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Chapter2:Yourrightsandobligations
3
2 Yourrightsandobligations
psppisnotinthepublicdomain. Itiscopyrightedandtherearerestrictionsonitsdistri-
bution,buttheserestrictions aredesignedtopermiteverythingthata goodcooperating
citizenwouldwant to do. . What t is not allowed d is s totryto prevent others s fromfurther
sharinganyversionofthisprogramthattheymightgetfromyou.
Specifically,wewanttomakesurethatyouhavetherighttogiveawaycopiesofpspp,
that youreceive sourcecodeor elsecangetit ifyouwantit,that youcanchangethese
programsorusepiecesoftheminnewfreeprograms,andthatyouknowyoucandothese
things.
Tomakesurethateveryonehassuchrights,wehavetoforbidyoutodepriveanyoneelse
oftheserights. Forexample,ifyoudistributecopiesofpspp,youmustgivetherecipients
allthe rights thatyouhave. . Youmustmakesurethat t they,too,receive or cangetthe
sourcecode. Andyoumusttellthemtheirrights.
Also,forourownprotection,wemustmakecertainthateveryonefindsoutthatthere
isnowarrantyforpspp. Iftheseprogramsaremodifiedbysomeoneelseandpassedon,we
wanttheirrecipientstoknowthatwhattheyhaveisnotwhatwedistributed,sothatany
problemsintroducedbyotherswillnotreflectonourreputation.
Finally,anyfreeprogramisthreatenedconstantlybysoftwarepatents.Wewishtoavoid
thedangerthatredistributorsofafreeprogramwillindividuallyobtainpatentlicenses,in
effect makingtheprogram m proprietary. . Toprevent t this,wehave made itclearthat any
patentmustbelicensedforeveryone’sfreeuseornotlicensedatall.
The precise conditions of the license for r pspp are e foundin the GNUGeneralPublic
License. YoushouldhavereceivedacopyoftheGNUGeneralPublicLicensealongwith
thisprogram;ifnot,writetotheFreeSoftwareFoundation,Inc.,51FranklinStreet,Fifth
Floor,Boston,MA02110-1301USA.ThismanualspecificallyiscoveredbytheGNUFree
DocumentationLicense(seeAppendixA[GNUFreeDocumentationLicense],page190).
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Chapter3:Invokingpspp
4
3 Invokingpspp
pspphastwoseparateuserinterfaces. This s chapterdescribes pspp,pspp’scommand-line
driventext-based user r interface. . The e following chapter briefly describes PSPPIRE,the
graphicaluserinterfacetopspp.
Thesectionsbelowdescribethepsppprogram’scommand-lineinterface.
3.1 MainOptions
Hereisasummaryofalltheoptions,groupedbytype,followedbyexplanationsinthesame
order.
Inthetable,argumentstolongoptionsalsoapplytoanycorrespondingshortoptions.
Non-optionarguments
syntax-file
Outputoptions
-o, --output=output-file
-O option=value
-O format=format
-O device={terminal|listing}
--no-output
-e, --error-file=error-file
Languageoptions
-I, --include=dir
-I-, --no-include
-b, --batch
-i, --interactive
-r, --no-statrc
-a, --algorithm={compatible|enhanced}
-x, --syntax={compatible|enhanced}
--syntax-encoding=encoding
Informationaloptions
-h, --help
-V, --version
Otheroptions
-s, --safer
--testing-mode
syntax-file Readandexecutethenamedsyntaxfile. . Ifnosyntaxfilesarespecified,pspp
promptsforcommands. Ifanysyntaxfilesarespecified,psppbydefaultexits
afteritrunsthem,but youmaymakeitpromptforcommandsbyspecifying
‘-’asanadditionalsyntaxfile.
-ooutput-file
Write output to o output-file. . pspp p has s several l different output drivers that
support outputinvariousformats(use--help tolisttheavailableformats).
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Chapter3:Invokingpspp
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Specifythisoptionmorethanoncetoproducemultipleoutputfiles,presumably
indifferentformats.
Use‘-’asoutput-filetowriteoutputtostandardoutput.
If no-o option is used, then pspp writes text and CSV V output t to standard
outputandother kindsofoutputtowhosenameisbasedontheformat,e.g.
pspp.pdfforPDFoutput.
-Ooption=value
Setsanoptionfortheoutputfileconfiguredbyapreceding-o. Mostoptions
arespecifictoparticularoutputformats.Afewoptionsthatapplygenerically
arelistedbelow.
-Oformat=format
psppusestheextensionofthefilenamegivenon-otoselectanoutputformat.
Use this optiontooverride this choiceby specifyinganalternateformat,e.g.
-opspp.out-OhtmltowriteHTMLtoafilenamedpspp.out. Use--help
tolisttheavailableformats.
