■ CONTENTS
vii
Dynamic Update ...................................................................................................................................... 58
Alternative Dynamic DNS Approaches .................................................................................................... 59
Security Overview 
...................... 59
... 62
Chapter 4: DNS Types 63
Master (Primary) Name Servers 64
Slave (Secondary) Name Servers6 6
Slave (Secondary) DNS Behavior ............................................................................................................ 67
Caching Name Servers6 8
Caching Implications 
..................... 70
Forwarding (Proxy) Name Servers 70
Stealth (DMZ or Split) Name Server 71
Stealth Servers and the View Clause ...................................................................................................... 73
Stealth Server Confi
................. 73
Authoritative-only Name Server 75
... 76
Chapter 5: DNS and IPv6 77
........ 79
IPv6 Address Notation ............................................................................................................................. 80
Prefix or Slash 
.................... 81
IPv6 Address Types ................................................................................................................................. 81
Global Unicast IPv6 Address Allocation ................................................................................................... 82
IPv6 Global Unicast Address Format ....................................................................................................... 84
85
The AAAA vs. A6 Resource Record .......................................................................................................... 85
Mixed IPv6 and IPv4 Network Support .................................................................................................... 85
IPv6 Resource Records 86
The AAAA Resource Record 88
Reverse IPv6 Mapping 89
IPv6 Reverse Map Issues 
................. 91
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■ CONTENTS 
viii 
The IPv6 PTR Resource Record ....................................................................................... 92
Summary ......................................................................................................................... 93
Part II: Get Something Running ................................................................................ 95
Chapter 6: Installing BIND .................................................................................... 97
Ubuntu Server 10.04 Installation ..................................................................................... 98
FreeBSD 8.1 Installation ................................................................................................ 101
FreeBSD Considerations ......................................................................................................................... 106
Building BIND from Source ........................................................................................... 107
Windows Installation ..................................................................................................... 113
Summary ....................................................................................................................... 128
Chapter 7: BIND Type Samples ........................................................................... 129
Before You Start ............................................................................................................ 130
Configuration Layout ............................................................................................................................... 130
Configuration Conventions ...................................................................................................................... 130
Zone File Naming Convention ................................................................................................................. 131
Required Zone Files ................................................................................................................................ 132
BIND named.conf File Format and Style ................................................................................................ 137
Standard Zone File .................................................................................................................................. 138
Common Configuration Elements ........................................................................................................... 138
Master DNS Server ........................................................................................................ 139
Master Name Server Configuration ........................................................................................................ 139
Slave DNS Server .......................................................................................................... 142
Slave Name Server Configuration .......................................................................................................... 142
Resolver (Caching-only) DNS Server ............................................................................. 144
Caching-only Name Server Configuration .............................................................................................. 145
Forwarding (a.k.a. Proxy, Client, Remote) DNS Server ................................................. 146
Forwarding Name Server Configuration ................................................................................................. 147
Stealth (a.k.a. Split or DMZ) DNS Server ....................................................................... 149
Stealth Configuration .............................................................................................................................. 149
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■ CONTENTS 
ix 
Authoritative-only DNS Server 152
Authoritative-only Name Server Configuration ... 152
View-based Authoritative-only DNS Server ................................................................... 155
View-based Authoritative-only Name Server Configuration .................................................................. 155
Security and the view Section1 58
. 161
Chapter 8: DNS Techniques 163
Delegate a Subdomain (Subzone) 164
Domain Name Server 
........ 165
Subdomain Name Server Configuration ................................................................................................ 167
Virtual Subdomains 168
Domain Name Server 
........ 168
