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CHAPTER
2
Conventions
Thissectiondescribestheuniformstylesthatwillbeusedthroughoutthismanual.
2.1 GUIConventions
TheGUIconventionstylesareintendedtomimictheappearanceoftheGUI.Ingeneral,astylewillreflectthe
non-hoverappearance,soausercanvisuallyscantheGUItofindsomethingthatlooksliketheinstructioninthe
manual.
• MenuOptions:LayerAddaRasterLayerorSettingsToolbarsDigitizing
• Tool:
AddaRasterLayer
• Button:[SaveasDefault]
• DialogBoxTitle:LayerProperties
• Tab:General
• Checkbox:
Render
• RadioButton:
PostgisSRID
EPSGID
• Selectanumber:
• Selectastring:
• Browseforafile:
• Selectacolor:
• Slider:
• InputText:
AshadowindicatesaclickableGUIcomponent.
2.2 TextorKeyboardConventions
Thismanualalsoincludesstylesrelatedtotext,keyboardcommandsandcodingtoindicatedifferententities,such
asclassesormethods.ThesestylesdonotcorrespondtotheactualappearanceofanytextorcodingwithinQGIS.
• Hyperlinks:http://qgis.org
• KeystrokeCombinations:PressCtrl+B,meaningpressandholdtheCtrlkeyandthenpresstheBkey.
• NameofaFile:lakes.shp
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
• NameofaClass:NewLayer
• Method:classFactory
• Server:myhost.de
• UserText:qgis s --help
Linesofcodeareindicatedbyafixed-widthfont:
PROJCS["NAD_1927_Albers",
GEOGCS["GCS_North_American_1927",
2.3 Platform-specificinstructions
GUIsequencesandsmallamountsoftextmaybeformattedinline: Click
File
QGISQuittoclose
QGIS.ThisindicatesthatonLinux,UnixandWindowsplatforms,youshouldclicktheFilemenufirst,thenQuit,
whileonMacintoshOSXplatforms,youshouldclicktheQGISmenufirst,thenQuit.
Largeramountsoftextmaybeformattedasalist:
Dothis
Dothat
Dosomethingelse
orasparagraphs:
Dothisandthisandthis.Thendothisandthisandthis,andthisandthisandthis,andthisandthisandthis.
Dothat.Thendothatandthatandthat,andthatandthatandthat,andthatandthatandthat,andthatandthat
andthat,andthatandthatandthat.
Screenshotsthatappearthroughouttheuserguidehavebeencreatedondifferentplatforms;theplatformisindi-
catedbytheplatform-specificiconattheendofthefigurecaption.
.
6
Chapter2. Conventions
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CHAPTER
3
Foreword
WelcometothewonderfulworldofGeographicalInformationSystems(GIS)!
QGISisanOpenSourceGeographicInformationSystem. TheprojectwasborninMayof2002andwasestab-
lishedasaprojectonSourceForgeinJuneofthesameyear. We’veworkedhardtomakeGISsoftware(which
istraditionallyexpensiveproprietarysoftware)aviableprospectforanyonewithbasicaccesstoapersonalcom-
puter.QGIScurrentlyrunsonmostUnixplatforms,Windows,andOSX.QGISisdevelopedusingtheQttoolkit
(http://qt.digia.com)andC++.ThismeansthatQGISfeelssnappyandhasapleasing,easy-to-usegraphicaluser
interface(GUI).
QGISaimstobeauser-friendlyGIS,providingcommonfunctionsandfeatures. Theinitialgoaloftheproject
wastoprovideaGISdataviewer.QGIShasreachedthepointinitsevolutionwhereitisbeingusedbymanyfor
theirdailyGISdata-viewingneeds. QGISsupportsanumberofrasterandvectordataformats,withnewformat
supporteasilyaddedusingthepluginarchitecture.
QGISisreleasedundertheGNUGeneralPublicLicense(GPL).DevelopingQGISunderthislicensemeansthat
youcaninspectandmodifythesourcecode,andguaranteesthatyou,ourhappyuser,willalwayshaveaccessto
aGISprogramthatisfreeofcostandcanbefreelymodified.Youshouldhavereceivedafullcopyofthelicense
withyourcopyofQGIS,andyoualsocanfinditinAppendixGNUGeneralPublicLicense.