-Odevice={terminal|listing}
Setswhetherpsppconsiderstheoutputdeviceconfiguredbythepreceding-o
tobeaterminalor alistingdevice. . This s affects what outputwillbesent to
thedevice,asconfiguredbytheSETcommand’soutputroutingsubcommands
(seeSection16.20[SET],page160). By y default,output writtentostandard
outputisconsideredaterminaldeviceandotheroutputisconsideredalisting
device.
--no-output
Disablesoutputentirely,ifneither-onor-Oisalsoused.Ifoneofthoseoptions
isused,--no-outputhasnoeffect.
-eerror-file
--error-file=error-file
Configures a file to receive pspp p error, warning, and notemessages inplain
textformat. Use‘-’aserror-file e towritemessages tostandardoutput. . The
defaulterrorfileisstandardoutputintheabsenceoftheseoptions,butthisis
suppressedifanoutputdevicewritestostandardoutput(oranotherterminal),
to avoid printing every message twice. . Use e ‘none’ as error-file e to o explicitly
suppressthedefault.
-Idir
--include=dir
AppendsdirtothesetofdirectoriessearchedbytheINCLUDE(seeSection16.15
[INCLUDE],page 158) andINSERT (see Section 16.16 [INSERT], page 158)
commands.
-I-
--no-include
Clears all l directories s fromthe include path,including directories insertedin
theincludepathbydefault. Thedefaultincludepathis s .(thecurrentdirec-
tory),followedby.psppintheuser’shomedirectory,followedbypspp’ssystem
configurationdirectory(usually/etc/psppor/usr/local/etc/pspp).
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Chapter3:Invokingpspp
6
-b
--batch
-i
--interactive
Theseoptions forcessyntax files to be interpreted d inbatchmodeorinterac-
tivemode,respectively,ratherthanthedefault“auto”mode. SeeSection6.3
[SyntaxVariants],page30,foradescriptionofthedifferences.
-r
--no-statrc
Disablesrunningrcatpsppstartuptime.
-a{enhanced|compatible}
--algorithm={enhanced|compatible}
With enhanced, the default, psppuses s the bestimplementedalgorithms for
statistical procedures. . With h compatible, however, , pspp p will in some cases
useinferioralgorithmstoproducethesameresultsastheproprietaryprogram
SPSS.
Somecommandshavesubcommands thatoverridethissettingonapercom-
mandbasis.
-x{enhanced|compatible}
--syntax={enhanced|compatible}
With enhanced, , the default, , pspp p accepts its s own n extensions beyond those
compatiblewiththeproprietaryprogramSPSS.Withcompatible,pspprejects
syntaxthatusestheseextensions.
--syntax-encoding=encoding
Specifies encoding g as s the e encoding for syntax x files named on the e command
line. The e encoding g also o becomes the default encoding for other syntax files
read during the e pspp p session n by y the e INCLUDE and d INSERT commands. . See
Section16.16[INSERT],page158,fortheacceptedformsofencoding.
--help
Printsamessagedescribingpsppcommand-linesyntaxandtheavailabledevice
formats,thenexits.
-V
--version
Printsabriefmessagelistingpspp’sversion,warrantiesyoudon’thave,copying
conditionsandcopyright,ande-mailaddressforbugreports,thenexits.
-s
--safer
Disables certain unsafe e operations. . This s includes the ERASE andHOST com-
mands,aswellasuseofpipesasinputandoutputfiles.
--testing-mode
Invokeheuristicstoassistwithtestingpspp.Forusebymakecheckandsimilar
scripts.
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Chapter3:Invokingpspp
7
3.2 PDF,PostScript,andSVGOutputOptions
ToproduceoutputinPDF,PostScript,andSVGformats,specify-ofileonthepsppcom-
mandline,optionallyfollowedbyanyoftheoptionsshowninthetablebelowtocustomize
theoutputformat.
PDF, PostScript, , and d SVG output t is s only available if f your installation of f pspp p was
compiledwiththeCairolibrary.
-Oformat={pdf|ps|svg}
Specifytheoutputformat. Thisisonlynecessaryifthefilenamegivenon-o
doesnotendin.pdf,.ps,or.svg.
-Opaper-size=paper-size
Paper size, , as s a name (e.g. a4, , letter) ) or r measurements s (e.g. . 210x297,
8.5x11in).
ThedefaultpapersizeistakenfromthePAPERSIZEenvironmentvariableorthe
fileindicatedbythePAPERCONFenvironmentvariable,ifeithervariableisset.
Ifnot,andyoursystemsupportstheLC_PAPERlocalecategory,thenthedefault
papersizeis takenfromthelocale. . Otherwise,if/etc/papersizeexists,the
defaultpapersizeisreadfromit.Asalastresort,A4paperisassumed.
