c# display pdf in window : Add page numbers to pdf in preview control Library platform web page asp.net html web browser QGIS-2.2-UserGuide-en8-part494

QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
Onceallparametersandoptionsareset,youcantesttheconnectionbyclickingonthe[TestConnect]button.
Tip: QGISUserSettingsandSecurity
Dependingonyourcomputingenvironment, storingpasswords inyourQGISsettingsmaybeasecurityrisk.
Passwordsaresavedincleartextinthesystemconfigurationandintheprojectfiles!Yourcustomizedsettingsfor
QGISarestoredbasedontheoperatingsystem:
Thesettingsarestoredinyourhomedirectoryin.config/QGIS/QGIS2.conf.
Thesettingsarestoredintheregistry.
LoadinganOracleSpatialLayer
Onceyouhaveoneormoreconnectionsdefined,youcanloadlayersfromtheOracledatabase. Ofcourse,
thisrequireshavingdatainOracle.
ToloadalayerfromOracleSpatial,performthefollowingsteps:
• IftheAddOracleSpatiallayersdialogisnotalreadyopen,clickonthe
AddOracleSpatialLayer
toolbar
button.
• Choosetheconnectionfromthedrop-downlistandclick[Connect].
• Selectorunselect
Alsolisttableswithnogeometry.
• Optionally,usesome
SearchOptionstodefinewhichfeaturestoloadfromthelayerorusethe[Build
query]buttontostarttheQuerybuilderdialog.
• Findthelayer(s)youwishtoaddinthelistofavailablelayers.
• Selectitbyclickingonit. . YoucanselectmultiplelayersbyholdingdowntheShiftkeywhileclicking.
SeesectionQueryBuilderforinformationonusingtheOracleQueryBuildertofurtherdefinethelayer.
• Clickonthe[Add]buttontoaddthelayertothemap.
Tip: OracleSpatialLayers
Normally,anOracleSpatiallayerisdefinedbyanentryintheUSER_SDO_METADATAtable.
.
12.2 TheVectorPropertiesDialog
TheLayerProperties dialogforavectorlayerprovidesinformationaboutthe layer, symbologysettings and
labelingoptions. IfyourvectorlayerhasbeenloadedfromaPostgreSQL/PostGISdatastore,youcanalsoalter
theunderlyingSQLforthelayerbyinvokingtheQueryBuilderdialogontheGeneraltab. ToaccesstheLayer
Propertiesdialog,double-clickonalayerinthelegendorright-clickonthelayerandselectPropertiesfromthe
pop-upmenu.
12.2.1 StyleMenu
TheStylemenuprovidesyouwithacomprehensivetoolforrenderingandsymbolizingyourvectordata.Youcan
useLayerrendering→toolsthatarecommontoallvectordata,aswellasspecialsymbolizingtoolsthatwere
designedforthedifferentkindsofvectordata.
12.2. TheVectorPropertiesDialog
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
Figure12.7:VectorLayerPropertiesDialog
76
Chapter12. WorkingwithVectorData
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
Layerrendering
• Layertransparency
:Youcanmaketheunderlyinglayerinthemapcanvasvisiblewith
thistool. Usetheslidertoadaptthevisibilityofyourvectorlayertoyourneeds. Youcanalsomakea
precisedefinitionofthepercentageofvisibilityinthethemenubesidetheslider.
• LayerblendingmodeandFeatureblendingmode:Youcanachievespecialrenderingeffectswiththesetools
thatyoumaypreviouslyonlyknowfromgraphicsprograms.Thepixelsofyouroverlayingandunderlaying
layersaremixedthroughthesettingsdescribedbelow.
– Normal:Thisisthestandardblendmode,whichusesthealphachannelofthetoppixeltoblendwith
thepixelbeneathit.Thecolorsaren’tmixed.
– Lighten:Thisselectsthemaximumofeachcomponentfromtheforegroundandbackgroundpixels.
Beawarethattheresultstendtobejaggedandharsh.
– Screen:Lightpixelsfromthesourcearepaintedoverthedestination,whiledarkpixelsarenot.This
modeismostusefulformixingthetextureofonelayerwithanotherlayer(e.g.,youcanuseahillshade
totextureanotherlayer).
– Dodge:Dodgewillbrightenandsaturateunderlyingpixelsbasedonthelightnessofthetoppixel.So,
brightertoppixelscausethesaturationandbrightnessoftheunderlyingpixelstoincrease.Thisworks
bestifthetoppixelsaren’ttoobright;otherwisetheeffectistooextreme.
