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Chapter15: Statistics
153
/VARIABLES=var
list
/DEPENDENT=var
list
/STATISTICS={ALL,DEFAULTS,R,COEFF,ANOVA,BCOV,CI[conf]}
/SAVE={PRED,RESID}
The REGRESSIONprocedurereads the activedatasetandoutputs statistics relevant to
thelinearmodelspecifiedbytheuser.
The VARIABLES subcommand, which h is required, specifies the list t of variables s to be
analyzed. KeywordVARIABLESisrequired. . TheDEPENDENTsubcommandspecifiesthede-
pendentvariableofthelinearmodel.TheDEPENDENTsubcommandisrequired.Allvariables
listedintheVARIABLES subcommand,but notlistedinthe DEPENDENTsubcommand,are
treatedasexplanatoryvariablesinthelinearmodel.
Allothersubcommandsareoptional:
TheSTATISTICSsubcommandspecifieswhichstatisticsaretobedisplayed.Thefollow-
ingkeywordsareaccepted:
ALL
Allofthestatisticsbelow.
R
Theratioofthesumsofsquaresduetothemodeltothetotalsumsofsquares
forthedependentvariable.
COEFF
Atablecontainingtheestimatedmodelcoefficientsandtheirstandarderrors.
CI(conf) ThisitemisonlyrelevantifCOEFFhasalsobeenselected.Itspecifiesthatthe
confidenceintervalforthecoefficients shouldbeprinted. . Theoptionalvalue
conf,whichmustbeinparentheses,isthedesiredconfidencelevelexpressedas
apercentage.
ANOVA
Analysisofvariancetableforthemodel.
BCOV
Thecovariancematrixfortheestimatedmodelcoefficients.
DEFAULT
ThesameasifR,COEFF,andANOVAhadbeenselected. Thisiswhatyou
getifthe/STATISTICScommandisnotspecified,orifitisspecifiedwithout
anyparameters.
TheSAVEsubcommandcausespspptosavetheresidualsorpredictedvalues fromthe
fittedmodeltotheactivedataset. psppwillstoretheresidualsinavariablecalled‘RES1’
ifnosuchvariableexists,‘RES2’if‘RES1’alreadyexists,‘RES3’if‘RES1’and‘RES2’already
exist,etc. Itwillchoosethenameofthevariable e forthepredictedvalues similarly, but
with‘PRED’asaprefix. WhenSAVEisused,psppignoresTEMPORARY,treatingtemporary
transformationsaspermanent.
15.16.2 Examples
Thefollowingpsppsyntaxwillgeneratethedefaultoutputandsavethepredictedvalues
andresidualstotheactivedataset.
title ’Demonstrate REGRESSION procedure’.
data list / / v0 1-2 (A) v1 v2 3-22 (10).
begin data.
b 7.735648 8 -23.97588
b 6.142625 5 -19.63854
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Chapter15: Statistics
154
a 7.651430 0 -25.26557
c 6.125125 5 -16.57090
a 8.245789 9 -25.80001
c 6.031540 0 -17.56743
a 9.832291 1 -28.35977
c 5.343832 2 -16.79548
a 8.838262 2 -29.25689
b 6.200189 9 -18.58219
end data.
list.
regression /variables=v0 v1 v2 /statistics s defaults s /dependent=v2
/save pred resid /method=enter.
15.17 RELIABILITY
RELIABILITY
/VARIABLES=var
list
/SCALE(name)={var
list,ALL}
/MODEL={ALPHA,SPLIT[(n)]}
/SUMMARY={TOTAL,ALL}
/MISSING={EXCLUDE,INCLUDE}
TheRELIABILITYcommandperformsreliabilityanalysisonthedata.
TheVARIABLESsubcommandisrequired. Itdeterminesthesetofvariablesuponwhich
analysisistobeperformed.
TheSCALEsubcommanddetermineswhichvariablesreliabilityistobecalculatedfor. If
itisomitted,thenanalysisforallvariablesnamedintheVARIABLESsubcommandwillbe
used. Optionally,thenameparametermaybespecifiedtosetastringnameforthescale.