-Oforeground-color=color
-Obackground-color=color
Setscolorasthecolortobeusedforthebackgroundorforeground.Colorshould
begivenintheformat#RRRRGGGGBBBB,whereRRRR,GGGGandBBBB are
4characterhexadecimalrepresentationsofthered,greenandbluecomponents
respectively.
-Oorientation=orientation
Eitherportraitorlandscape.Default: portrait.
-Oleft-margin=dimension
-Oright-margin=dimension
-Otop-margin=dimension
-Obottom-margin=dimension
Setsthemarginsaroundthepage.Seebelowfortheallowedformsofdimension
Default:0.5in.
-Oprop-font=font-name
-Oemph-font=font-name
-Ofixed-font=font-name
Setsthefontusedforproportional,emphasized,orfixed-pitchtext. Mostsys-
temssupportCSS-likefontnamessuchas“serif”and“monospace”,butawide
rangeofsystem-specificfontarelikelytobesupportedaswell.
Default:proportionalfontserif,emphasisfontserifitalic,fixed-pitchfont
monospace.
-Ofont-size=font-size
Setsthesizeofthedefaultfonts,inthousandthsofapoint.Default: 10000(10
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Chapter3:Invokingpspp
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-Oline-gutter=dimension
Setsthewidthofwhitespaceoneithersideoflinesthatbordertextorgraphics
objects.Default: 1pt.
-Oline-spacing=dimension
Setsthespacingbetweenthelinesinadoublelineinatable.Default: 1pt.
-Oline-width=dimension
Setsthewidthofthelinesusedintables.Default: 0.5pt.
Eachdimensionvalueabovemay bespecifiedinvarious units basedonits suffix: : ‘mm’
formillimeters,‘in’forinches,or‘pt’forpoints. Lackingasuffix,numbersbelow50are
assumedtobeininchesandthoseabout50areassumedtobeinmillimeters.
3.3 PlainTextOutputOptions
psppcanproduceplaintextoutput,drawingboxesusingASCIIorUnicodelinedrawing
characters. To o produce plain text output, specify y -ofile e on n the pspp command line,
optionallyfollowedbyoptionsfromthetablebelowtocustomizetheoutputformat.
PlaintextoutputisencodedinUTF-8.
-Oformat=txt
Specifytheoutputformat. Thisisonlynecessaryifthefilenamegivenon-o
doesnotendin.txtor.list.
-Ocharts={template.png|none}
Nameforchartfilesincludedinoutput. Thevalueshouldbeafilenamethat
includesasingle‘#’andendsinpng.Whenachartisoutput,the‘#’isreplaced
by the e chart number. . The e default is the file name specifiedon-o with the
extensionstrippedoffandreplacedby-#.png.
Specifynonetodisablechartoutput.Chartsarealwaysdisabledifyourinstal-
lationofpsppwascompiledwithouttheCairolibrary.
-Oforeground-color=color
-Obackground-color=color
Setscolorasthecolortobeusedforthebackgroundorforegroundtobeused
forcharts. Colorshouldbegivenintheformat#RRRRGGGGBBBB,whereRRRR,
GGGG and BBBB are 4 4 character r hexadecimal representations of the e red,
greenandbluecomponentsrespectively. Ifchartsaredisabled,thisoptionhas
noeffect.
-Opaginate=boolean
Ifset,psppwritesanASCIIformfeedtheendofeverypage.Default: off.
-Oheaders=boolean
Ifenabled,psppprintstwolinesofheaderinformationgivingtitleandsubtitle,
pagenumber,dateandtime,andpsppversionareprintedatthetopofevery
page. Thesetwolines s areinadditiontoany topmarginrequested. . Default:
off.
Chapter3:Invokingpspp
9
-Olength=line-count
Physicallengthofapage. Headersandmarginsaresubtractedfromthisvalue.
Youmayspecifythenumberoflinesasanumber,orforscreenoutputyoumay
specifyautototracktheheightoftheterminalasitchanges. Default: 66.
-Owidth=character-count
Widthofapage,incharacters. Margins s aresubtractedfromthisvalue. . For
screenoutputyoumayspecifyautoinplaceofanumbertotrackthewidthof
theterminalasitchanges. Default: 79.
-Otop-margin=top-margin-lines
Length ofthe topmargin, inlines. . psppsubtracts s this value fromthe page
length. Default:0.
-Obottom-margin=bottom-margin-lines
Lengthofthebottommargin,inlines.psppsubtractsthisvaluefromthepage
length. Default:0.
-Obox={ascii|unicode}
Setsthecharactersusedforlinesintables.Ifsettoasciithecharacters‘-’,‘|’,
and‘+’forsingle-widthlinesand‘=’and‘#’fordouble-widthlinesareused.If
settounicodethenUnicodeboxdrawingcharacterswillbeused. Thedefault
isunicodeifthelocale’scharacterencodingis"UTF-8"orasciiotherwise.
