c# display pdf in window : Add pages to pdf in preview SDK application API wpf html winforms sharepoint QGIS-2.2-UserGuide-en15-part472

QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
arevectorfeatures,asfromaregularvectorlayer. Whenasinglefeatureisselectedinthetree,itishighlighted
inthemapanditcanbecopiedtotheclipboardandpastedtoanothervectorlayer.Seetheexamplesetupofthe
UMNMapserverbelowtosupportGetFeatureInfoinGMLformat.
# in layer METADATA add which fields should d be e included d and d define e geometry y (example):
"gml_include_items"
"all"
"ows_geometries"
"mygeom"
"ows_mygeom_type"
"polygon"
# Then there are two o possibilities/formats s available, see a) ) and d b):
# a) basic (output is s generated by y Mapserver r and d does not contain XSD)
# in WEB B METADATA A define formats s (example):
"wms_getfeatureinfo_formatlist" "application/vnd.ogc.gml,text/html"
# b) using OGR R (output t is s generated d by y OGR, it t is s send as s multipart t and d contains XSD)
# in MAP P define OUTPUTFORMAT T (example):
OUTPUTFORMAT
NAME "OGRGML"
MIMETYPE "ogr/gml"
DRIVER "OGR/GML"
FORMATOPTION "FORM=multipart"
END
# in WEB B METADATA A define formats s (example):
"wms_getfeatureinfo_formatlist" "OGRGML,text/html"
ViewingProperties
OnceyouhaveaddedaWMSserver,youcanviewitspropertiesbyright-clickingonitinthelegendandselecting
Properties. MetadataTab
ThetabMetadatadisplaysawealthofinformationabouttheWMSserver,generallycollectedfromthecapabilities
statementreturnedfromthatserver.ManydefinitionscanbegleanedbyreadingtheWMSstandards(seeOPEN-
GEOSPATIAL-CONSORTIUMinLiteratureandWebReferences),buthereareafewhandydefinitions:
• ServerProperties
– WMSVersion—TheWMSversionsupportedbytheserver.
– ImageFormats— — The listofMIME-typestheservercanrespondwithwhendrawingthe map.
QGISsupportswhateverformatstheunderlyingQtlibrarieswerebuiltwith,whichistypicallyatleast
image/pngandimage/jpeg.
– IdentityFormats—ThelistofMIME-typestheservercanrespondwithwhenyouusetheIdentify
tool.Currently,QGISsupportsthetext-plaintype.
• LayerProperties
– Selected—Whetherornotthislayerwasselectedwhenitsserverwasaddedtothisproject.
– Visible—Whetherornotthislayerisselectedasvisibleinthelegend(notyetusedinthisversionof
QGIS).
– CanIdentify—WhetherornotthislayerwillreturnanyresultswhentheIdentifytoolisusedonit.
– CanbeTransparent—Whetherornotthislayercanberenderedwithtransparency.Thisversionof
QGISwillalwaysusetransparencyifthisisYesandtheimageencodingsupportstransparency.
– CanZoomIn—Whetherornotthislayercanbezoomedinbytheserver. ThisversionofQGIS
assumesallWMSlayershavethissettoYes.Deficientlayersmayberenderedstrangely.
– CascadeCount—WMSserverscanactasaproxytootherWMSserverstogettherasterdatafora
layer. ThisentryshowshowmanytimestherequestforthislayerisforwardedtopeerWMSservers
foraresult.
14.1. QGISasOGCDataClient
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
– FixedWidth,FixedHeight—Whetherornotthislayerhasfixedsourcepixeldimensions. . This
versionofQGISassumesallWMSlayershavethissettonothing. Deficientlayersmayberendered
strangely.
– WGS84BoundingBox—Theboundingboxofthelayer,inWGS84coordinates. . SomeWMS
serversdonotsetthiscorrectly(e.g., UTMcoordinatesareusedinstead). . Ifthisisthecase, , then
theinitialviewofthislayermayberenderedwithavery‘zoomed-out’appearancebyQGIS.The
WMSwebmastershouldbeinformedofthiserror,whichtheymayknowastheWMSXMLelements
LatLonBoundingBox,EX_GeographicBoundingBoxortheCRS:84BoundingBox.
– AvailableinCRS—TheprojectionsthatthislayercanberenderedinbytheWMSserver.Theseare
listedintheWMS-nativeformat.