– Addition: Thisblendmodesimplyaddspixelvaluesofonelayerwiththeother. . Incaseofvalues
aboveone(inthecaseofRGB),whiteisdisplayed.Thismodeissuitableforhighlightingfeatures.
– Darken: : Thiscreatesaresultantpixelthatretainsthesmallestcomponentsoftheforegroundand
backgroundpixels.Likelighten,theresultstendtobejaggedandharsh.
– Multiply: : Here, , thenumbersforeachpixelofthetoplayeraremultipliedwiththecorresponding
pixelsforthebottomlayer.Theresultsaredarkerpictures.
– Burn:Darkercolorsinthetoplayercausetheunderlyinglayerstodarken.Burncanbeusedtotweak
andcoloriseunderlyinglayers.
– Overlay:Thismodecombinesthemultiplyandscreenblendingmodes.Intheresultingpicture,light
partsbecomelighteranddarkpartsbecomedarker.
– Softlight:Thisisverysimilartooverlay,butinsteadofusingmultiply/screenitusescolorburn/dodge.
Thisissupposedtoemulateshiningasoftlightontoanimage.
– Hardlight:Hardlightisalsoverysimilartotheoverlaymode. . It’ssupposedtoemulateprojectinga
veryintenselightontoanimage.
– Difference: : Differencesubtractsthetoppixelfrom m thebottom pixel, ortheotherwayaround,to
alwaysgetapositivevalue.Blendingwithblackproducesnochange,asthedifferencewithallcolors
iszero.
– Subtract:Thisblendmodesimplysubtractspixelvaluesofonelayerfromtheother.Incaseofnegative
values,blackisdisplayed.
Renderers
Therendereris responsiblefordrawingafeaturetogetherwiththecorrectsymbol. . Therearefourtypes s of
renderers:singlesymbol,categorized,graduatedandrule-based.Thereisnocontinuouscolorrenderer,becauseit
isinfactonlyaspecialcaseofthegraduatedrenderer.Thecategorizedandgraduatedrendererscanbecreatedby
specifyingasymbolandacolorramp-theywillsetthecolorsforsymbolsappropriately. Forpointlayers,there
isapointdisplacementrendereravailable. Foreachdatatype(points,linesandpolygons),vectorsymbollayer
typesareavailable.Dependingonthechosenrenderer,theStylemenuprovidesdifferentadditionalsections.On
thebottomrightofthesymbologydialog,thereisa[Symbol]button,whichgivesaccesstotheStyleManager
(seesectionvector_style_manager).TheStyleManagerallowsyoutoeditandremoveexistingsymbolsandadd
newones.
12.2. TheVectorPropertiesDialog
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C# PowerPoint - PowerPoint Creating in C#.NET
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
Tip: Selectandchangemultiplesymbols
TheSymbologyallowsyoutoselectmultiplesymbolsandrightclicktochangecolor,transparency,size,orwidth
ofselectedentries.
SingleSymbolRenderer
TheSingleSymbolRendererisusedtorenderallfeaturesofthelayerusingasingleuser-definedsymbol. The
properties,whichcanbeadjustedintheStylemenu,dependpartiallyonthetypeoflayer,butalltypessharethe
followingdialogstructure.Inthetop-leftpartofthemenu,thereisapreviewofthecurrentsymboltoberendered.
Ontherightpartofthemenu,thereisalistofsymbolsalreadydefinedforthecurrentstyle,preparedtobeused
byselectingthemfromthelist. Thecurrentsymbolcanbemodifiedusingthemenuontherightside. . Ifyou
clickonthefirstlevelintheSymbollayersdialogontheleftside,it’spossibletodefinebasicparameterslikeSize,
Transparency,ColorandRotation.Here,thelayersarejoinedtogether.
Figure12.8:Singlesymbollineproperties
MoredetailedsettingscanbemadewhenclickingonthesecondlevelintheSymbollayersdialog. Youcan
defineSymbollayersthatarecombinedafterwards.AsymbolcanconsistofseveralSymbollayers.Thefollowing
settingsarepossible:
• Pointlayers:
• Symbollayertype:YouhavetheoptiontouseEllipsemarkers,Fontmarkers,Simplemarkers,SVGmarkers
andVectorFieldmarkers.
• Colors
• Size
• Outlinestyle
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Chapter12. WorkingwithVectorData
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
• Outlinewidth
• Angle
• OffsetX,Y:Youcanshiftthesymbolinthex-ory-direction.
• Anchorpoint
• Datadefinedproperties...
• Linelayers:
• Symbollayertype:HereyoucanuseSimpleLinesandMarkerLines.
