paddingTop="10" backgroundColor="#ffffff" width="700">
<mx:VBox width="100%" verticalScrollPolicy="off"
paddingRight="10">
<mx:ViewStack id="vwStack" width="100%" paddingBottom="10"
paddingTop="10" resizeToContent="true" creationPolicy="all">
<view:EmployeeLogin id="employeeLogin" />
<view:EmployeeList id="employeeList" />
<view:EmployeeDetail id="employeeDetail" />
</mx:ViewStack>
</mx:VBox>
</mx:HBox>
</mx:Application>
9. List
notifications
of interest
19. Update
view
8. Send
notification
0. Create
application
facade
10. Register
mediators
11. Retrieve
proxy()
1. Create
view
2. Create
model
3. Create
controller
8. Create
mediators
7. Create
main
mediator
12. Register
main
mediator
13. Retrieve
proxy
5. Create
proxy(ies)
6. Call remote
service
7. Return
result/fault
5. Register
proxy as
responder
4. Create
delegate
6. Register
proxy
4. Map
notifications to
commands
MyView1..n
notifications
19. Update
8. Send
MyMediator1..n
mediators
11. Retrieve
MyMainMediator
MyFacade
4. Map
notifications to
Controller
Model
1. Create
View
MyApplication
Optionally
add
subcommands
subcommands
MyModelCommand
MyViewCommand
5. Register
4. Create
delegate
MyProxy1..n
5. Register
responder
MyDelegate1..n
Remote Service1..n
Figure 1-8. Bringing the employee list with PureMVC
PureMVC | 31
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Figure 1-9. Café Townsend with PureMVC—the project structure
During creation of the 
Facade
instance, PureMVC automatically initializes the instances
of 
Model
View
, and 
Controller
classes, and if you need to execute application-specific
code during this process, override the appropriate initialize method.
Example 1-16. ApplicationFacade.as
/* PureMVC AS3 Demo - Flex CafeTownsend
Copyright (c) 2007-08 Michael Ramirez <michael.ramirez@puremvc.org>
Parts Copyright (c) 2005-07 Adobe Systems, Inc.
Your reuse is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License */
package org.puremvc.as3.demos.flex.cafetownsend{
import org.puremvc.as3.interfaces.*;
import org.puremvc.as3.patterns.proxy.*;
import org.puremvc.as3.patterns.facade.*;
import org.puremvc.as3.demos.flex.cafetownsend.view.*;
import org.puremvc.as3.demos.flex.cafetownsend.model.*;
import org.puremvc.as3.demos.flex.cafetownsend.controller.*;
32 | Chapter 1: Comparing Selected Flex Frameworks
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/**
* A concrete <code>Facade</code> for the <code>CafeTownsend</code>
application.
* The main job of the <code>ApplicationFacade</code> is to act as a single
* place for mediators, proxies, and commands to access and communicate
* with each other without having to interact with the Model, View, and
* Controller classes directly. All this capability it inherits from
* the PureMVC Facade class.</P>
* This concrete Facade subclass is also a central place to define
* notification constants which will be shared among commands, proxies, and
* mediators, as well as initializing the controller with Command to
* Notification mappings.</P>
*/
public class ApplicationFacade extends Facade
{
// Notification name constants
public static const STARTUP:String= "startup";
public static const SHUTDOWN:String= "shutdown";
public static const APP_LOGOUT:String= "appLogout";
public static const APP_LOGIN:String= "appLogin";
public static const LOAD_EMPLOYEES_SUCCESS:String="loadEmployeesSuccess";
public static const LOAD_EMPLOYEES_FAILED:String="loadEmployeesFailed";
public static const VIEW_EMPLOYEE_LOGIN:String= "viewEmployeeLogin";
public static const VIEW_EMPLOYEE_LIST:String= "viewEmployeeList";
public static const VIEW_EMPLOYEE_DETAIL:String= "viewEmployeeDetail";
public static const ADD_EMPLOYEE:String= "addEmployee";
public static const UPDATE_EMPLOYEE:String= "updateEmployee";
public static const SAVE_EMPLOYEE:String= "saveEmployee";
public static const DELETE_EMPLOYEE:String   = "deleteEmployee";
/**
* Singleton ApplicationFacade Factory Method
*/
public static function getInstance() : ApplicationFacade{
if ( instance == null ) instance = new ApplicationFacade( );
return instance as ApplicationFacade;
}
/**
* Register Commands with the Controller
*/
override protected function initializeController( ) : void {
super.initializeController();
registerCommand( STARTUP, ApplicationStartupCommand );
}
public function startup( app:CafeTownsend ):void{
sendNotification( STARTUP, app );
}
}
}
In Example 1-16, during controller initialization, the STARTUP notification is regis-
tered with the command class 
ApplicationStartupCommand
. So far it looks pretty similar
to Cairngorm’s 
FrontController
from Example 1-4, doesn’t it?
