c# display pdf in window : Add page number to pdf online application control utility html azure .net visual studio QGIS-2.2-UserGuide-en2-part477

QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
alsoswitchtozoommodeatanytimebypressingandholdingCtrl-Spaceanddrawingazoomregionon
thecomposition.
• Improvedstylingofpagesandshapes:Youcannowcontrolthestyleofthecompositionbackgroundusing
thefullrangeofQGIS’symbologyoptions.It’snowpossibletoexportcompositionswithatransparent(or
semi-transparent)background. Shapeitems(rectangles,trianglesandellipses)canalsobestyledusingthe
sameoptionsaspolygonmaplayers. Youcanevenstylethepagebackgroundorshapesbyusingdata-
definedsettingsbasedonthecurrentatlasfeature! There’salsoanewoptionforroundingthecornersof
rectangleshapes.
5.6 QGISServer
• WCSSupportaddedtoQGISServer:QGISServeralreadysupportsvariousstandards,includingWeb
MapService(WMSversion1.3.0and1.1.1),WebFeatureService(WFSversion1.0.0)andWebFeature
ServicewithTransaction(WFS-T).WiththisnewreleaseofQGIS,youcannowserverasterlayersusing
theWebCoverageService(WCSversion1.0.0)standard.
5.7 Symbology
• Gradientfillsupport:Thenewgradientfillfeatureletsyoucreatebettercartographythaneverbefore.The
featurehasnumerousoptionsprovidingforgreatflexibilityinhowyouapplygradientstoyourfeatures.
Theseinclude:
– Two-colourorramp-basedfills
– Canvas-orobject-basedoriginforyourgradients
– Gradientsoriginatingfromthecentroidofafeature
– Conical,linearandradialgradienttypes
– Data-definedoptions(i.e.,touseanexpressionoratable
column)forallgradientproperties
• Labelsupportforpalletedrasters:Rastersthatuseafixedcolourpallette(forinstance,alandcovermap)
cannowhavecategorylabelsassignedwhichwillbeshowninthemaplegendandinthecomposerlegend.
• Colourrampscanbeinverted:Anewoptionhasbeenaddedtosymbologydialogsthatdealwithcolour
rampstoallowyoutoinvertthecolourrampwhenitiscreated.
• CopyandPasteinrule-basedrenderer:Intherule-basedrenderer,youcannowright-clickonaruleand
thencopyandpastetheruleasanewrule.
• On-the-flyfeaturegeneralisation:QGIS2.2introducessupportforon-the-flyfeaturegeneralisation.This
canimproverenderingtimeswhendrawingmanycomplexfeaturesatsmallscales. Thisfeaturecanbe
enabledordisabledinthelayersettings. Thereisalsoanewglobalsettingthatenablesgeneralisationby
defaultfornewlyaddedlayers. Note: Featuregeneralisationmayintroduceartefactsintoyourrendered
outputinsomecases. Thesemayincludesliversbetweenpolygonsandinaccuraterenderingwhenusing
offset-basedsymbollayers.
• Anchorpointscanbesetformarkerlayers:Whendefiningsymbologywithmarkerlayers(e.g.,apoint
layersymbolizedwithSVGmarkers)youcannowspecifywhatpartoftheimageshouldcorrespondtothe
‘anchorpoint’.Forexample,youcanindicatethatthebottom-leftcorneroftheimageshouldcoincidewith
thepositionofthefeature.Youcanalsousethedata-definedpropertiestohavethispropertysetatrender
timebasedonanattributeinthedatatableforthatlayer(oranarbitraryexpression).
• Thematicmapsbasedonexpressions: : Categorizedandgraduatedthematicmaps s cannowbecreated
usingtheresultofanexpression. InthePropertiesdialogforvectorlayers,theattributechooserhasbeen
augmentedwithanexpressionbuilder. Sonow,younolongerneedtowritetheclassificationattributeto
5.6. QGISServer
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
anewcolumninyourattributetableifyouwanttheclassificationattributetobeacompositeofmultiple
fields,oraformulaofsomesort.
• Expressionsupportinsymboldiagramsforsizeandattributes:Youcannowuseanexpressiontodefine
thesizeandattributeswhenusingthediagrammingcapabilitiesofQGIS.
• Elseruleinrule-basedrenderer: Therule-basedrenderernowsupportsanElserulethatwillberunif
noneoftheotherrulesonthatlevelmatch.Elserulescanbenestedjustlikeanyotherrules. Anexample
mightbe:
type = ’water’ ’ (style e grey) ELSE (style red)
• Innerstrokesupportforpolygons:Supporthasbeenaddedforpolygonstrokestobelimitedtotheinterior
ofthepolygon(soasnottooverflowintoaneighbouringpolygon).
