, The
-3.2
-2.7
-4.7
-4.7
-4.4
-8.5
-10.0
-6.3
-3.0
Guinea
-1.5
-7.1
-14.0
-1.3
-3.3
-5.2
-4.1
-6.7
-3.3
Guinea-Bissau
-4.0
4.1
1.6
-0.8
-2.2
-1.8
-1.4
-0.9
-2.3
Liberia
-0.5
-10.1
-5.7
-3.1
-1.6
-4.7
-3.5
-10.2
-6.9
Madagascar
-2.6
-2.5
-0.9
-2.4
-2.6
-4.0
-2.3
-4.4
-2.8
Malawi
-2.3
-3.6
2.1
-3.9
-1.9
-6.4
-4.0
-6.4
-3.2
São Tomé & Príncipe
24.9
-18.1
-11.1
-11.7
-10.9
1.9
-5.5
-8.8
-2.3
Togo
-1.4
-3.9
-2.5
-4.0
-7.2
-4.6
-4.9
-6.3
-6.0
Zimbabwe
3
-3.5
-2.1
0.7
-1.3
-0.6
-1.9
-1.5
-1.3
-0.5
Sub-Saharan Africa
1.7
-4.6
-3.4
-1.1
-1.8
-3.1
-3.5
-4.3
-3.6
Median
-0.7
-3.7
-3.4
-2.6
-2.2
-2.8
-3.6
-4.4
-3.5
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
1.2
-3.8
-1.9
-0.3
-1.8
-3.1
-4.6
-4.6
-3.9
Oil-importing countries 
-0.6
-4.1
-4.3
-3.7
-3.7
-3.9
-4.0
-4.2
-3.9
Excluding South Africa
-1.3
-3.5
-3.8
-3.6
-3.4
-3.8
-4.1
-4.3
-4.0
CFA franc zone
4.8
-2.1
-0.7
-0.4
-1.9
-3.1
-3.7
-4.3
-3.7
WAEMU
-0.3
-3.3
-2.6
-4.0
-3.0
-3.2
-3.5
-3.8
-3.7
CEMAC
9.7
-0.8
1.1
2.8
-0.9
-3.0
-4.0
-4.8
-3.5
EAC-5
-1.8
-3.7
-4.5
-3.5
-4.1
-4.5
-4.9
-5.7
-5.4
ECOWAS
3.0
-5.5
-4.5
-0.9
-1.2
-3.1
-2.7
-4.0
-3.3
SADC
0.2
-4.8
-3.2
-1.7
3.7
-2.8
-3.9
-3.7
-3.1
SACU
0.3
-4.9
-4.9
-3.8
-3.7
-3.6
-3.4
-4.0
-3.8
COMESA (SSA members)
-1.6
-2.2
-2.3
-2.6
-2.2
-3.2
-3.7
-4.2
-3.9
MDRI countries
0.1
-2.6
-2.3
-2.4
-3.1
-4.0
-4.4
-4.0
-3.6
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
4.3
-2.2
-1.5
-1.3
-2.0
-3.2
-3.9
-4.6
-4.3
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
1.3
-5.0
-3.8
-1.2
-1.7
-3.0
-3.4
-4.0
-3.4
Sub-Saharan Africa
4
1.7
-4.6
-3.4
-1.2
-1.7
-3.1
-3.5
-4.1
-3.5
Table SA8. Overall Fiscal Balance, Including Grants
(Percent of GDP)
STATISTICAL APPENDIX
89
2004-08
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Oil-exporting countries
5.2
-5.5
-2.3
2.1
0.5
-2.3
-3.2
-4.5
-3.6
Excluding Nigeria
5.9
-4.7
2.2
5.5
1.0
-2.3
-6.4
-6.2
-4.9
Angola
4.4
-7.4
3.4
8.7
4.6
-0.3
-6.5
-3.5
-1.4
Cameroon
2.3
-0.8
-1.7
-3.1
-2.0
-4.3
-5.5
-5.2
-5.8
Chad
-0.7
-11.9
-5.5
0.8
-2.2
-4.3
-6.2
-4.2
-3.2
Congo, Rep. of
13.2
4.5
16.0
15.9
6.3
-2.2
-8.2
-10.0
-3.0
Equatorial Guinea
18.4
-9.5
-5.8
1.0
-9.0
-7.5
-6.8
-5.9
-3.2
Gabon
8.5
6.8
2.7
2.5
1.6
1.8
2.7
-3.6
-2.5
Nigeria
4.9
-6.0
-4.2
0.4
0.3
-2.3
-2.0
-3.9
-3.2
South Sudan
...