PureMVC | 33
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But PureMVC allows you to invoke more than one command as a response to a noti-
fication. For example, the author of this version of Café Townsend decided to invoke
two commands during the application startup—
ModelPrepCommand
and 
ViewPrepCom
mand
. When your command class extends 
MacroCommand
, you are allowed to register a
sequence  of  subcommands,  and  the 
ApplicationStartupCommand
looks  like
Example 1-17.
Example 1-17. ApplicationStartupCommand.as
/* PureMVC AS3 Demo - Flex CafeTownsend
Copyright (c) 2007-08 Michael Ramirez <michael.ramirez@puremvc.org>
Parts Copyright (c) 2005-07 Adobe Systems, Inc.
Your reuse is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License*/
package org.puremvc.as3.demos.flex.cafetownsend.controller
{
import org.puremvc.as3.patterns.com7mand.*;
import org.puremvc.as3.interfaces.*;
/**
* A MacroCommand executed when the application starts.
*/
public class ApplicationStartupCommand extends MacroCommand {
override protected function initializeMacroCommand() :void{
addSubCommand( ModelPrepCommand );
addSubCommand( ViewPrepCommand );
}
}
}
We’ll follow  the  model  preparation route  at  this point, but we’ll  get  back to
ViewPrepCommand
in Example 1-22.
After the controller tier that routes commands come the proxy classes that deal with
both—data models and the service calls if need be. Let’s follow the 
ModelPrepCommand
(Example 1-18). It registers employee and user proxy classes with the 
Facade
class, so
they know where to send notifications.
Example 1-18. ModelPrepCommand.as
/*PureMVC AS3 Demo - Flex CafeTownsend
Copyright (c) 2007-08 Michael Ramirez <michael.ramirez@puremvc.org>
Parts Copyright (c) 2005-07 Adobe Systems, Inc.
Your reuse is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License */
package org.puremvc.as3.demos.flex.cafetownsend.controller {
import org.puremvc.as3.interfaces.*;
import org.puremvc.as3.patterns.command.*;
import org.puremvc.as3.patterns.observer.*;
import org.puremvc.as3.demos.flex.cafetownsend.*;
import org.puremvc.as3.demos.flex.cafetownsend.model.*;
/**
* Create and register <code>Proxy</code>s with the <code>Model</code>.
*/
public class ModelPrepCommand extends SimpleCommand{
override public function execute( note:INotification ) :void{
34 | Chapter 1: Comparing Selected Flex Frameworks
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facade.registerProxy(new EmployeeProxy());
facade.registerProxy(new UserProxy());
}
}
}
We are about halfway through the process of getting the employee list with PureMVC.
This time, we’ll just get familiar with a fragment of the code for the 
EmployeeProxy
class
(Example 1-19).