5.8 UserInterface
• Improvedpropertiesdialogs:Allpropertiesdialogshavehadtheirmainpropertymenusupdatedsothat
theylookslicker,withaninverse-colouredsidebar. Thisispurelycosmeticbutshouldmakeiteasierto
knowwhatyourcurrentcontextisinadialog.
• Expressiondialogimprovements:Wehavemadesometweakstotheexpressiondialog-poweruserscan
nowhidetheoperatorbuttons.Therearealsonowsplittersbetweenthefunctionlistandfunctionhelpareas,
andbetweentheexpressionandfunctionlistarea.
• Newkeybindings:WehaveupdatedthekeyboardshortcutsinQGIStomakeitmoreefficienttocarryout
repetitivetasks.
– Ctrl-d:Removeselectedlayersintableofcontents
– >:Selectnextvertexwhenusingthenodetool
– <:Selectpreviousvertexwhenusingthenodetool
– DeleteorBackspace:Deletetheselectedfeatures(youcanundotheseactions),ornodeswhen
usingthenodetool
– F5:Updatethecanvas(insteadofCtrl-r)
.
16
Chapter5. What’snewinQGIS2.2
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CHAPTER
6
GettingStarted
ThischaptergivesaquickoverviewofinstallingQGIS,somesampledatafromtheQGISwebpage,andrunning
afirstandsimplesessionvisualizingrasterandvectorlayers.
6.1 Installation
InstallationofQGISisverysimple.StandardinstallerpackagesareavailableforMSWindowsandMacOSX.For
manyflavorsofGNU/Linux,binarypackages(rpmanddeb)orsoftwarerepositoriesareprovidedtoaddtoyourin-
stallationmanager.GetthelatestinformationonbinarypackagesattheQGISwebsiteathttp://download.qgis.org.
6.1.1 Installationfromsource
If you need d to o build QGIS from source, , please e refer to the installation instructions. . They y are dis-
tributed with the QGIS S source code in n a file called INSTALL. You u can n also o find d them online at
http://htmlpreview.github.io/?https://raw.github.com/qgis/QGIS/master/doc/INSTALL.html
6.1.2 Installationonexternalmedia
QGISallowsyoutodefinea--configpathoptionthatoverridesthedefaultpathforuserconfiguration(e.g.,
~/.qgis2underLinux)andforcesQSettingstousethisdirectory,too.Thisallowsyouto,forinstance,carrya
QGISinstallationonaflashdrivetogetherwithallpluginsandsettings.SeesectionSystemMenuforadditional
information.
6.2 SampleData
TheuserguidecontainsexamplesbasedontheQGISsampledataset.
TheWindowsinstallerhasanoptiontodownloadtheQGISsampledataset.Ifchecked,thedatawillbedown-
loadedtoyourMy DocumentsfolderandplacedinafoldercalledGIS Database. . YoumayuseWindows
Explorertomovethisfoldertoanyconvenientlocation. Ifyoudidnotselectthecheckboxtoinstallthesample
datasetduringtheinitialQGISinstallation,youmaydooneofthefollowing:
• UseGISdatathatyoualreadyhave
• Downloadsampledatafromhttp://download.osgeo.org/qgis/data/qgis_sample_data.zip
• UninstallQGISandreinstallwiththedatadownloadoptionchecked(onlyrecommendediftheabovesolu-
tionsareunsuccessful)
For GNU/Linux and Mac c OS S X, , there are not t yet dataset t installation packages s available as rpm,
debordmg. To o use the sample dataset, download the file qgis_sample_data as s a ZIParchive from
http://download.osgeo.org/qgis/data/qgis_sample_data.zipandunzipthearchiveonyoursystem.
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
TheAlaskadatasetincludesallGISdatathatareusedforexamplesandscreenshotsintheuserguide;italso
includesasmallGRASSdatabase.TheprojectionfortheQGISsampledatasetisAlaskaAlbersEqualAreawith
unitsfeet.TheEPSGcodeis2964.