...
...
1.9
-15.9
-11.7
-17.1
-31.7
-33.9
Middle-income countries
1
-1.0
-5.3
-5.4
-4.4
-4.8
-4.9
-4.8
-5.2
-4.7
Excluding South Africa
-3.4
-6.8
-7.0
-5.7
-6.3
-6.6
-6.7
-7.2
-6.4
Botswana
3.8
-14.6
-8.2
-0.6
0.7
5.1
4.0
-0.7
0.2
Cabo Verde
-9.0
-11.0
-17.0
-10.6
-13.1
-11.4
-9.1
-7.0
-5.5
Ghana
-8.3
-10.0
-11.7
-9.4
-13.7
-11.5
-11.6
-7.4
-5.6
Kenya
-2.9
-5.0
-5.0
-4.6
-5.5
-6.2
-7.8
-8.6
-7.7
Lesotho
7.3
-7.0
-11.5
-18.4
-3.6
-7.3
-1.4
-6.9
-14.0
Mauritius
-4.2
-5.2
-3.9
-3.9
-2.5
-3.9
-3.4
-5.6
-4.1
Namibia
1.9
-0.4
-4.6
-6.8
-2.4
-3.6
-3.8
-5.9
-7.4
Senegal
-5.8
-7.9
-7.7
-8.3
-8.0
-8.0
-8.2
-7.6
-7.2
Seychelles
-1.8
0.8
-0.3
0.9
-1.8
-3.7
0.5
-1.4
0.5
South Africa
0.0
-4.7
-4.8
-3.9
-4.1
-4.1
-3.8
-4.1
-3.7
Swaziland
0.9
-3.4
-8.8
-3.7
4.1
0.0
-3.2
-5.0
-7.2
Zambia
-5.7
-4.5
-3.9
-2.4
-4.6
-8.0
-6.9
-8.6
-7.3
Low-income and fragile countries
-6.2
-6.6
-6.6
-6.3
-5.1
-5.2
-5.4
-5.8
-5.3
Low-income excluding fragile countries
-7.3
-7.6
-7.3
-6.7
-5.6
-5.9
-6.1
-6.2
-5.8
Benin
-3.0
-6.5
-1.9
-4.0
-2.3
-3.1
-3.6
-5.2
-5.9
Burkina Faso
-10.2
-10.6
-7.5
-6.4
-8.0
-9.3
-6.1
-7.5
-7.7
Ethiopia
2
-7.5
-5.2
-4.5
-4.8
-2.9
-3.5
-3.8
-4.1
-3.8
Mali
-6.9
-8.8
-5.8
-8.0
-1.4
-6.2
-6.2
-7.6
-6.7
Mozambique
-9.8
-13.5
-12.1
-12.2
-9.0
-8.0
-15.3
-11.4
-8.6
Niger
-7.6
-9.7
-7.0
-5.2
-7.2
-10.9
-13.9
-12.9
-9.8
Rwanda
-10.0
-11.2
-12.9
-12.6
-10.9
-11.2
-11.0
-10.6
-8.7
Sierra Leone
-7.5
-8.4
-10.3
-10.1
-9.0
-5.0
-7.9
-9.3
-8.7
Tanzania
-7.2
-8.1
-8.2
-6.9
-7.0
-6.3
-4.8
-5.4
-5.4
Uganda
-5.3
-4.5
-8.2
-4.4
-4.9
-5.1
-4.6
-5.0
-5.5
Fragile countries
-4.7
-5.0
-5.4
-5.7
-4.3
-4.1
-4.2
-5.0
-4.6
Burundi
-18.7
-24.0
-26.3
-24.5
-20.4
-18.1
-16.4
-18.0
-16.4
Central African Rep.