– Availableinstyle—TheimagestylesthatthislayercanberenderedinbytheWMSserver.
ShowWMSlegendgraphicintableofcontentsandcomposer
TheQGISWMSdataproviderisabletodisplayalegendgraphicinthetableofcontents’layerlistandinthe
mapcomposer. TheWMSlegendwillbeshownonlyiftheWMSserverhasGetLegendGraphiccapabilityand
thelayerhasgetCapabilityurlspecified,soyouadditionallyhavetoselectastylingforthelayer.
IfalegendGraphicisavailable,itisshownbelowthelayer.Itislittleandyouhavetoclickonittoopenitinreal
dimension(duetoQgsLegendInterfacearchitecturallimitation).Clickingonthelayer’slegendwillopenaframe
withthelegendatfullresolution.
Intheprintcomposer,thelegendwillbeintegratedatit’soriginal(dowloaded)dimension. Resolutionofthe
legendgraphiccanbesetintheitempropertiesunderLegend->WMSLegendGraphictomatchyourprinting
requirements
Thelegendwilldisplaycontextualinformationbasedonyourcurrentscale.TheWMSlegendwillbeshownonly
iftheWMSserverhasGetLegendGraphiccapabilityandthelayerhasgetCapabilityurlspecified,soyouhaveto
selectastyling.
WMSClientLimitations
NotallpossibleWMSclientfunctionalityhadbeenincludedinthisversionofQGIS.Someofthemorenoteworthy
exceptionsfollow.
EditingWMSLayerSettings
Onceyou’vecompletedthe
AddWMSlayer
procedure,thereisnowaytochangethesettings. Awork-aroundis
todeletethelayercompletelyandstartagain.
WMSServersRequiringAuthentication
Currently,publiclyaccessibleandsecuredWMSservicesaresupported. ThesecuredWMSserverscanbeac-
cessedbypublicauthentication.Youcanaddthe(optional)credentialswhenyouaddaWMSserver.Seesection
SelectingWMS/WMTSServersfordetails.
Tip: AccessingsecuredOGC-layers
Ifyouneedtoaccesssecuredlayerswithsecuredmethodsotherthanbasicauthentication,youcanuseInteProxy
asatransparentproxy,whichdoessupportseveralauthenticationmethods.Moreinformationcanbefoundinthe
InteProxymanualathttp://inteproxy.wald.intevation.org.
Tip: QGISWMSMapserver
SinceVersion1.7.0, QGIShasitsownimplementationofaWMS1.3.0Mapserver. . Readmoreaboutthisin
chapterQGISasOGCDataServer.
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
14.1.2 WCSClient
AWebCoverageService(WCS)providesaccesstorasterdatainformsthatareusefulforclient-siderender-
ing,asinputintoscientificmodels,andforotherclients.TheWCSmaybecomparedtotheWFSandtheWMS.
AsWMSandWFSserviceinstances,aWCSallowsclientstochooseportionsofaserver’sinformationholdings
basedonspatialconstraintsandotherquerycriteria.
QGIShasanativeWCSproviderandsupportsbothversion1.0and1.1(whicharesignificantlydifferent),but
currentlyitprefers1.0,because1.1hasmanyissues(i.e.,eachserverimplementsitinadifferentwaywithvarious
particularities).
ThenativeWCSproviderhandlesallnetworkrequestsandusesallstandardQGISnetworksettings(especially
proxy). Itisalsopossibletoselectcachemode(‘alwayscache’,‘prefercache’,‘prefernetwork’,‘alwaysnet-
work’),andtheprovideralsosupportsselectionoftimeposition,iftemporaldomainisofferedbytheserver.
14.1.3 WFSandWFS-TClient
InQGIS,aWFSlayerbehavesprettymuchlikeanyothervectorlayer. Youcanidentifyandselectfeatures,and
viewtheattributetable.SinceQGIS1.6,editingWFS-Tisalsosupported.
Ingeneral,addingaWFSlayerisverysimilartotheprocedureusedwithWMS.Thedifferenceisthatthereare
nodefaultserversdefined,sowehavetoaddourown.
LoadingaWFSLayer
As an example, , we e use the DM Solutions WFS server and display a layer.
The URL is:
http://www2.dmsolutions.ca/cgi-bin/mswfs_gmap
1. Clickonthe
AddWFSLayer
toolontheLayerstoolbar.TheAddWFSLayerfromaServerdialogappears.