PROJCS["Albers Equal Area",
GEOGCS["NAD27",
DATUM["North_American_Datum_1927",
SPHEROID["Clarke 1866",6378206.4,294.978698213898,
AUTHORITY["EPSG","7008"]],
TOWGS84[-3,142,183,0,0,0,0],
AUTHORITY["EPSG","6267"]],
PRIMEM["Greenwich",0,
AUTHORITY["EPSG","8901"]],
UNIT["degree",0.0174532925199433,
AUTHORITY["EPSG","9108"]],
AUTHORITY["EPSG","4267"]],
PROJECTION["Albers_Conic_Equal_Area"],
PARAMETER["standard_parallel_1",55],
PARAMETER["standard_parallel_2",65],
PARAMETER["latitude_of_center",50],
PARAMETER["longitude_of_center",-154],
PARAMETER["false_easting",0],
PARAMETER["false_northing",0],
UNIT["us_survey_feet",0.3048006096012192]]
IfyouintendtouseQGISasagraphicalfrontendforGRASS,youcanfindaselectionofsamplelocations(e.g.,
SpearfishorSouthDakota)attheofficialGRASSGISwebsite,http://grass.osgeo.org/download/sample-data/.
6.3 SampleSession
Now that you u have QGIS S installed and a a sample dataset available, , we e would like to o demonstrate e a short
and simple e QGIS S sample e session. . We e will l visualize e a raster r and a a vector r layer. . We e will use e the
landcoverrasterlayer,qgis_sample_data/raster/landcover.img,andthelakesvectorlayer,
qgis_sample_data/gml/lakes.gml.
6.3.1 StartQGIS
StartQGISbytyping“QGIS”atacommandprompt,orifusingaprecompiledbinary,byusingthe
Applicationsmenu.
StartQGISusingtheStartmenuordesktopshortcut,ordoubleclickonaQGISprojectfile.
DoubleclicktheiconinyourApplicationsfolder.
6.3.2 Loadrasterandvectorlayersfromthesampledataset
1. Clickonthe
LoadRaster
icon.
2. Browsetothefolderqgis_sample_data/raster/,selecttheERDASIMGfilelandcover.img
andclick[Open].
3. Ifthefileisnotlisted,checkiftheFilesoftype
comboboxatthebottomofthedialogissetonthe
righttype,inthiscase“ErdasImagineImages(*.img,*.IMG)”.
4. Nowclickonthe
LoadVector
icon.
5.
FileshouldbeselectedasSourceTypeinthenewAddvectorlayerdialog.Nowclick[Browse]toselect
thevectorlayer.
18
Chapter6. GettingStarted
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
6. Browsetothefolderqgis_sample_data/gml/,select‘GeographyMarkupLanguage[GML][OGR]
(.gml,.GML)’fromtheFilesoftype
combobox,thenselecttheGMLfilelakes.gmlandclick
[Open].IntheAddvectorlayerdialog,click[OK].
7. Zoominabittoyourfavoriteareawithsomelakes.
8. DoubleclickthelakeslayerinthemaplegendtoopenthePropertiesdialog.
9. ClickontheStyletabandselectablueasfillcolor.
10. ClickontheLabelstabandcheckthe
Labelthislayerwithcheckboxtoenablelabeling. Choosethe
“NAMES”fieldasthefieldcontaininglabels.
11. Toimprovereadabilityoflabels,youcanaddawhitebufferaroundthembyclicking“Buffer”intheliston
theleft,checking
Drawtextbufferandchoosing3asbuffersize.
12. Click[Apply].Checkiftheresultlooksgood,andfinallyclick[OK].
YoucanseehoweasyitistovisualizerasterandvectorlayersinQGIS.Let’smoveontothesectionsthatfollow
tolearnmoreabouttheavailablefunctionality,featuresandsettings,andhowtousethem.
6.4 StartingandStoppingQGIS
InsectionSampleSessionyoualreadylearnedhowtostartQGIS.Wewillrepeatthishere,andyouwillseethat
QGISalsoprovidesfurthercommandlineoptions.
AssumingthatQGISisinstalledinthePATH,youcanstartQGISbytypingqgisatacommandprompt
orbydoubleclickingontheQGISapplicationlink(orshortcut)onthedesktoporintheApplicationsmenu.
StartQGISusingtheStartmenuordesktopshortcut,ordoubleclickonaQGISprojectfile.
Double click the icon in n your Applications s folder. . If f you need to start QGIS in a shell, run
/path-to-installation-executable/Contents/MacOS/Qgis.
TostopQGIS,clickthemenuoption
File
QGISQuit,orusetheshortcutCtrl+Q.
6.5 CommandLineOptions
QGISsupportsanumberofoptionswhenstartedfromthecommandline. Togetalistoftheoptions,enter
qgis --helponthecommandline.TheusagestatementforQGISis:
qgis --help
QGIS - 2.2.0-Valmiera a ’Valmiera’ (exported)
QGIS is a a user friendly y Open Source Geographic Information System.