Example 1-19. A fragment of EmployeeProxy.as
public class EmployeeProxy extends Proxy implements IResponder {
public static const NAME:String = "EmployeeProxy";
public var errorStatus:String;
public function EmployeeProxy ( data:Object = null ){
super ( NAME, data );
}
public function loadEmployees():void{
// create a worker who will go get some data pass it a reference to
// this proxy so the delegate knows where to return the data
var delegate : LoadEmployeesDelegate =new LoadEmployeesDelegate(this );
// make the delegate do some work
delegate.loadEmployeesService();
}
// this is called when the delegate receives a result from the service
public function result( rpcEvent : Object ) : void{
// populate the employee list in the proxy with the results
// from the service call
data = rpcEvent.result.employees.employee as ArrayCollection;
sendNotification( ApplicationFacade.LOAD_EMPLOYEES_SUCCESS );
}
// this is called when the delegate receives a fault from the service
public function fault( rpcEvent : Object ) : void {
data = new ArrayCollection();
// store an error message in the proxy
// labels, alerts, etc can bind to this to notify the user of errors
errorStatus = "Could Not Load Employee List!";
sendNotification( ApplicationFacade.LOAD_EMPLOYEES_FAILED );
}
Proxies link the data model with services. The model is represented by the variable data
that’s predefined in the superclass. The service is available via the delegate class, which
in this version of Café Townsend is called 
LoadEmployeesDelegate
. Because 
Employee
Proxy
implements the 
iResponder
interface, it must include the methods 
result()
and
fault()
. In the case of success, the variable data is populated with the retrieved list of
employees and notification 
LOAD_EMPLOYEES_SUCCESS
is sent to whoever is interested in
PureMVC | 35
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hearing about it—you can take a peek at the method 
listNotificationInterests()
in
Example 1-21. In the case of failure, this version of Café Townsend just assigns a value
to the variable 
errorStatus
and sends the notification 
LOAD_EMPLOYEES_FAILED
.
As you can see in Example 1-20, the delegate class to load employees has nothing
specific to PureMVC—it just sets the responder and uses 
HTTPService
to read the file
Employees.xml.
Example 1-20. LoadEmployeesDelegate.as
/*
PureMVC AS3 Demo - Flex CafeTownsend
Copyright (c) 2007-08 Michael Ramirez <michael.ramirez@puremvc.org>
Parts Copyright (c) 2005-07 Adobe Systems, Inc.
Your reuse is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
*/
package org.puremvc.as3.demos.flex.cafetownsend.model.business
{
import mx.rpc.AsyncToken;
import mx.rpc.IResponder;
import mx.rpc.http.HTTPService;
public class LoadEmployeesDelegate{
private var responder : IResponder;
private var service : HTTPService;
public function LoadEmployeesDelegate( responder : IResponder ) {
this.service = new HTTPService();
this.service.url="assets/Employees.xml";
// store a reference to the proxy that created this delegate
this.responder = responder;
}
public function loadEmployeesService() : void {
// call the service
var token:AsyncToken = service.send();
// notify this responder when the service call completes
token.addResponder( responder );
}
}
}
Now trace how the employees will arrive to the view. The view tier in PureMVC has
two players: the UI component and the mediator class. Chapter 2 discusses the Mediator
pattern, but in general, its role is to arrange the communication of two or more com-
ponents without them knowing about each other. For example, an application con-
tainer has a shopping cart component and a product list component. When the user
makes a selection, the product component sends an event carrying the selected product
to the mediator  (e.g.,  an  application), which forwards  it to the  shopping cart
component.
36 | Chapter 1: Comparing Selected Flex Frameworks
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But PureMVC mediators play the role of middlemen between the UI components and
proxy objects (not controllers), and the need for these middlemen is questionable. In
our opinion, it would be cleaner to introduce a value object and pass it directly (in the
body of 
Notification
) between the view and its controller rather than having the me-
diator reaching out to internals of both the proxy and the view. But it is what it is, and
the 
EmployeeList
view interacts with the 
EmployeeListMediator
, and the latter deals with
the controller’s notifications.
In Example 1-21, note the method 
listNotificationInterests()
, where you, the de-
veloper, have to list all events this mediator is interested in (similar to a subscription
in messaging). The method 
handleNotification()
will process notifications when they
arrive.