2. Clickon[New].
3. Enter‘DMSolutions’asname.
4. EntertheURL(seeabove).
5. Click[OK].
6. Choose‘DMSolutions’fromtheServerConnections
drop-downlist.
7. Click[Connect].
8. Waitforthelistoflayerstobepopulated.
9. SelecttheParkslayerinthelist.
10. Click[Apply]toaddthelayertothemap.
Notethatanyproxysettingsyoumayhavesetinyourpreferencesarealsorecognized.
You’llnoticethedownloadprogressisvisualizedinthelowerleftoftheQGISmainwindow. Oncethelayeris
loaded,youcanidentifyandselectaprovinceortwoandviewtheattributetable.
OnlyWFS1.0.0issupported.Atthistime,therehavenotbeenmanytestsagainstWFSversionsimplementedin
otherWFSservers. IfyouencounterproblemswithanyotherWFSserver,pleasedonothesitatetocontactthe
developmentteam.PleaserefertosectionHelpandSupportforfurtherinformationaboutthemailinglists.
Tip: FindingWFSServers
YoucanfindadditionalWFSserversbyusingGoogleoryourfavoritesearchengine.Thereareanumberoflists
withpublicURLs,someofthemmaintainedandsomenot.
.
14.1. QGISasOGCDataClient
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
Figure14.4:AddingaWFSlayer
14.2 QGISasOGCDataServer
QGISServerisanopensourceWMS1.3, WFS1.0.0andWCS11.1.1implementationthat,inaddition,im-
plementsadvancedcartographicfeaturesforthematicmapping. TheQGISServerisaFastCGI/CGI(Common
GatewayInterface)applicationwritteninC++thatworkstogetherwithawebserver(e.g.,Apache,Lighttpd). It
isfundedbytheEUprojectsOrchestra,SanyandthecityofUsterinSwitzerland.
QGISServerusesQGISasbackendfortheGISlogicandformaprendering. Furthermore,theQtlibraryis
usedforgraphicsandforplatform-independentC++programming.IncontrasttootherWMSsoftware,theQGIS
Serverusescartographicrulesasaconfigurationlanguage, bothfortheserverconfigurationandfortheuser-
definedcartographicrules.
Moreover,theQGISServerprojectprovidesthe‘PublishtoWeb’plugin,apluginforQGISdesktopthatexports
thecurrentlayersandsymbologyasawebprojectforQGISServer(containingcartographicvisualizationrules
expressedinSLD).
AsQGISdesktopandQGISServerusethesamevisualizationlibraries,themapsthatarepublishedontheweb
lookthesameasindesktopGIS.The‘PublishtoWeb’plugincurrentlysupportsbasicsymbolization,withthe
optiontointroducemorecomplexcartographicvisualizationrulesmanually. Astheconfigurationisperformed
withtheSLDstandardanditsdocumentedextensions,thereisonlyonestandardisedlanguagetolearn,which
greatlysimplifiesthecomplexityofcreatingmapsfortheWeb.
Inoneofthefollowingmanuals,wewillprovideasampleconfigurationtosetupaQGISServer. Fornow,we
recommendtoreadoneofthefollowingURLstogetmoreinformation:
• http://karlinapp.ethz.ch/qgis_wms/
• http://hub.qgis.org/projects/quantum-gis/wiki/QGIS_Server_Tutorial
• http://linfiniti.com/2010/08/qgis-mapserver-a-wms-server-for-the-masses/
14.2.1 SampleinstallationonDebianSqueeze
Atthispoint,wewillgiveashortandsimplesampleinstallationhow-toforDebianSqueeze. ManyotherOSs
providepackagesforQGISServer,too.Ifyouhavetobuilditallfromsource,pleaserefertotheURLsabove.
ApartfromQGISandQGISServer,youneedawebserver,inourcaseapache2.Youcaninstallallpackageswith
aptitudeorapt-get installtogetherwithothernecessarydependencypackages.Afterinstallation,you
shouldtesttoconfirmthatthewebserverandQGISServerworkasexpected. Makesuretheapacheserveris
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
runningwith/etc/init.d/apache2 start.OpenawebbrowserandtypeURL:http://localhost.
Ifapacheisup,youshouldseethemessage‘Itworks!’.