-5.5
-5.9
-7.0
-4.9
-4.9
-9.1
-7.7
-9.5
-8.1
Comoros
-7.8
-9.1
-7.8
-6.0
-6.0
-9.7
-9.9
-8.2
-10.3
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
-1.9
-3.2
-5.7
-3.9
-1.1
0.6
0.1
-0.5
-1.6
Côte d'Ivoire
-2.0
-1.9
-2.3
-5.8
-3.7
-3.6
-4.6
-5.2
-5.1
Eritrea
-24.8
-17.3
-21.3
-19.4
-16.5
-15.7
-14.9
-14.9
-14.7
Gambia, The
-4.8
-6.9
-8.7
-9.9
-13.3
-10.8
-13.7
-10.4
-6.8
Guinea
-2.5
-7.5
-14.4
-4.7
-6.0
-6.7
-8.2
-9.7
-5.9
Guinea-Bissau
-12.7
-11.8
-7.9
-7.4
-4.6
-5.3
-10.4
-7.0
-8.2
Liberia
-0.7
-12.6
-7.5
-4.7
-4.1
-7.8
-8.7
-18.2
-15.9
Madagascar
-9.2
-4.2
-2.8
-4.3
-3.8
-5.3
-4.6
-6.4
-4.8
Malawi
-12.3
-11.1
-8.0
-7.4
-10.7
-13.1
-7.4
-9.8
-6.5
São Tomé & Príncipe
-15.0
-32.5
-29.7
-29.6
-28.6
-11.0
-15.9
-23.9
-18.9
Togo
-2.7
-5.4
-4.5
-7.2
-8.8
-7.6
-6.9
-8.5
-8.4
Zimbabwe
3
-3.5
-2.6
0.7
-1.3
-0.6
-1.9
-1.5
-1.3
-0.5
Sub-Saharan Africa
0.4
-5.7
-4.3
-1.9
-2.5
-3.8
-4.2
-5.0
-4.4
Median
-4.5
-7.2
-7.0
-4.8
-4.6
-6.2
-6.8
-7.0
-6.5
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa
-2.0
-6.1
-4.1
-2.1
-3.5
-4.7
-6.0
-6.3
-5.5
Oil-importing countries 
-2.4
-5.8
-5.8
-4.9
-4.9
-5.0
-5.0
-5.4
-5.0
Excluding South Africa
-5.1
-6.7
-6.8
-6.0
-5.6
-5.8
-5.9
-6.3
-5.7
CFA franc zone
1.3
-4.0
-2.1
-1.8
-3.3
-4.8
-5.5
-6.3
-5.5
WAEMU
-4.9
-6.2
-4.9
-6.5
-5.2
-6.2
-6.4
-7.0
-6.6
CEMAC
7.2
-1.7
0.6
2.3
-1.5
-3.5
-4.7
-5.5
-4.2
EAC-5
-5.4
-6.6
-7.6
-6.2
-6.5
-6.5
-6.6
-7.3
-6.9
ECOWAS
1.8
-6.4
-5.0
-1.5
-1.6
-3.6
-3.2
-4.7
-3.9
SADC
-0.6
-5.6
-4.0
-2.3
3.7
-3.4
-4.3
-4.3
-3.6
SACU
0.2
-4.9
-5.0
-3.9
-3.8
-3.7
-3.4
-4.0
-3.8
COMESA (SSA members)
-5.3
-5.3
-5.6
-4.8
-4.2
-4.9
-5.0
-5.7
-5.3
MDRI countries
-5.1
-6.4
-6.0
-5.3
-5.7
-6.3
-6.4
-6.3
-5.6
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs
1.0
-4.1
-3.0
-2.8
-3.4
-4.9
-5.6
-6.5
-6.0
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs
0.3
-6.0
-4.6
-1.8
-2.3
-3.5
-3.9
-4.6
-3.9
Sub-Saharan Africa
4
0.4
-5.7
-4.3
-2.0
-2.4
-3.7
-4.1
-4.8
-4.1
Table SA9. Overall Fiscal Balance, Excluding Grants
(Percent of GDP)
Sources and footnotes on page 80.
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Documents you may be interested