• Color
• Penwidth
• Offset
• Penstyle
• Joinstyle
• Capstyle
Usecustomdashpattern
• Dashpatternunit
• Datadefinedproperties...
• PolygonLayers:
• Symbollayertype:It’spossibletouseCentroidFill,GradientFill,LinePatternFill,PointPatternFill,SVG
Fill,SimpleFillandtwoOutlines(MarkerlineandSimpleline).
• Colors
• Fillstyle
• Borderstyle
• Borderwidth
• OffsetX,Y
• Datadefinedproperties...
‘GradientFill’Symbollayertypeallowsyoutoselectbetweena
Twocolorand
Colorrampsetting. You
canusethe
FeaturecentroidasReferencepoint. Allfills‘GradientFill‘Symbollayertypeisalsoavailable
throughtheSymbolmenuoftheCategorizedandGraduatedRendererandthroughtheRulepropertiesmenuof
theRule-basedrenderer.
Itispossibletoonlydrawpolygonbordersinsidethepolygon.Using‘Outline:Simpleline’select
Drawline
onlyinsidepolygon.
NotethatonceyouhavesetthesizeinthelowerlevelsoftheSymbollayersdialog,thesizeofthewholesymbol
canbechangedwiththeSizemenuinthefirstlevelagain. Thesizeofthelowerlevelschangesaccordingly,
whilethesizeratioismaintained. Afterhavingmadeanyneededchanges,thesymbolcanbeaddedtothelist
ofcurrentstylesymbols(using[Symbol]
Saveinsymbollibrary),andthenitcaneasilybeusedinthe
future. Furthermore,youcanusethe[SaveStyle]
buttontosavethesymbolasaQGISlayerstylefile
(.qml)orSLDfile(.sld).SLDscanbeexportedfromanytypeofrenderer–singlesymbol,categorized,graduated
orrule-based–butwhenimportinganSLD,eitherasinglesymbolorrule-basedrendereriscreated.Thatmeans
thatcategorizedorgraduatedstylesareconvertedtorule-based.Ifyouwanttopreservethoserenderers,youhave
tosticktotheQMLformat.Ontheotherhand,itcanbeveryhandysometimestohavethiseasywayofconverting
stylestorule-based. WiththeStylemanagerfromthe[Symbol]
menuyoucanadministeryoursymbols.
Youcan
additem
,
edititem
,
removeitem
and
shareitem
.‘Marker’symbols,‘Line’symbols,‘Fill’patterns
12.2. TheVectorPropertiesDialog
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
and‘Colorramps’canbeusedtocreatethesymbols(seedefining_symbols). Thesymbolsarethenassignedto
‘AllSymbols’,‘Groups’or‘Smartgroups’.
CategorizedRenderer
TheCategorizedRendererisusedtorenderallfeaturesfromalayer,usingasingleuser-definedsymbolwhose
colorreflectsthevalueofaselectedfeature’sattribute.TheStylemenuallowsyoutoselect:
• Theattribute(usingtheColumnlistboxorthe
Setcolumnexpressionfunction)
• Thesymbol(usingtheSymboldialog)
• Thecolors(usingtheColorRamplistbox)
The[Advanced]buttoninthelower-rightcornerofthedialogallowsyoutosetthefieldscontainingrotationand
sizescaleinformation.Forconvenience,thecenterofthemenuliststhevaluesofallcurrentlyselectedattributes
together,includingthesymbolsthatwillberendered.
Theexampleinfigure_symbology_2showsthecategoryrenderingdialogusedfortheriverslayeroftheQGIS
sampledataset.
Figure12.9:CategorizedSymbolizingoptions
YoucancreateacustomcolorrampchoosingNewcolorramp...fromtheColorrampdrop-downmenu.Adialog
willpromptfortheramptype: Gradient, , Random,ColorBrewer,orcpt-city. . Thefirstthreehaveoptionsfor
numberofstepsand/ormultiplestopsinthecolorramp. Youcanusethe
Invertoptionwhileclassifyingthe
datawithacolorramp.Seefigure_symbology_3foranexampleofcustomcolorrampandfigure_symbology_3a
forthecpt-citydialog.
Thecpt-cityoptionopensanewdialogwithhundredsofthemesincluded‘outofthebox’.
GraduatedRenderer
TheGraduatedRendererisusedtorenderallthefeaturesfromalayer,usingasingleuser-definedsymbolwhose
colorreflectstheassignmentofaselectedfeature’sattributetoaclass.