Tip: Up-to-dateDocumentation
Thelatestversionofthis document canalwaysbefoundinthedocumentationarea oftheQGISwebsiteat
http://www.qgis.org/en/docs/.
.
7
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
8
Chapter3. Foreword
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CHAPTER
4
Features
QGISoffersmanycommonGISfunctionalitiesprovidedbycorefeaturesandplugins. Ashortsummaryofsix
generalcategoriesoffeaturesandpluginsispresentedbelow,followedbyfirstinsightsintotheintegratedPython
console.
4.1 Viewdata
Youcanviewandoverlayvectorandrasterdataindifferentformatsandprojectionswithoutconversiontoan
internalorcommonformat.Supportedformatsinclude:
• Spatially-enabledtablesandviewsusingPostGIS,SpatiaLiteandMSSQLSpatial,OracleSpatial,vector
formatssupportedbytheinstalledOGRlibrary, includingESRIshapefiles, MapInfo,SDTS,GML and
manymore.SeesectionWorkingwithVectorData.
• RasterandimageryformatssupportedbytheinstalledGDAL(GeospatialDataAbstractionLibrary)library,
suchasGeoTIFF,ERDASIMG,ArcInfoASCIIGRID,JPEG,PNGandmanymore.SeesectionWorking
withRasterData.
• GRASSrasterandvectordatafromGRASSdatabases(location/mapset).SeesectionGRASSGISIntegra-
tion.
• OnlinespatialdataservedasOGCWebServices,includingWMS,WMTS,WCS,WFS,andWFS-T.See
sectionWorkingwithOGCData.
• OpenStreetMapdata.Seesectionplugins_osm.
4.2 Exploredataandcomposemaps
YoucancomposemapsandinteractivelyexplorespatialdatawithafriendlyGUI.Themanyhelpfultoolsavailable
intheGUIinclude:
• QGISbrowser
• On-the-flyreprojection
• DBManager
• Mapcomposer
• Overviewpanel
• Spatialbookmarks
• Annotationtools
• Identify/selectfeatures
• Edit/view/searchattributes
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
• Data-definedfeaturelabeling
• Data-definedvectorandrastersymbologytools
• Atlasmapcompositionwithgraticulelayers
• Northarrowscalebarandcopyrightlabelformaps
• Supportforsavingandrestoringprojects
4.3 Create,edit,manageandexportdata
Youcancreate,edit,manageandexportvectorandrasterlayersinseveralformats.QGISoffersthefollowing:
• DigitizingtoolsforOGR-supportedformatsandGRASSvectorlayers
• AbilitytocreateandeditshapefilesandGRASSvectorlayers
• Georeferencerplugintogeocodeimages
• GPStoolstoimportandexportGPXformat,andconvertotherGPSformatstoGPXordown/uploaddirectly
toaGPSunit(OnLinux,usb:hasbeenaddedtolistofGPSdevices.)
• SupportforvisualizingandeditingOpenStreetMapdata
• AbilitytocreatespatialdatabasetablesfromshapefileswithDBManagerplugin
• Improvedhandlingofspatialdatabasetables
• Toolsformanagingvectorattributetables
• Optiontosavescreenshotsasgeoreferencedimages
4.4 Analysedata
YoucanperformspatialdataanalysisonspatialdatabasesandotherOGR-supportedformats. QGIScurrently
offersvectoranalysis,sampling,geoprocessing,geometryanddatabasemanagementtools. Youcanalsousethe
integratedGRASStools,whichincludethecompleteGRASSfunctionalityofmorethan400modules.(Seesec-
tionGRASSGISIntegration.)Or,youcanworkwiththeProcessingPlugin,whichprovidesapowerfulgeospatial
analysisframeworktocallnativeandthird-partyalgorithmsfromQGIS,suchasGDAL,SAGA,GRASS,fTools
andmore.(SeesectionIntroduction.)