Now
we test t the e QGIS S Server r installation.
The qgis_mapserv.fcgi is available at
/usr/lib/cgi-bin/qgis_mapserv.fcgiandprovidesastandardWMSthatshowsthestateboundaries
of Alaska. . Add d the e WMS S with the URL http://localhost/cgi-bin/qgis_mapserv.fcgi as
describedinSelectingWMS/WMTSServers.
Figure14.5:StandardWMSwithUSAboundariesincludedintheQGISServer(KDE)
14.2.2 CreatingaWMS/WFS/WCSfromaQGISproject
ToprovideanewQGISServerWMS,WFSorWCS,wehavetocreateaQGISprojectfilewithsomedata.Here,
weusethe‘Alaska’shapefilefromtheQGISsampledataset. DefinethecolorsandstylesofthelayersinQGIS
andtheprojectCRS,ifnotalreadydefined.
Then,gototheOWSServermenuoftheProjectProjectPropertiesdialogandprovidesomeinformationabout
theOWSinthefieldsunderServiceCapabilities. ThiswillappearintheGetCapabilitiesresponseoftheWMS,
WFSorWCS.Ifyoudon’tcheck
Servicecapabilities,QGISServerwillusetheinformationgiveninthe
wms_metadata.xmlfilelocatedinthecgi-binfolder.
WMScapabilities
IntheWMScapabilitiessection,youcandefinetheextentadvertisedintheWMSGetCapabilitiesresponseby
enteringtheminimumandmaximumXandYvaluesinthefieldsunderAdvertisedextent.ClickingUseCurrent
CanvasExtentsetsthesevaluestotheextentcurrentlydisplayedintheQGISmapcanvas. Bychecking
CRS
restrictions,youcanrestrictinwhichcoordinatereferencesystems(CRS)QGISServerwilloffertorendermaps.
14.2. QGISasOGCDataServer
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
Figure14.6:DefinitionsforaQGISServerWMS/WFS/WCSproject(KDE)
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
Usethe
buttonbelowtoselectthoseCRSfromtheCoordinateReferenceSystemSelector,orclickUsedto
addtheCRSusedintheQGISprojecttothelist.
Ifyouhaveprintcomposersdefinedinyourproject,theywillbelistedintheGetCapabilitiesresponse,andthey
canbeusedbytheGetPrintrequesttocreateprints,usingoneoftheprintcomposerlayoutsasatemplate. This
isaQGIS-specificextensiontotheWMS1.3.0specification. Ifyouwanttoexcludeanyprintcomposerfrom
beingpublishedbytheWMS,check
Excludecomposersandclickthe
buttonbelow. Then,selectaprint
composerfromtheSelectprintcomposerdialoginordertoaddittotheexcludedcomposerslist.
IfyouwanttoexcludeanylayerorlayergroupfrombeingpublishedbytheWMS,check
ExcludeLayersand
clickthe
buttonbelow.ThisopenstheSelectrestrictedlayersandgroupsdialog,whichallowsyoutochoose
thelayersandgroupsthatyoudon’twanttobepublished. UsetheShiftorCtrlkeyifyouwanttoselect
multipleentriesatonce.
YoucanreceiverequestedGetFeatureInfoasplaintext,XMLandGML.DefaultisXML,textorGMLformat
dependstheoutputformatchoosenfortheGetFeatureInforequest.
Ifyouwish,youcancheck
Addgeometrytofeatureresponse.ThiswillincludeintheGetFeatureInforesponse
thegeometriesofthefeaturesinatextformat.IfyouwantQGISServertoadvertisespecificrequestURLsinthe
WMSGetCapabilitiesresponse,enterthecorrespondingURLintheAdvertisedURLfield.Furthermore,youcan
restrictthemaximumsizeofthemapsreturnedbytheGetMaprequestbyenteringthemaximumwidthandheight
intotherespectivefieldsunderMaximumsforGetMaprequest.
WFScapabilities
IntheWFScapabilitiesarea, youcanselectthelayersthatyouwanttopublishasWFS,andspecifyifthey
willallowtheupdate,insertanddeleteoperations. IfyouenteraURLintheAdvertisedURLfieldoftheWFS
capabilitiessection,QGISServerwilladvertisethisspecificURLintheWFSGetCapabilitiesresponse.