The MODEL subcommanddetermines the type of analysis. . If f ALPHA is specified, then
Cronbach’s Alpha is calculated d for the scale. . If f the model is s SPLIT, then the e variables
aredividedinto2subsets. Anoptionalparameter r nmaybegiven,tospecify howmany
variablestobeinthefirstsubset.Ifnisomitted,thenitdefaultstoonehalfofthevariables
inthescale,or one halfminus oneif thereareanoddnumberof variables. . The e default
modelisALPHA.
Bydefault,anycaseswithusermissing,orsystemmissingvaluesforanyvariablesgiven
intheVARIABLESsubcommandwillbeomittedfromanalysis. TheMISSINGsubcommand
determineswhetherusermissingvaluesaretobeincludedorexcludedintheanalysis.
TheSUMMARYsubcommanddetermines thetypeofsummaryanalysistobeperformed.
Currentlythereisonlyonetype: SUMMARY=TOTAL,whichdisplaysper-itemanalysistested
againstthetotals.
15.18 ROC
ROC
var
listBYstate
var (state
value)
/PLOT={CURVE[(REFERENCE)],NONE}
/PRINT=[SE][COORDINATES]
/CRITERIA=[CUTOFF({INCLUDE,EXCLUDE})]
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Chapter15: Statistics
155
[TESTPOS({LARGE,SMALL})]
[CI(confidence)]
[DISTRIBUTION({FREE,NEGEXPO})]
/MISSING={EXCLUDE,INCLUDE}
TheROCcommandisusedtoplotthereceiveroperatingcharacteristiccurveofadataset,
and to estimate thearea under r the curve. . This s is usefulfor analysing the efficacy of a
variableasapredictorofastateofnature.
Themandatoryvar
list isthelistofpredictorvariables. . Thevariablestate
var isthe
variablewhosevaluesrepresenttheactualstates,andstate
valueisthevalueofthisvariable
whichrepresentsthepositivestate.
TheoptionalsubcommandPLOTisusedtodetermineifandhowtheROCcurveisdrawn.
ThekeywordCURVEmeansthattheROCcurveshouldbedrawn,andtheoptionalkeyword
REFERENCE,whichshouldbeenclosedinparentheses,saysthatthediagonalreferenceline
shouldbedrawn. IfthekeywordNONEis s given,thennoROCcurveisdrawn. . By y default,
thecurveisdrawnwithnoreferenceline.
TheoptionalsubcommandPRINTdetermineswhichadditionaltablesshouldbeprinted.
Twoadditionaltablesareavailable. TheSEkeywordsaysthatstandarderrorofthearea
underthecurveshouldbeprintedaswellastheareaitself. Inaddition,ap-valueunderthe
nullhypothesisthattheareaunderthecurveequals0.5willbeprinted. TheCOORDINATES
keywordsaysthatatableofcoordinatesoftheROCcurveshouldbeprinted.
TheCRITERIAsubcommandhasfouroptionalparameters:
 TheTESTPOSparametermaybeLARGEorSMALL. . LARGEisthedefault,andsaysthat
largervaluesinthepredictorvariablesaretobeconsideredpositive. SMALLindicates
thatsmallervaluesshouldbeconsideredpositive.
 The e CI parameter specifiestheconfidenceintervalthat shouldbeprinted. . Ithasno
effectiftheSEkeywordinthePRINTsubcommandhasnotbeengiven.
 TheDISTRIBUTIONparameterdeterminesthemethodtobeusedwhenestimatingthe
areaunderthecurve. Therearetwopossibilities,viz: : FREEandNEGEXPO. TheFREE
methoduses anon-parametric c estimate, andthe NEGEXPO methoda bi-negative ex-
ponentialdistributionestimate. TheNEGEXPOmethodshouldonlybeusedwhenthe
numberofpositiveactualstatesisequaltothenumberofnegativeactualstates.The
defaultisFREE.
 TheCUTOFFparameterisforcompatibilityandisignored.