Configure Mail Servers Fail-Over 169
Delegate Reverse Subnet Maps 170
Assignee Zone File ................................................................................................................................ 170
Assignor (End User) Zone File ............................................................................................................... 171
DNS Load Balancing1 72
Balancing Mail 
...................... 172
Balancing Other Services 
................ 173
Balancing Services 
.................... 174
Controlling the RRset Order .................................................................................................................. 174
Effectiveness of DNS Load Balancing ................................................................................................... 175
Define an SPF Record 175
SPF RR Format ...................................................................................................................................... 176
SPF type Values 
............ 178
SPF Record Examples ........................................................................................................................... 183
Define a DKIM Record 186
DKIM DNS TXT RR Format ..................................................................................................................... 187
ADSP TXT RR Format ............................................................................................................................. 191
Exam
......................... 192
Supporting http://example.com195
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■ CONTENTS 
Apache Configuration ............................................................................................................................ 195
Out-of-Sequence Serial Numbers 196
Use of Wildcards in Zone Files 197
Zone File Construction 198
Split Horizon DNS1 99
DNSBL (DNS Blacklists)2 01
Example blacklist zone file ................................................................................................................... 202
Blacklist Return Addresses ................................................................................................................... 202
Additional Usage ................................................................................................................................... 204
DNS TTLs and Time Values 204
. 207
Chapter 9: DNS Diagnostics and Tools ................................................................ 209
DNS Utilities 
.. 209
The nslookup Utility2 11
nslookup Command Format .................................................................................................................. 211
Quick Examples 
..................... 211
........................... 213
Examples: Command Line ..................................................................................................................... 215
Example: Interactive Mode 
............... 216
BIND dig Utility 217
Quick Examples 
..................... 217
dig 
..................... 218
dig 
..................... 218
dig Exam
................... 223
dig 
..................... 225
dig Response Values ............................................................................................................................. 226
BIND named-compilezone Utility 228
BIND named-checkconf Utility 228
named-checkconf Syntax 2
28
named-checkconf Options 2
28
BIND named-checkzone/named-compilezone Utility ..................................................... 229
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■ CONTENTS
xi
named-checkzone/named-compilezone Syntax 230
named-checkzone/named-compilezone Arguments 230
named-checkzone/named-compilezone Examples 232
rndc
.. 232
rndc 
................... 232
rndc 
................... 233
rndc.conf Clauses and Statements ....................................................................................................... 233
rndc Configuration Examples 
........ 235
rndc Commands .................................................................................................................................... 239
rndc-confgen Utility 242
rndc-confgen Syntax 
...... 242
rndc-confgen Options 
..... 242
BIND nsupdate Utility 243
nsupdate Syntax 
............ 244
nsupdate Options 
............ 244
nsupdate Command Format .................................................................................................................. 245
nsupdate Exam
.......... 247
nsupdate and DNSSEC Signed Zones ................................................................................................... 247
dnssec-keygen Utility2 48
BIND HSM Support (cryptoki) ................................................................................................................ 249
dnssec-keygen Syntax 
... 250
dnssec-keygen Arguments 
250
dnssec-keygen Exam
255
dnssec-revoke Utility 255
dnssec-revoke Syntax 
.... 256
dnssec-revoke Arguments 
256
dnssec-revoke Example 
.. 256
dnssec-settime Utility 256
dnssec-settime Syntax 
.. 257
dnssec-settime Arguments 
257
dnssec-signzone Utility 258
dnssec-signzone Syntax 
259
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■ CONTENTS 
xii 
dnssec-signzone Argum259
dnssec-signzone Examples2 
63
Diagnosing DNS Problems 264
Before the Problem Happens ................................................................................................................ 264
When the Problem Occurs ..................................................................................................................... 266
. 270
Part III: DNS Security 271
Chapter 10: DNS Secure Configurations .............................................................. 273
Security Overview and Audit2 74
DNS Normal Data Flow 
................ 274
Security Classific.................... 276
Administrative Security 277
Up-to-Date Software 
.................. 277
Limit Functionality ................................................................................................................................. 278
Limit Permissions 
..................... 279
Running BIND 9 As Nonroot .................................................................................................................. 284
BIND 9 in a Chroot Jail 
................... 288
Stream the Log 
...................... 293
Software Diversity ..................... 294
A Cryptographic Overview2 94
Symmetric Cryptography ...................................................................................................................... 295
Asymmetric Cryptography ..................................................................................................................... 296