WCScapabilities
IntheWCScapabilitiesarea,youcanselectthelayersthatyouwanttopublishasWCS.IfyouenteraURLinthe
AdvertisedURLfieldoftheWCScapabilitiessection,QGISServerwilladvertisethisspecificURLintheWCS
GetCapabilitiesresponse.
Now,savethesessioninaprojectfilealaska.qgs. ToprovidetheprojectasaWMS/WFS,wecreateanew
folder/usr/lib/cgi-bin/projectwithadminprivilegesandaddtheprojectfilealaska.qgsanda
copyoftheqgis_mapserv.fcgifile-that’sall.
Nowwe testourproject WMS, WFSand WCS. . Add the e WMS, WFSandWCSas described inLoading
WMS/WMTSLayers,WFSandWFS-TClientandWCSClienttoQGISandloadthedata.TheURLis:
http://localhost/cgi-bin/project/qgis_mapserv.fcgi
FinetuningyourOWS
Forvectorlayers,theFieldsmenuoftheLayerPropertiesdialogallowsyoutodefineforeachattributeifit
willbepublishedornot.Bydefault,alltheattributesarepublishedbyyourWMSandWFS.Ifyouwantaspecific
attributenottobepublished,uncheckthecorrespondingcheckboxintheWMSorWFScolumn.
YoucanoverlaywatermarksoverthemapsproducedbyyourWMSbyaddingtextannotationsorSVGannotations
totheprojectfile. SeesectionAnnotationToolsinGeneralToolsforinstructionsoncreatingannotations. . For
annotationstobedisplayedaswatermarksontheWMSoutput,theFixedmappositioncheckboxintheAnnotation
textdialogmustbeunchecked.Thiscanbeaccessedbydoubleclickingtheannotationwhileoneoftheannotation
toolsisactive.ForSVGannotations,youwillneedeithertosettheprojecttosaveabsolutepaths(intheGeneral
menuoftheProjectProjectPropertiesdialog)ortomanuallymodifythepathtotheSVGimageinawaythat
itrepresentsavalidrelativepath.
14.2. QGISasOGCDataServer
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ExtraparameterssupportedbytheWMSGetMaprequest
IntheWMSGetMaprequest, QGISServeraccepts acouple ofextra parametersinadditiontothestandard
parametersaccordingtotheOCGWMS1.3.0specification:
• MAPparameter: SimilartoMapServer,theMAPparametercanbeusedtospecifythepathtotheQGIS
projectfile. Youcanspecifyanabsolutepathorapathrelativetothelocationoftheserverexecutable
(qgis_mapserv.fcgi).Ifnotspecified,QGISServersearchesfor.qgsfilesinthedirectorywherethe
serverexecutableislocated.
Example:
http://localhost/cgi-bin/qgis_mapserv.fcgi?\
REQUEST=GetMap&MAP=/home/qgis/mymap.qgs&...
• DPIparameter:TheDPIparametercanbeusedtospecifytherequestedoutputresolution.
Example:
http://localhost/cgi-bin/qgis_mapserv.fcgi?REQUEST=GetMap&DPI=300&...
• OPACITIESparameter:Opacitycanbesetonlayerorgrouplevel. Allowedvaluesrangefrom0(fully
transparent)to255(fullyopaque).
Example:
http://localhost/cgi-bin/qgis_mapserv.fcgi?\
REQUEST=GetMap&LAYERS=mylayer1,mylayer2&OPACITIES=125,200&...
.
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CHAPTER
15
WorkingwithGPSData
.
15.1 GPSPlugin
15.1.1 WhatisGPS?
GPS,theGlobalPositioningSystem,isasatellite-basedsystemthatallowsanyonewithaGPSreceivertofindtheir
exactpositionanywhereintheworld.GPSisusedasanaidinnavigation,forexampleinairplanes,inboatsand
byhikers.TheGPSreceiverusesthesignalsfromthesatellitestocalculateitslatitude,longitudeand(sometimes)
elevation.Mostreceiversalsohavethecapabilitytostorelocations(knownaswaypoints),sequencesoflocations
thatmakeupaplannedrouteandatracklogortrackofthereceiver’smovementovertime. Waypoints,routes
andtracksarethethreebasicfeaturetypesinGPSdata. QGISdisplayswaypointsinpointlayers,whileroutes
andtracksaredisplayedinlinestringlayers.