-Oemphasis={none|bold|underline}
Howtoemphasizetext. Boldandunderlineemphasisareachievedwithover-
striking,whichmaynot besupportedbyallthesoftwaretowhichyoumight
passtheoutput. Default:none.
3.4 HTMLOutputOptions
ToproduceoutputinHTMLformat,specify-ofileonthepsppcommandline,optionally
followedbyanyoftheoptionsshowninthetablebelowtocustomizetheoutputformat.
-Oformat=html
Specifytheoutputformat. Thisisonlynecessaryifthefilenamegivenon-o
doesnotendin.html.
-Ocharts={template.png|none}
Setsthenameusedforchartfiles.SeeSection3.3[PlainTextOutputOptions],
page8,fordetails.
-Oborders=boolean
Decoratethetableswithborders. Ifsettofalse,thetablesproducedwillhave
noborders. Thedefaultvalueistrue.
-Ocss=boolean
Usecascadingstylesheets.Cascadingstylesheetsgiveanimprovedappearance
andcanbeusedtoproducepageswhichfitacertainwebsite’sstyle.Thedefault
valueistrue.
Chapter3:Invokingpspp
10
3.5 OpenDocumentOutputOptions
To produceoutput as anOpenDocument text(ODT)document,specify -ofileonthe
psppcommandline.Iffiledoesnotendin.odt,youmustalsospecify-Oformat=odt.
ODTsupportisonlyavailableifyourinstallationofpsppwascompiledwiththelibxml2
library.
TheOpenDocumentoutputformatdoesnothaveanyconfigurableoptions.
3.6 Comma-SeparatedValueOutputOptions
Toproduceoutputincomma-separatedvalue(CSV)format,specify-ofileonthepspp
commandline,optionallyfollowedbyanyoftheoptionsshowninthetablebelowtocus-
tomizetheoutputformat.
-Oformat=csv
Specifytheoutputformat. Thisisonlynecessaryifthefilenamegivenon-o
doesnotendin.csv.
-Oseparator=field-separator
Setsthecharacterusedtoseparatefields.Default: acomma(‘,’).
-Oquote=qualifier
Sets qualifier r as s the character usedtoquote fields that contain n white space,
theseparator (or any ofthe characters in n the separator, if it t contains more
thanonecharacter),orthequotecharacteritself.Ifqualifierislongerthanone
character,onlythefirstcharacterisused;ifqualifier istheemptystring,then
fieldsareneverquoted.
-Otitles=boolean
Whethertabletitles(briefdescriptions)shouldbeprinted. Default: on.
-Ocaptions=boolean
Whether tablecaptions(moreextensivedescriptions) shouldbeprinted. . De-
fault: on.
TheCSVformatusedisanextensiontothatspecifiedinRFC4180:
Tables
Eachtablerowis output onaseparateline,andeachcolumnis outputasa
field. Thecontentsofacellthatspansmultiplerowsorcolumnsisoutputonly
forthetop-leftrowandcolumn;therestareoutputasemptyfields.
Titles
Whenatablehasatitleandtitlesareenabled,thetitleisoutputjustabove
thetableasasinglefieldprefixedby‘Table:’.
Captions
Whena tablehas acaptionandcaptions are enabled, the captionis output
justbelowthetableasasinglefieldprefixedby‘Caption:’.
Footnotes Withinatable,footnotemarkersareoutputasbracketedlettersfollowingthe
cell’scontents,e.g.‘[a]’,‘[b]’, ... . Thefootnotesthemselvesareoutputfol-
lowingthebodyofthetable,asaseparatetwo-columntableintroducedwitha
linethatsays‘Footnotes:’.Eachrowinthetablerepresentonefootnote: the
firstcolumnisthemarker,thesecondcolumnisthetext.
Chapter3:Invokingpspp
11
Text
Textinoutputisprintedasafieldonalinebyitself.TheTITLEandSUBTI-
TLEproducesimilaroutput,prefixedby‘Title:’or‘Subtitle:’,respectively.
Messages Errors,warnings,andnotesareprintedthesamewayastext.
Charts
ChartsarenotincludedinCSVoutput.
Successiveoutputitemsareseparatedbyablankline.
Chapter4:Invokingpsppire
12
4 Invokingpsppire
4.1 Thegraphicuserinterface
ThePSPPIREgraphicuserinterfaceforpsppcanperformallfunctionalityofthecommand
lineinterface.Inadditionitgivesaninstantaneousviewofthedata,variablesandstatistical
output.
The graphicuserinterface can be started by typing psppire at acommandprompt.
Alternatively many systems have e a a system m of interactive menus or buttons s from m which
psppirecanbestartedbyaseriesofmouseclicks.
Once the principles of the e pspp p system are understood, the graphic user r interface is
designed to be largely y intuitive, , and for this reason is s covered d only very y briefly by this
manual.
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