Message Digests ................................................................................................................................... 297
Message Authentication Codes ............................................................................................................. 297
Digital Signatures .................................................................................................................................. 298
DNS Cryptographic Use 
................ 299
Securing Zone Transfers3 00
Authentication and Integrity of Zone Transfers ..................................................................................... 301
TSIG Configuration 
.................... 302
Securing Dynamic Updates 307
TSIG DDNS Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 308
■ CONTENTS
xiii
SIG(0) Configuration 
.................... 312
. 316
Chapter 11: DNSSEC 317
Base DNSSEC Theory 318
Islands of Security ................................................................................................................................ 318
Chains of Trust ...................................................................................................................................... 321
Securing or Signing the Zone ................................................................................................................ 322
Secure Zone Maintenance .................................................................................................................... 329
Secure Delegation 
.................... 333
Dynamic DNS and DNSSEC ................................................................................................................... 334
DNSSEC and Performance .................................................................................................................... 335
DNSSEC Base Examples3 35
Securing the example.com Zone ......................................................................................................... 335
Establishing a Trusted Anchor 
............. 344
Signing the sub.example.com Zone ................................................................................................... 347
Creating the Chain of Trust ................................................................................................................... 349
Key Rollover 
........................ 350
DNSSEC Enhancements 355
NSEC3/Opt-Out ...................................................................................................................................... 356
Validating Resolvers 
.................... 359
Key Handling Automation 
............... 360
DNSSEC Lookaside Validation 363
DLV Service 
........................ 365
DNSSEC Implementation3 67
DNSSEC Algorithms and Keys ............................................................................................................... 368
BIND Signing Models ............................................................................................................................. 374
DNSSEC Implementation - A Plan ......................................................................................................... 376
. 376
Chapter 12: BIND 9 Configuration Reference ...................................................... 379
BIND Command Line 379
BIND Debug Levels ................................................................................................................................ 381
■ CONTENTS 
xiv 
BIND Signals ......................................................................................................................................... 382
BIND Configuration Overview3 83
Layout Styles 
........................ 384
named-checkconf Is Your Friend ........................................................................................................ 385
BIND Clauses 
385
BIND address_match_list Definition 388
BIND acl Clause 
............ 390
BIND controls Clause 
.. 391
BIND include Statem
392
BIND key 
.......... 393
BIND logging 
.. 394
BIND lwres 
..... 395
BIND managed-keys 395
BIND masters 
. 397
BIND options 
. 398
BIND server 
.... 399
BIND statistics-channels 
BIND trusted-keys 400
BIND view 
........ 401
BIND zone 
........ 402
BIND Statements4 03
BIND controls 426
inet Statem
.............. 427
BIND logging 428
channel Statem
........ 428
category Statem
...... 431
BIND lwres Statements 434
view
........................ 434
search
................... 435
ndots
...................... 435
435
■ CONTENTS 
xv 
allow-notify
....... 435
allow-transfer
... 436
allow-update-forwarding436
also-notify
......... 437
alt-transfer-source, alt-transfer-source-v6 .................................................................... 437
ixfr-from-differences438
max-journal-size
438
max-refresh-time, min-refresh-time438
max-retry-time, min-retry-time439
max-transfer-idle-in439
max-transfer-idle-out439
max-transfer-time-in439
max-transfer-time-out439
multi-master
....... 440
notify
................... 440
notify-delay
....... 441
notify-source, notify-source-v6441
notify-to-soa
..... 441
provide-ixfr
....... 442
request-ixfr
....... 442
serial-query-rate44
2
transfer-format
. 442
transfer-source, transfer-source-v6442
transfers-in
....... 443
transfers-per-ns
443
transfers-out
..... 443
use-alt-transfer-source444
BIND Operations Statements4 44
avoid-v4-udp-ports, avoid-v6-udp-ports444
check-names
......... 444
check-dup-records, check-mx, check-wildcard .................................................................... 444
check-integrity, check-mx-cname, check-sibling, check-srv-cname ........................... 445
■ CONTENTS 
xvi 
cleaning-interval44
5
coresize
............... 446
database
............... 446
datasize
............... 446
dialup
................... 446
directory
............. 447
disable-empty-zone, empty-contact, empty-server, empty-zones-enable .................. 447
dual-stack-server44
8
dump-file
............. 448
files
...................... 449
flush-zones-on-shutdown449
heartbeat-interval449
hostname
............... 449
interface-interval450
journal
................. 450
lame-ttl
............... 450
listen-on
............. 450
listen-on-v6
....... 451
match-mapped-addresses451
max-cache-size
... 451
max-cache-ttl
..... 452
max-journal-size
452
max-ncache-ttl
... 452
memstatistics
..... 452
memstatistics-file452
pid-file
............... 453
port
........................ 453
preferred-glue
... 453
querylog
............... 453
recursing-file
... 453
request-nsid
....... 454
reserved-sockets
454
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