The MISSING subcommanddetermineswhetherusermissingvaluesaretobeincluded
orexcludedintheanalysis. Thedefaultbehaviouristoexcludethem. Casesareexcluded
onalistwisebasis;ifanyofthevariablesinvar
listorifthevariablestate
var ismissing,
thentheentirecasewillbeexcluded.
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Chapter16: Utilities
156
16 Utilities
Commandsthatdon’tfitanyothercategoryareplacedhere.
Most of these commands are not affectedby commands s like e IFandLOOP: : they y take
effectonlyonce,unconditionally,atthetimethattheyareencounteredintheinput.
16.1 ADDDOCUMENT
ADDDOCUMENT
’lineone’’linetwo’... ’lastline’.
ADDDOCUMENTaddsoneormorelinesofdescriptivecommentarytotheactivedataset.
Documentsaddedinthiswayaresavedtosystemfiles.TheycanbeviewedusingSYSFILE
INFO or DISPLAYDOCUMENTS. . They y can n be removed from the active dataset t with h DROP
DOCUMENTS.
Eachlineofdocumentary text must beenclosedinquotationmarks,andmay not be
morethan80byteslong. SeeSection16.5[DOCUMENT],page156.
16.2 CACHE
CACHE.
Thiscommandisaccepted,forcompatibility,butithasnoeffect.
16.3 CD
CD’newdirectory’.
CDchangesthecurrentdirectory. Thenewdirectorywillbecomethatspecifiedbythe
command.
16.4 COMMENT
Twopossiblessyntaxes:
COMMENTcommenttext ....
*commenttext... .
COMMENTisignored.Itisusedtoprovideinformationtotheauthorandotherreadersof
thepsppsyntaxfile.
COMMENTcanextendoveranynumberoflines. Don’tforgettoterminateitwithadot
orablankline.
16.5 DOCUMENT
DOCUMENTdocumentary
text.
DOCUMENTaddsoneormorelinesofdescriptivecommentarytotheactivedataset.Doc-
uments addedinthisway aresavedtosystemfiles. . Theycanbeviewedusing g SYSFILE
INFO or DISPLAYDOCUMENTS. . They y can n be removed from the active dataset t with h DROP
DOCUMENTS.
SpecifythedocumentarytextfollowingtheDOCUMENTkeyword.Itisinterpretedliterally
— any quotes or other punctuationmarks willbe includedin the file. . You u canextend
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Chapter16: Utilities
157
thedocumentary text over asmanylines as necessary. . Lines s are truncatedat 80bytes.
Don’tforgettoterminatethecommandwithadotorablankline.SeeSection16.1[ADD
DOCUMENT],page156.
16.6 DISPLAYDOCUMENTS
DISPLAYDOCUMENTS.
DISPLAYDOCUMENTSdisplaysthedocumentsintheactivedataset.Eachdocumentispre-
cededbyalinegivingthetimeanddatethatitwasadded.SeeSection16.5[DOCUMENT],
page156.
16.7 DISPLAYFILELABEL
DISPLAYFILELABEL.
DISPLAYFILELABELdisplaysthefilelabelcontainedintheactivedataset,ifany. See
Section16.12[FILELABEL],page158.
Thiscommandisapsppextension.
16.8 DROPDOCUMENTS
DROPDOCUMENTS.
DROPDOCUMENTSremovesalldocumentsfromtheactivedataset.Newdocumentscanbe
addedwithDOCUMENT(seeSection16.5[DOCUMENT],page156).
DROPDOCUMENTS changes only the active dataset. . Itdoes s not modify anysystemfiles
storedondisk.
16.9 ECHO
ECHO’arbitrarytext’.
UseECHO towrite arbitrary text tothe output stream. . The e text should be enclosed
inquotationmarksfollowingthenormalrulesforstringtokens(see Section6.1[Tokens],
page28).
16.10 ERASE
ERASEFILEfile
name.
ERASEFILE deletes a file from m the localfilesystem. . file
name must t be quoted. . This
command cannot be used if f the SAFER (see Section 16.20 [SET], page e 160) setting is
active.
16.11 EXECUTE
EXECUTE.