4.5 PublishmapsontheInternet
QGIScanbeusedasaWMS,WMTS,WMS-CorWFSandWFS-Tclient,andasaWMS,WCSorWFSserver.
(SeesectionWorkingwithOGCData.)Additionally,youcanpublishyourdataontheInternetusingawebserver
withUMNMapServerorGeoServerinstalled.
4.6 ExtendQGISfunctionalitythroughplugins
QGIScanbeadaptedtoyourspecialneedswiththeextensiblepluginarchitectureandlibrariesthatcanbeused
tocreateplugins.YoucanevencreatenewapplicationswithC++orPython!
10
Chapter4. Features
QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
4.6.1 CorePlugins
Corepluginsinclude:
1. CoordinateCapture(CapturemousecoordinatesindifferentCRSs)
2. DBManager(Exchange,editandviewlayersandtables;executeSQLqueries)
3. DiagramOverlay(Placediagramsonvectorlayers)
4. Dxf2ShpConverter(ConvertDXFfilestoshapefiles)
5. eVIS(Visualizeevents)
6. fTools(Analyzeandmanagevectordata)
7. GDALTools(IntegrateGDALToolsintoQGIS)
8. GeoreferencerGDAL(AddprojectioninformationtorastersusingGDAL)
9. GPSTools(LoadandimportGPSdata)
10. GRASS(IntegrateGRASSGIS)
11. Heatmap(Generaterasterheatmapsfrompointdata)
12. InterpolationPlugin(Interpolatebasedonverticesofavectorlayer)
13. OfflineEditing(Allowofflineeditingandsynchronizingwithdatabases)
14. OracleSpatialGeoRaster
15. Processing(formerlySEXTANTE)
16. RasterTerrainAnalysis(Analyzeraster-basedterrain)
17. RoadGraphPlugin(Analyzeashortest-pathnetwork)
18. SpatialQueryPlugin
19. SPIT(ImportshapefilestoPostgreSQL/PostGIS)
20. SQLAnywherePlugin(StorevectorlayerswithinaSQLAnywheredatabase)
21. TopologyChecker(Findtopologicalerrorsinvectorlayers)
22. ZonalStatisticsPlugin(Calculatecount,sum,andmeanofarasterforeachpolygonofavectorlayer)
4.6.2 ExternalPythonPlugins
QGISoffersagrowingnumberofexternalPythonpluginsthatareprovidedbythecommunity. Theseplugins
resideintheofficialPluginsRepositoryandcanbeeasilyinstalledusingthePythonPluginInstaller.SeeSection
ThePluginsMenus.
4.7 PythonConsole
Forscripting,itispossibletotakeadvantageofanintegratedPythonconsole,whichcanbeopenedfrommenu:
PluginsPythonConsole.Theconsoleopensasanon-modalutilitywindow.ForinteractionwiththeQGISen-
vironment,thereistheqgis.utils.ifacevariable,whichisaninstanceofQgsInterface.Thisinterface
allowsaccesstothemapcanvas,menus,toolbarsandotherpartsoftheQGISapplication.
ForfurtherinformationaboutworkingwiththePythonconsoleandprogrammingQGISpluginsandapplications,
pleaserefertohttp://www.qgis.org/html/en/docs/pyqgis_developer_cookbook/index.html.
4.7. PythonConsole
11
QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
4.8 KnownIssues
4.8.1 Numberofopenfileslimitation
IfyouareopeningalargeQGISprojectandyouaresurethatalllayersarevalid,butsomelayersareflaggedas
bad,youareprobablyfacedwiththisissue.Linux(andotherOSs,likewise)hasalimitofopenedfilesbyprocess.
Resourcelimitsareper-processandinherited.Theulimitcommand,whichisashellbuilt-in,changesthelimits
onlyforthecurrentshellprocess;thenewlimitwillbeinheritedbyanychildprocesses.