LiketheCategorizedRenderer,theGraduatedRendererallowsyoutodefinerotationandsizescalefromspecified
columns.
Also,analogoustotheCategorizedRenderer,theStyletaballowsyoutoselect:
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Figure12.10:Exampleofcustomgradientcolorrampwithmultiplestops
Figure12.11:cpt-citydialogwithhundredsofcolorramps
12.2. TheVectorPropertiesDialog
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Figure12.12:GraduatedSymbolizingoptions
• Theattribute(usingtheColumnlistboxorthe
Setcolumnexpressionfunction)
• Thesymbol(usingtheSymbolPropertiesbutton)
• Thecolors(usingtheColorRamplist)
Additionally,youcanspecifythenumberofclassesandalsothemodeforclassifyingfeatureswithintheclasses
(usingtheModelist).Theavailablemodesare:
• EqualInterval
• Quantile
• NaturalBreaks(Jenks)
• StandardDeviation
• PrettyBreaks
ThelistboxinthecenterpartoftheStylemenuliststheclassestogetherwiththeirranges,labelsandsymbolsthat
willberendered.
Theexampleinfigure_symbology_4showsthegraduatedrenderingdialogfortheriverslayeroftheQGISsample
dataset.
Tip: Thematicmapsusinganexpression
Categorizedandgraduatedthematicmapscannowbecreatedusingtheresultofanexpression.Intheproperties
dialogforvectorlayers,theattributechooserhasbeenaugmentedwitha
Setcolumnexpressionfunction.So
nowyounolongerneedtowritetheclassificationattributetoanewcolumninyourattributetableifyouwantthe
classificationattributetobeacompositeofmultiplefields,oraformulaofsomesort.
Rule-basedrendering
TheRule-basedRendererisusedtorenderallthefeaturesfromalayer,usingrulebasedsymbolswhosecolor
reflectstheassignmentofaselectedfeature’sattributetoaclass. TherulesarebasedonSQLstatements. The
dialogallowsrulegroupingbyfilterorscale,andyoucandecideifyouwanttoenablesymbollevelsoruseonly
thefirst-matchedrule.
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Theexampleinfigure_symbology_5showstherule-basedrenderingdialogfortheriverslayeroftheQGISsample
dataset.
Tocreatearule,activateanexistingrowbydouble-clickingonit,orclickon‘+’andclickonthenewrule.Inthe
Rulepropertiesdialog,youcandefinealabelfortherule. Pressthe
buttontoopentheexpressionstring
builder.IntheFunctionList,clickonFieldsandValuestoviewallattributesoftheattributetabletobesearched.
ToaddanattributetothefieldcalculatorExpressionfield,doubleclickitsnameintheFieldsandValueslist.
Generally,youcanusethevariousfields,valuesandfunctionstoconstructthecalculationexpression,oryoucan
justtypeitintothebox(seeFieldCalculator).SinceQGIS2.2,youcancreateanewrulebycopyingandpasting
anexistingrulewiththerightmousebutton.AlsosinceQGIS2.2,youcanusethe‘ELSE’rulethatwillberunif
noneoftheotherrulesonthatlevelmatch.
Figure12.13:Rule-basedSymbolizingoptions
Pointdisplacement
ThePointDisplacementRendererworkstovisualizeallfeaturesofapointlayer, eveniftheyhavethesame
location.Todothis,thesymbolsofthepointsareplacedonadisplacementcirclearoundacentersymbol.
Tip: Exportvectorsymbology
YouhavetheoptiontoexportvectorsymbologyfromQGISintoGoogle*.kml,*.dxfandMapInfo*.tabfiles.Just
opentherightmousemenuofthelayerandclickonSaveselectionas→tospecifythenameoftheoutputfileand
itsformat. Inthedialog,usetheSymbologyexportmenutosavethesymbologyeitherasFeaturesymbology
orasSymbollayersymbology→.Ifyouhaveusedsymbollayers,itisrecommendedtousethesecondsetting.
12.2.2 LabelsMenu
The
Labels coreapplicationprovides smartlabelingforvectorpoint, lineandpolygonlayers, anditonly
requiresafewparameters. Thisnewapplicationalsosupportson-the-flytransformedlayers. Thecorefunctions
oftheapplicationhavebeenredesigned.InQGIS,thereareanumberofotherfeaturesthatimprovethelabeling.
Thefollowingmenushavebeencreatedforlabelingthevectorlayers:
• Text
• Formatting
• Buffer
• Background
12.2. TheVectorPropertiesDialog
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Figure12.14:Pointdisplacementdialog
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Chapter12. WorkingwithVectorData
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