15.1.2 LoadingGPSdatafromafile
TherearedozensofdifferentfileformatsforstoringGPSdata. TheformatthatQGISusesiscalledGPX(GPS
eXchangeformat),whichisastandardinterchangeformatthatcancontainanynumberofwaypoints,routesand
tracksinthesamefile.
ToloadaGPXfile,youfirstneedtoloadtheplugin.Plugins
PluginManager...opensthePluginManager
Dialog.Activatethe
GPSToolscheckbox.Whenthispluginisloaded,twobuttonswithasmallhandheldGPS
devicewillshowupinthetoolbar:
CreatenewGPXLayer
GPSTools
For working with GPS S data, we e provide an n example e GPX X file available in the QGIS sample dataset:
qgis_sample_data/gps/national_monuments.gpx.SeesectionSampleDataformoreinformation
aboutthesampledata.
1. SelectVectorGPSGPSToolsorclickthe
GPSTools
iconinthetoolbarandopentheLoadGPXfile
tab(seefigure_GPS_1).
2. Browsetothefolderqgis_sample_data/gps/,selecttheGPXfilenational_monuments.gpx
andclick[Open].
Usethe[Browse...] buttontoselecttheGPXfile,thenusethecheckboxestoselectthefeaturetypesyouwant
toloadfromthatGPXfile. Eachfeaturetypewillbeloadedinaseparatelayerwhenyouclick[OK].Thefile
national_monuments.gpxonlyincludeswaypoints.
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Figure15.1:TheGPSToolsdialogwindow
Note: GPSunitsallowyou u to store data in differentcoordinatesystems. . When n downloadinga GPXfile
(from yourGPSunit t or awebsite)andthen loadingitin QGIS, , be sure that t the data storedinthe GPX
file uses WGS 84 4 (latitude/longitude). . QGIS S expects this, , and it is s the official l GPX specification. . See
http://www.topografix.com/GPX/1/1/.
15.1.3 GPSBabel
SinceQGISusesGPXfiles,youneedawaytoconvertotherGPSfileformatstoGPX.Thiscanbedoneformany
formatsusingthefreeprogramGPSBabel,whichisavailableathttp://www.gpsbabel.org.Thisprogramcanalso
transferGPSdatabetweenyourcomputerandaGPSdevice. QGISusesGPSBabeltodothesethings,soitis
recommendedthatyouinstallit.However,ifyoujustwanttoloadGPSdatafromGPXfilesyouwillnotneedit.
Version1.2.3ofGPSBabelisknowntoworkwithQGIS,butyoushouldbeabletouselaterversionswithoutany
problems.
15.1.4 ImportingGPSdata
ToimportGPSdatafromafilethatisnotaGPXfile,youusethetoolImportotherfileintheGPSToolsdialog.
Here,youselectthefilethatyouwanttoimport(andthefiletype),whichfeaturetypeyouwanttoimportfromit,
whereyouwanttostoretheconvertedGPXfileandwhatthenameofthenewlayershouldbe. Notethatnotall
GPSdataformatswillsupportallthreefeaturetypes,soformanyformatsyouwillonlybeabletochoosebetween
oneortwotypes.
15.1.5 DownloadingGPSdatafromadevice
QGIScanuseGPSBabeltodownloaddatafromaGPSdevicedirectlyasnewvectorlayers. Forthisweusethe
DownloadfromGPStaboftheGPSToolsdialog(seeFigure_GPS_2). Here,weselectthetypeofGPSdevice,
theportthatitisconnectedto(orUSBifyourGPSsupportsthis),thefeaturetypethatyouwanttodownload,the
GPXfilewherethedatashouldbestored,andthenameofthenewlayer.
ThedevicetypeyouselectintheGPSdevicemenudetermineshowGPSBabeltriestocommunicatewithyour
GPSdevice. IfnoneoftheavailabletypesworkwithyourGPSdevice,youcancreateanewtype(seesection
Definingnewdevicetypes).
Theportmaybeafilenameorsomeothernamethatyouroperatingsystemusesasareferencetothephysicalport
inyourcomputerthattheGPSdeviceisconnectedto.ItmayalsobesimplyUSB,forUSB-enabledGPSunits.
OnLinux,thisissomethinglike/dev/ttyS0or/dev/ttyS1.
OnWindows,itisCOM1orCOM2.
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Chapter15. WorkingwithGPSData
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