EXECUTE causes the active dataset to be read d andallpending transformations s to be
executed.
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Chapter16: Utilities
158
16.12 FILELABEL
FILELABELfile
label.
FILELABELprovidesatitlefortheactivedataset. Thistitlewillbesavedintosystem
filesandportablefilesthatarecreatedduringthispspprun.
file
labelshouldnotbequoted.Ifquotesareincluded,theyareliterallyinterpretedand
becomepartofthefilelabel.
16.13 FINISH
FINISH.
FINISHterminatesthecurrentpsppsessionandreturnscontroltotheoperatingsystem.
16.14 HOST
HOST.
HOSTCOMMAND=[’command’...].
HOSTsuspendsthecurrentpsppsessionandtemporarilyreturnscontroltotheoperating
system. ThiscommandcannotbeusediftheSAFER(seeSection16.20[SET],page160)
settingisactive.
If theCOMMAND subcommandis specified, as asequence of shell commands as quoted
stringswithinsquarebrackets,thenpsppexecutesthemtogetherinasinglesubshell.
Ifnosubcommandsarespecified,thenpsppinvokesaninteractivesubshell.
16.15 INCLUDE
INCLUDE[FILE=]’file
name’[ENCODING=’encoding’].
INCLUDEcausesthepsppcommandprocessortoreadanadditionalcommandfileasifit
wereincludedbodilyinthecurrentcommandfile.Iferrorsareencounteredintheincluded
file,thencommandprocessingwillstopandnomorecommandswillbeprocessed.Include
filesmaybenestedtoanydepth,uptothelimitofavailablememory.
TheINSERTcommand(seeSection16.16[INSERT],page158)isamoreflexiblealterna-
tivetoINCLUDE. AnINCLUDEcommandactsthesameasINSERTwithERROR=STOPCD=NO
SYNTAX=BATCHspecified.
TheoptionalENCODINGsubcommandhasthesamemeaningaswithINSERT.
16.16 INSERT
INSERT[FILE=]’file
name’
[CD={NO,YES}]
[ERROR={CONTINUE,STOP}]
[SYNTAX={BATCH,INTERACTIVE}]
[ENCODING={LOCALE,’charset
name’}].
INSERTis similartoINCLUDE(seeSection16.15[INCLUDE],page158) butsomewhat
moreflexible. Itcausesthecommandprocessortoreadafileasifitwereembeddedinthe
currentcommandfile.
Chapter16: Utilities
159
IfCD=YESisspecified,thenbeforeincludingthefile,thecurrentdirectorywillbechanged
tothedirectoryoftheincludedfile.Thedefaultsettingis‘CD=NO’. Notethatthisdirectory
willremaincurrentuntilit ischangedexplicitly(withthe CDcommand,orasubsequent
INSERTcommandwiththe‘CD=YES’option). Itwillnotreverttoitsoriginalsettingeven
aftertheincludedfileisfinishedprocessing.
IfERROR=STOPisspecified,errorsencounteredintheinsertedfilewillcauseprocessingto
immediatelycease. Otherwiseprocessingwillcontinueatthenextcommand. . Thedefault
settingisERROR=CONTINUE.
IfSYNTAX=INTERACTIVEisspecifiedthenthesyntaxcontainedintheincludedfilemust
conformtointeractivesyntaxconventions. SeeSection6.3[SyntaxVariants],page30.The
defaultsettingisSYNTAX=BATCH.
ENCODINGoptionallyspecifiesthecharactersetusedbytheincludedfile. Itsargument,
whichisnotcase-sensitive,mustbeinoneofthefollowingforms:
LOCALE
Theencodingusedbythesystemlocale,orasoverriddenbytheSETcommand
(seeSection16.20[SET],page160). OnGNU/LinuxandotherUnix-likesys-
tems,environmentvariables,e.g.LANGorLC_ALL,determinethesystemlocale.
charset
name
One of the character set t names s listedby
IANA
at http://www.iana.org/
assignments/character-sets. Some e examples s are e ASCII (United d States),
ISO-8859-1(westernEurope),EUC-JP(Japan),andwindows-1252(Windows).