Example 1-21. EmployeeListMediator.as
/*
PureMVC AS3 Demo - Flex CafeTownsend
Copyright (c) 2007-08 Michael Ramirez <michael.ramirez@puremvc.org>
Parts Copyright (c) 2005-07 Adobe Systems, Inc.
Your reuse is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
*/
package org.puremvc.as3.demos.flex.cafetownsend.view{
import flash.events.Event;
import org.puremvc.as3.interfaces.*;
import org.puremvc.as3.patterns.mediator.Mediator;
import org.puremvc.as3.demos.flex.cafetownsend.ApplicationFacade;
import org.puremvc.as3.demos.flex.cafetownsend.view.components.*;
import org.puremvc.as3.demos.flex.cafetownsend.model.EmployeeProxy;
/**
* A Mediator for interacting with the EmployeeList component
*/
public class EmployeeListMediator extends Mediator{
public static const NAME:String = "EmployeeListMediator";
public function EmployeeListMediator( viewComponent:Object ){
// pass the viewComponent to the superclass where
// it will be stored in the inherited viewComponent property
super( NAME, viewComponent );
employeeProxy = EmployeeProxy( facade.retrieveProxy(
EmployeeProxy.NAME ) );
employeeList.addEventListener( EmployeeList.APP_LOGOUT, logout );
employeeList.addEventListener( EmployeeList.ADD_EMPLOYEE,
addEmployee );
employeeList.addEventListener( EmployeeList.UPDATE_EMPLOYEE,
updateEmployee );
}
/**
* List all notifications this Mediator is interested in.
* Automatically called by the framework when the mediator
* is registered with the view.
PureMVC | 37
* @return Array the list of Notification names
*/
override public function listNotificationInterests():Array{
return [ ApplicationFacade.LOAD_EMPLOYEES_SUCCESS,
ApplicationFacade.LOAD_EMPLOYEES_FAILED ];
}
/**
* Handle all notifications this Mediator is interested in.
* <P>
* Called by the framework when a notification is sent that
* this mediator expressed an interest in when registered
* (see <code>listNotificationInterests</code>.</P>
*
* @param INotification a notification
*/
override public function handleNotification(note:INotification ):void{
switch ( note.getName() ) {
case ApplicationFacade.LOAD_EMPLOYEES_SUCCESS:
employeeList.employees_li.dataProvider =
employeeProxy.employeeListDP;
break;
case ApplicationFacade.LOAD_EMPLOYEES_FAILED:
employeeList.error.text = employeeProxy.errorStatus;
break;
}
}
/**
* Cast the viewComponent to its actual type.
*
* This is a useful idiom for mediators. The
* PureMVC Mediator class defines a viewComponent
* property of type Object. </P>
*
* @return EmployeeList the viewComponent cast to EmployeeList
*/
protected function get employeeList():EmployeeList{
return viewComponent as EmployeeList;
}
private function logout( event:Event = null ):void{
sendNotification( ApplicationFacade.APP_LOGOUT );
}
private function addEmployee( event:Event = null ):void{
sendNotification( ApplicationFacade.ADD_EMPLOYEE );
}
private function updateEmployee( event:Event = null ):void{
sendNotification( ApplicationFacade.UPDATE_EMPLOYEE,
employeeList.employees_li.selectedItem);
}
private var employeeProxy:EmployeeProxy;
38 | Chapter 1: Comparing Selected Flex Frameworks
}
}
The code of 
handleNotification()
directly manipulates the internals of the view com-
ponents (e.g., 
employeeList.employees_li
), which leads to tight coupling between the
mediator and the view. If the next version of the 
employeeList
component will use a
DataGrid
instead of the 
List
component, the mediator’s code has to be refactored too.
The previous discussion of Example 1-17 did not cover the process of preparing the
view for receiving the events. Handling that process is the branch of code originated
by the following call:
addSubCommand( ViewPrepCommand );
Shown in Example 1-22, the 
ViewPrepCommand
class registers the main application me-
diator (you’d have to write it), and asks the proxy to load the employee list.