Usage: qgis [OPTION] ] [FILE]
options:
[--snapshot filename]
emit snapshot t of f loaded d datasets to given file
[--width width]
width of f snapshot t to o emit
[--height height]
height of snapshot to o emit
[--lang language]
use language for r interface e text
[--project projectfile]
load the e given QGIS project
[--extent xmin,ymin,xmax,ymax]
set initial l map p extent
[--nologo]
hide splash screen
[--noplugins]
don’t restore e plugins s on n startup
[--nocustomization]
don’t apply GUI I customization
[--customizationfile]
use the given ini i file as s GUI customization
[--optionspath path]
use the given QSettings path
[--configpath path]
use the given path for r all l user configuration
[--code path]
run the given python file on n load
[--help]
this text
6.4. StartingandStoppingQGIS
19
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
FILES:
Files specified on n the e command d line e can include e rasters,
vectors, and d QGIS project t files (.qgs):
1. Rasters s - Supported formats s include e GeoTiff, , DEM
and others s supported d by GDAL
2. Vectors s - Supported formats s include e ESRI I Shapefiles
and others s supported d by OGR R and d PostgreSQL layers using
the PostGIS S extension
Tip: ExampleUsingcommandlinearguments
YoucanstartQGISbyspecifyingoneormoredatafilesonthecommandline. Forexample,assumingyouare
intheqgis_sample_datadirectory,youcouldstartQGISwithavectorlayerandarasterfilesettoloadon
startupusingthefollowingcommand:qgis ./raster/landcover.img ./gml/lakes.gml
Commandlineoption--snapshot
ThisoptionallowsyoutocreateasnapshotinPNGformatfromthecurrentview.Thiscomesinhandywhenyou
havealotofprojectsandwanttogeneratesnapshotsfromyourdata.
Currently,itgeneratesaPNGfilewith800x600pixels.Thiscanbeadjustedusingthe--widthand--height
commandlinearguments.Afilenamecanbeaddedafter--snapshot.
Commandlineoption--lang
Based on your locale, , QGIS S selects s the correct localization. . If f you would like e to o change yourlanguage,
youcanspecifya languagecode. . Forexample, , --lang=it t startsQGISinitalian localization. . Alist t of
currentlysupportedlanguageswithlanguagecodeandstatusisprovidedathttp://hub.qgis.org/wiki/quantum-
gis/GUI_Translation_Progress.
Commandlineoption--project
StartingQGISwithanexistingprojectfileisalsopossible. Justaddthecommandlineoption--project
followedbyyourprojectnameandQGISwillopenwithalllayersinthegivenfileloaded.
Commandlineoption--extent
Tostartwithaspecificmapextentusethisoption. Youneedtoaddtheboundingboxofyourextentinthe
followingorderseparatedbyacomma:
--extent xmin,ymin,xmax,ymax
Commandlineoption--nologo
ThiscommandlineargumenthidesthesplashscreenwhenyoustartQGIS.
Commandlineoption--noplugins
Ifyouhavetroubleatstart-upwithplugins,youcanavoidloadingthematstart-upwiththisoption.Theywillstill
beavailablefromthePluginsManagerafterwards.
Commandlineoption--customizationfile
Usingthiscommandlineargument,youcandefineaGUIcustomizationfile,thatwillbeusedatstartup.
Commandlineoption--nocustomization
Usingthiscommandlineargument,existingGUIcustomizationwillnotbeappliedatstartup.
Commandlineoption--optionspath
YoucanhavemultipleconfigurationsanddecidewhichonetousewhenstartingQGISwiththisoption. See
Optionstoconfirmwheretheoperatingsystemsavesthesettingsfiles.Presently,thereisnowaytospecifyafile
towritesettingsto;therefore,youcancreateacopyoftheoriginalsettingsfileandrenameit.
Commandlineoption--configpath
20
Chapter6. GettingStarted
QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
This option n is s similar to the one e above, , but t furthermore e overrides s the default t path for user configuration
(~/.qgis2)andforcesQSettingstousethisdirectory,too. Thisallowsusersto,forinstance,carryaQGIS
installationonaflashdrivetogetherwithallpluginsandsettings.
6.6 Projects
ThestateofyourQGISsessionisconsideredaproject. QGISworksononeprojectatatime. . Settingsare
consideredasbeingeitherper-projectorasadefaultfornewprojects(seesectionOptions). QGIScansavethe
stateofyourworkspaceintoaprojectfileusingthemenuoptionsProject
SaveorProject
Save
As....