Notallsystemssupportallcharactersets.
Auto,encoding
AutomaticallydetectswhetherasyntaxfileisencodedinanUnicodeencoding
suchasUTF-8,UTF-16,orUTF-32. Ifitisnot,thenpsppgenerallyassumes
thatthefileisencodedinencoding (an
IANA
character setname). . However,
if encoding g is UTF-8, , and the syntax x file is s not validUTF-8, , pspp p instead
assumesthatthefileisencodedinwindows-1252.
Forbestresults,encoding shouldbean
ASCII
-compatibleencoding(themost
commonlocaleencodingsareall
ASCII
-compatible),becauseencodingsthatare
not
ASCII
compatiblecannotbeautomaticallydistinguishedfromUTF-8.
Auto
Auto,Locale
Automaticdetection,asabove,withthedefaultencodingtakenfromthesystem
localeorthesettingonSETLOCALE.
WhenENCODINGisnotspecified,thedefaultistakenfromthe--syntax-encoding
commandoption,ifitwasspecified,andotherwiseitisAuto.
16.17 OUTPUT
OUTPUTMODIFY
/SELECTTABLES
/TABLECELLSSELECT=[{SIGNIFICANCE,COUNT}]
FORMAT=fmt
spec.
Chapter16: Utilities
160
Pleasenote: Intheabovesynopsisthecharacters‘[’and‘]’areliterals. They
mustappearinthesyntaxtobeinterpreted.
OUTPUTchangestheappearanceofthetablesinwhichresultsareprinted.Inparticular,
itcanbeusedtosettheformatandprecisiontowhichresultsaredisplayed.
After runningthis command,the default tableappearanceparameters willhavebeen
modifiedandeachnewoutputtablegeneratedwillusethenewparameters.
Following/TABLECELLSSELECT=alistof cellclassesmustappear,enclosedinsquare
brackets.Thislistdeterminestheclassesofvaluesshouldbeselectedformodification.Each
classcanbe:
SIGNIFICANCE
Significanceoftests(p-values).
COUNT
Countsorsumsofweights.
Thevalueoffmt
specmustbeavalidoutputformat(seeSection6.7.4[InputandOutput
Formats],page34). Notethatnotallpossibleformatsaremeaningfulforallclasses.
16.18 PERMISSIONS
PERMISSIONS
FILE=’file
name’
/PERMISSIONS={READONLY,WRITEABLE}.
PERMISSIONS changesthepermissionsofafile. . Thereis s onemandatorysubcommand
which specifies the permissions to which the file e should d be e changed. . If f you set a file’s
permissiontoREADONLY,thenthefilewillbecomeunwritableeitherbyyouoranyoneelse
onthesystem.IfyousetthepermissiontoWRITEABLE,thenthefilewillbecomewriteable
byyou;thepermissionsaffordedtootherswillbeunchanged. This s commandcannot be
usediftheSAFER(seeSection16.20[SET],page160)settingisactive.
16.19 PRESERVEandRESTORE
PRESERVE.
...
RESTORE.
PRESERVE saves all of f the settings s that t SET T (see Section 16.20 [SET], page 160) can
adjust. AlaterRESTOREcommandrestoresthosesettings.
PRESERVEcanbenesteduptofivelevelsdeep.