Youcanseeallcurrentulimitinfobytyping
user@host:~$ ulimit -aS
Youcanseethecurrentallowednumberofopenedfilesperproccesswiththefollowingcommandonaconsole
user@host:~$ ulimit -Sn
Tochangethelimitsforanexistingsession,youmaybeabletousesomethinglike
user@host:~$ ulimit -Sn #number_of_allowed_open_files
user@host:~$ ulimit -Sn
user@host:~$ qgis
Tofixitforever
OnmostLinuxsystems,resourcelimitsaresetonloginbythepam_limitsmoduleaccordingtothesettings
containedin/etc/security/limits.confor/etc/security/limits.d/
*
.conf.Youshouldbe
abletoeditthosefilesifyouhaverootprivilege(alsoviasudo), butyouwillneedtologinagainbeforeany
changestakeeffect.
Moreinfo:
http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/linux-increase-the-maximum-number-of-open-files/http://linuxaria.com/article/open-
files-in-linux?lang=en
.
12
Chapter4. Features
CHAPTER
5
What’snewinQGIS2.2
Pleasenotethatthisisareleaseinour‘cuttingedge’releaseseries.Assuch,itcontainsnewfeaturesandextends
theprogrammaticinterfaceoverQGIS2.0.Werecommendthatyouusethisversionoverpreviousreleases.
Thisreleaseincludeshundredsofbugfixesandmanynewfeaturesandenhancementsthatwillbedescribedin
thismanual.Youmayalsoreviewthevisualchangelogathttp://changelog.linfiniti.com/qgis/version/21/.
5.1 ApplicationandProjectOptions
• Supportformeasurementinnauticalmiles: Youcannowmeasuredistancesusingnauticalmiles. . To
enablethis,usetheSettingsOptionsMapToolsoptionpanel.
5.2 DataProviders
• One-to-manyrelationssupport:Thisreleasesupportstheabilitytodefine1:nrelations.Therelationsare
definedintheprojectpropertiesdialog.Oncerelationsexistforalayer,anewuserinterfaceelementinthe
formview(e.g.,whenidentifyingafeatureandopeningitsform)willlisttherelatedentities.Thisprovides
apowerfulwaytoexpress,forinstance,theinspectionhistoryonalengthofpipelineorroadsegment.
• DXFExporttool:AnewtoolforexportingDXFshasbeenaddedtotheProjectmenu.
• Pasteasnewvectorlayer: ItisacommonactivityinaGIStocreateasub-selectionandthentocreate
anewlayerfromtheselection. InQGISyoucanalreadydoSaveSelectionAstosavealayerfromyour
selection;now,functionalityisofferedthatallowsyoutocreateanewfileormemorylayerfromwhatever
isinyourclipboard. Simplyselectsomefeatures,copythemtoyourclipboardandthendoEditPaste
FeaturesAsandchooseeither‘NewVectorLayer’or‘NewMemoryLayer’fromthesubmenu. Thebest
partofthisnewfeatureisthatifyouhavesomeWellKnownText(WKT)featuresinyourclipboardfrom
anotherapp,youcansimplypastethemintoQGISasanewlayernow.
• WMSlegendgraphicintableofcontentsandcomposer:PriortoQGIS2.2theWMSdataproviderwas
notabletodisplayalegendinthetableofcontents’layerlist.Similarlynolegendcouldbedisplayedinthe
mapcomposer.QGIS2.2addressesbothoftheseissues.
5.3 Digitising
• Fillringdigitizingtool:Thisnewtoolisusedtocutholesinpolygonsandautomaticallyfillthemwithnew
features. IfyouholddownCtrlwhenfinalisingthefeature,theattributeswillbetakenfromtheparent
feature.
13
QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
5.4 General
• Recentexpressionssaved:Theexpressionbuilderwillnowrememberthelast20usedexpressions.
• PasteWKTfromclipboard:QGIScannowpasteandcreateanewfeaturebasedonWKTthatisfoundin
theclipboard.SimplycopysomeWKTandpasteintoaneditablelayer.Youcanalsocreateanewlayerby
selectingEditPasteAsNewMemoryLayer.
5.5 MapComposer
• Zebramapborderimprovements:YoucannowsetthecoloursoftheZebraborderonthemapelement
inthemapcomposer.