Example 1-22. ViewPrepCommand.as
/* PureMVC AS3 Demo - Flex CafeTownsend
Copyright (c) 2007-08 Michael Ramirez <michael.ramirez@puremvc.org>
Parts Copyright (c) 2005-07 Adobe Systems, Inc.
Your reuse is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
*/
package org.puremvc.as3.demos.flex.cafetownsend.controller{
import org.puremvc.as3.interfaces.*;
import org.puremvc.as3.patterns.command.*;
import org.puremvc.as3.patterns.observer.*;
import org.puremvc.as3.demos.flex.cafetownsend.*;
import org.puremvc.as3.demos.flex.cafetownsend.model.*;
import org.puremvc.as3.demos.flex.cafetownsend.view.ApplicationMediator;
/**
* Prepare the View for use.
* The Notification was sent by the Application, and a reference to that
* view component was passed on the note body.
* The ApplicationMediator will be created and registered using this
* reference. The ApplicationMediator will then register
* all the Mediators for the components it created.
*/
public class ViewPrepCommand extends SimpleCommand{
override public function execute( note:INotification ) :void{
// Register your ApplicationMediator
facade.registerMediator( new ApplicationMediator( note.getBody()));
// Get the EmployeeProxy
var employeeProxy:EmployeeProxy = facade.retrieveProxy(
EmployeeProxy.NAME ) as EmployeeProxy;
employeeProxy.loadEmployees();
sendNotification( ApplicationFacade.VIEW_EMPLOYEE_LOGIN );
}
}
}
PureMVC | 39
This command class issues a request to load employees without even waiting for the
successful logon of the user. At the end of the 
execute()
method, this code sends the
VIEW_EMPLOYEE_LOGIN
notification, which displays the logon view.
For brevity, Example 1-23 does have most of the comments from the code of
ApplicationMediator
. It builds all view components and registers the mediators for each
of them.
Example 1-23. ApplicationMediator.as
/* PureMVC AS3 Demo - Flex CafeTownsend
Copyright (c) 2007-08 Michael Ramirez <michael.ramirez@puremvc.org>
Parts Copyright (c) 2005-07 Adobe Systems, Inc.
Your reuse is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License*/
package org.puremvc.as3.demos.flex.cafetownsend.view {
public class ApplicationMediator extends Mediator{
public static const NAME:String = "ApplicationMediator";
public static const EMPLOYEE_LOGIN : Number =   0;
public static const EMPLOYEE_LIST : Number =   1;
public static const EMPLOYEE_DETAIL : Number =   2;
public function ApplicationMediator( viewComponent:Object )
{
// pass the viewComponent to the superclass where
// it will be stored in the inherited viewComponent property
super( NAME, viewComponent );
// Create and register Mediators for the Employee
// components that were instantiated by the mxml application
facade.registerMediator( new EmployeeDetailMediator(
app.employeeDetail ) );
facade.registerMediator( new EmployeeListMediator(
app.employeeList ) );
facade.registerMediator( new EmployeeLoginMediator(
app.employeeLogin ) );
// retrieve and cache a reference to frequently accessed proxys
employeeProxy = EmployeeProxy( facade.retrieveProxy(
EmployeeProxy.NAME ) );
userProxy = UserProxy( facade.retrieveProxy( UserProxy.NAME ) );
}
override public function listNotificationInterests():Array
{
return [ ApplicationFacade.VIEW_EMPLOYEE_LOGIN,
ApplicationFacade.VIEW_EMPLOYEE_LIST,
ApplicationFacade.VIEW_EMPLOYEE_DETAIL,
ApplicationFacade.APP_LOGOUT,
ApplicationFacade.UPDATE_EMPLOYEE
];
}
/**
* Handle all notifications this Mediator is interested in.
40 | Chapter 1: Comparing Selected Flex Frameworks
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