16.20 SET
SET
(datainput)
/BLANKS={SYSMIS,’.’,number}
/DECIMAL={DOT,COMMA}
/FORMAT=fmt
spec
/EPOCH={AUTOMATIC,year}
Chapter16: Utilities
161
/RIB={NATIVE,MSBFIRST,LSBFIRST,VAX}
/RRB={NATIVE,ISL,ISB,IDL,IDB,VF,VD,VG,ZS,ZL}
(interaction)
/MXERRS=max
errs
/MXWARNS=max
warnings
/WORKSPACE=workspace
size
(syntaxexecution)
/LOCALE=’locale’
/MEXPAND={ON,OFF}
/MITERATE=max
iterations
/MNEST=max
nest
/MPRINT={ON,OFF}
/MXLOOPS=max
loops
/SEED={RANDOM,seed
value}
/UNDEFINED={WARN,NOWARN}
/FUZZBITS=fuzzbits
(dataoutput)
/CC{A,B,C,D,E}={’npre,pre,suf,nsuf’,’npre.pre.suf.nsuf’}
/DECIMAL={DOT,COMMA}
/FORMAT=fmt
spec
/WIB={NATIVE,MSBFIRST,LSBFIRST,VAX}
/WRB={NATIVE,ISL,ISB,IDL,IDB,VF,VD,VG,ZS,ZL}
(outputrouting)
/ERRORS={ON,OFF,TERMINAL,LISTING,BOTH,NONE}
/MESSAGES={ON,OFF,TERMINAL,LISTING,BOTH,NONE}
/PRINTBACK={ON,OFF,TERMINAL,LISTING,BOTH,NONE}
/RESULTS={ON,OFF,TERMINAL,LISTING,BOTH,NONE}
(outputdriveroptions)
/HEADERS={NO,YES,BLANK}
/LENGTH={NONE,n
lines}
/MORE={ON,OFF}
/WIDTH={NARROW,WIDTH,n
characters}
/TNUMBERS={VALUES,LABELS,BOTH}
/TVARS={NAMES,LABELS,BOTH}
(logging)
/JOURNAL={ON,OFF}[’file
name’]
(systemfiles)
/COMPRESSION={ON,OFF}
/SCOMPRESSION={ON,OFF}
Chapter16: Utilities
162
(miscellaneous)
/SAFER=ON
/LOCALE=’string’
(obsoletesettingsacceptedforcompatibility,butignored)
/BOXSTRING={’xxx’,’xxxxxxxxxxx’}
/CASE={UPPER,UPLOW}
/CPI=cpi
value
/HIGHRES={ON,OFF}
/HISTOGRAM=’c’
/LOWRES={AUTO,ON,OFF}
/LPI=lpi
value
/MENUS={STANDARD,EXTENDED}
/MXMEMORY=max
memory
/SCRIPTTAB=’c’
/TB1={’xxx’,’xxxxxxxxxxx’}
/TBFONTS=’string’
/XSORT={YES,NO}
SETallowstheusertoadjustseveralparametersrelatingtopspp’sexecution.Sincethere
aremanysubcommandstothiscommand,itssubcommandswillbeexaminedingroups.
Forsubcommandsthattakebooleanvalues,ONandYESaresynonymous,asareOFFand
NO,whenusedassubcommandvalues.
Thedatainputsubcommandsaffectthewaythatdataisreadfromdatafiles. Thedata
inputsubcommandsare
BLANKS Thisisthevalueassignedtoanitemdataitemthatisemptyorcontainsonly
white space. . An n argument t of SYSMIS S or r ’.’ ’ will l cause e the e system-missing
valuetobeassignedtonullitems. Thisisthedefault. Anyrealvaluemaybe
assigned.
DECIMAL
This valuemaybeset toDOTor COMMA. . SettingittoDOTcauses s thedecimal
point character to be ‘.’andthe grouping charactertobe ‘,’. . Settingit t to
COMMAcausesthedecimalpointcharactertobe‘,’andthegroupingcharacter
tobe‘.’.IfthesettingisCOMMA,then‘,’willnotbetreatedasafieldseparator
intheDATALISTcommand(seeSection8.5[DATALIST],page66).Thedefault
valueisdeterminedfromthesystemlocale.
FORMAT Allowsthedefaultnumericinput/outputformattobespecified. . Thedefaultis
F8.2.SeeSection6.7.4[InputandOutputFormats],page34.
EPOCH
Specifiestherangeofyearsusedwhena2-digityearisreadfromadatafileor
usedinadateconstructionexpression(seeSection7.7.8.4[DateConstruction],
page 54). If f a4-digit year is s specified for r the epoch, , then2-digit t years are
interpretedstarting fromthat year,knownas theepoch. . If f AUTOMATIC (the
default)isspecified,thentheepochbegins69yearsbeforethecurrentdate.
RIB
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