• Elementrotationsupport: : Everytypeofelementinthecomposercannowberotated,includingscale
bars,tablesandlegends.Forexample,youcanrotatealabelonthecompositionsothatitfitsintoyourpage
layoutbetter(asillustrated).Resizingofrotatedelementshasalsobeenimproved.
• Composerscaleaddedandrulerimprovements:Theappearanceofrulershasbeenimprovedbyadjusting
thescalelogicandbyaddingsmallerrulerdivisions,andbymakingverticalrulersuserotatedtext.Thereis
alsoanewcomposeractionforhiding/showingrulers.Youcannowquicklyzoomto100%pagescaleusing
thenewZoomto100%toolonthetoolbar. Thecomposerwindownowletsyouquicklyswitchthepage
scalingviaanewscalecomboboxinthestatusbar. Inaddition,anewindicatorhasbeenaddedtoshow
youtheprecisepixelpositionofyourcursor.The[Close]and[Help]buttonshavebeenremovedfromthe
bottomofthecomposerwindowtogiveyouthemaximumamountofscreenspaceforworkingwithyour
compositions.
• Worldfilegeneration: : Inthecomposer, , youcannowcreategeoreferencedmaps! ! Simplyensurethat
youchoosethecorrectmapelementintheCompositiontabandthenexportyourmapasaPNGfile. An
accompanyingworldfilewillbewritten,allowingyoutoloadyourexportedcompositioninQGISasa
rasterlayer.
• Workingwithmultipleitems:Supporthasbeenaddedformovingandresizingmultipleitemssimultane-
ously. YoucannowholdShiftwhileresizingtomaintainanitem’sratiowhileresizing,orholdCtrl
toresizefromtheitem’scentre.Theseshortcutkeysalsoapplytomovingitems,soholdingShiftwhile
movinganitemconstrainsthemovementtohorizontalorverticalmovement,andholdingCtrltemporarily
disablesitemsnapping.YoucanalsoholdShiftwhilepressingacursorkeytoshiftallselecteditemsby
alargeramount.
• Atlasenhancements:Youcannowpreviewtheindividualpagesofthemapatlasthatwillbegeneratedin
thecomposer. Whileinatlaspreviewmode,youcanoutputthecurrentpagewithoutoutputtingtheentire
atlas. Youcanalsotweakthemapextentorscaleforeachfeaturewhilepreviewingtheatlaspage. . Atlas
mapsettingshavebeenmovedfromtheatlaspaneltothemappropertiespanel,sonow,morethanonemap
canbecontrolledbytheatlasgeneration. There’sanewoptiontoautomaticallycentreanoverviewmap,
whichcomesinhandywhencreatingatlas-basedmaps.Morecontextinformationisalsonowavailableso
thatyoucanadjustyoursymbologybasedonwhetherthefeatureisthecurrentatlasfeatureornot.
• Improveditemselection:Youcannowselectmorethanoneitembyclickinganddraggingaboxtoselect
multipleitems,andthereareshortcutsforaddingtoaselection(holdingShiftwhiledragging),subtracting
fromaselection(holdingCtrlwhiledragging)andswitchingto“within”selectionmode(holdingAlt
whiledragging). Shift-clickinganalready-selecteditemwillremoveitfromtheselection. . Therearealso
shortcutsandmenuitemsforselectingallitems,clearingaselection,andinvertingaselection.It’salsonow
possibletoselectitemsthatarehiddenbelowotheritemsbyCtrl-clickinganitem,orbyusing‘SelectNext
ItemAbove/Below’inthenewcomposerEditmenu.
• Betternavigationofcompositions: : QGIS2.2includesmanyimprovementstohelpyounavigateyour
compositions. Youcannowzoom m inoroutfrom acompositionbyusingthemousescrollwheel. . A
dedicatedpantoolhasbeenadded,whichallowsyoutodragthecompositionaround,andyoucanalso
switchimmediatelytopanmodebyholdingthespacebarorbyholdingthemousescrollwheel. There’s
alsoanewzoomtool,whichallowsyoutopreciselyzoomtoaspecificareaofyourcomposition.Youcan
14
Chapter5. What’snewinQGIS2.2
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