LoadsavedprojectsintoaQGISsessionusingProject
Open...,ProjectNewfromtemplateorProject
OpenRecent→.
Ifyouwishtoclearyoursessionandstartfresh,chooseProject
New. Eitherofthesemenuoptionswill
promptyoutosavetheexistingprojectifchangeshavebeenmadesinceitwasopenedorlastsaved.
Thekindsofinformationsavedinaprojectfileinclude:
• Layersadded
• Layerproperties,includingsymbolization
• Projectionforthemapview
• Lastviewedextent
TheprojectfileissavedinXMLformat,soitispossibletoeditthefileoutsideQGISifyouknowwhatyouare
doing. ThefileformathasbeenupdatedseveraltimescomparedwithearlierQGISversions. Projectfilesfrom
olderQGISversionsmaynotworkproperlyanymore.Tobemadeawareofthis,intheGeneraltabunderSettings
Optionsyoucanselect:
Prompttosaveprojectanddatasourcechangeswhenrequired
WarnwhenopeningaprojectfilesavedwithanolderversionofQGIS
WheneveryousaveaprojectinQGIS2.2nowabackupoftheprojectfileismade.
6.7 Output
ThereareseveralwaystogenerateoutputfromyourQGISsession. Wehavediscussedonealreadyinsection
Projects,savingasaprojectfile.Hereisasamplingofotherwaystoproduceoutputfiles:
• MenuoptionProject
SaveasImage
opensafiledialogwhereyouselectthename,pathandtypeofimage
(PNGorJPGformat).AworldfilewithextensionPNGWorJPGWsavedinthesamefoldergeoreferences
theimage.
• MenuoptionProjectDXFExport... opensadialogwhereyoucandefinethe‘Symbologymode’,the
‘Symbologyscale’andvectorlayersyouwanttoexporttoDXF.
• MenuoptionProject
NewPrintComposeropensadialogwhereyoucanlayoutandprintthecurrent
mapcanvas(seesectionPrintComposer).
.
6.6. Projects
21
QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
22
Chapter6. GettingStarted
CHAPTER
7
QGISGUI
WhenQGISstarts,youarepresentedwiththeGUIasshowninthefigure(thenumbers1through5inyellow
circlesarediscussedbelow).
Figure7.1:QGISGUIwithAlaskasampledata
Note: Yourwindowdecorations(titlebar,etc.)mayappeardifferentdependingonyouroperatingsystemand
windowmanager.
TheQGISGUIisdividedintofiveareas:
1. MenuBar
2. ToolBar
3. MapLegend
4. MapView
5. StatusBar
ThesefivecomponentsoftheQGISinterfacearedescribedinmoredetailinthefollowingsections. Twomore
sectionspresentkeyboardshortcutsandcontexthelp.
23
QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
7.1 MenuBar
ThemenubarprovidesaccesstovariousQGISfeaturesusingastandardhierarchicalmenu.Thetop-levelmenus
andasummaryofsomeofthemenuoptionsarelistedbelow,togetherwiththeassociatediconsastheyappearon
thetoolbar,andkeyboardshortcuts. Theshortcutspresentedinthissectionarethedefaults;however,keyboard
shortcutscanalsobeconfiguredmanuallyusingtheConfigureshortcutsdialog,openedfromSettingsConfigure
Shortcuts....
Althoughmostmenuoptionshaveacorrespondingtoolandvice-versa,themenusarenotorganizedexactlylike
thetoolbars. Thetoolbarcontainingthetoolislistedaftereachmenuoptionasacheckboxentry. Somemenu
optionsonlyappearifthecorrespondingpluginisloaded. Formoreinformationabouttoolsandtoolbars,see
sectionToolbar.
7.1.1 Project
MenuOption
Shortcut
Reference
Toolbar
New
Ctrl+N
seeProjects
Project
Open
Ctrl+O
seeProjects
Project
Newfromtemplate
seeProjects
Project
OpenRecent
seeProjects
Save
Ctrl+S
seeProjects
Project
SaveAs...
Ctrl+Shift+S
seeProjects
Project
SaveasImage...
seeOutput
DXFExport...
seeOutput
NewPrintComposer
Ctrl+P
seePrintComposer
Project
Composermanager...
seePrintComposer
Project
PrintComposers
seePrintComposer
ExitQGIS
Ctrl+Q
24
Chapter7. QGISGUI
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