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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
• Shadow
• Placement
• Rendering
Letusseehowthenewmenuscanbeusedforvariousvectorlayers. Labelingpointlayers
StartQGISandloadavectorpointlayer. Activatethelayerinthelegendandclickonthe
LayerLabelingOptions
iconintheQGIStoolbarmenu.
Thefirststepistoactivatethe
Labelthislayerwithcheckboxandselectanattributecolumntouseforlabeling.
Click
ifyouwanttodefinelabelsbasedonexpressions-Seelabeling_with_expressions.
Thefollowingstepsdescribea simplelabelingwithoutusingtheDatadefinedoverridefunctions, whichare
situatednexttothedrop-downmenus.
YoucandefinethetextstyleintheTextmenu(seeFigure_labels_1).UsetheTypecaseoptiontoinfluencethetext
rendering. Youhavethepossibilitytorenderthetext‘Alluppercase’,‘Alllowercase’or‘Capitalizefirstletter’.
Usetheblendmodestocreateeffectsknownfromgraphicsprograms(seeblend_modes).
IntheFormattingmenu,youcandefineacharacterforalinebreakinthelabelswiththe‘Wraponcharacter’
function.Usethe
Formattednumbersoptiontoformatthenumbersinanattributetable.Here,decimalplaces
maybeinserted.Ifyouenablethisoption,threedecimalplacesareinitiallysetbydefault.
Tocreateabuffer,justactivatethe
DrawtextbuffercheckboxintheBuffermenu.Thebuffercolorisvariable.
Here,youcanalsouseblendmodes(seeblend_modes).
Ifthe
Colorbuffer’sfillcheckboxisactivated,itwillinteractwithpartiallytransparenttextandgivemixed
colortransparencyresults.Turningoffthebufferfillfixesthatissue(exceptwheretheinterioraspectofthebuffer’s
strokeintersectswiththetext’sfill)andalsoallowsyoutomakeoutlinedtext.
IntheBackgroundmenu,youcandefinewithSizeXandSizeYtheshapeofyourbackground. UseSizetypeto
insertanadditional‘Buffer’intoyourbackground. Thebuffersizeissetbydefaulthere. . Thebackgroundthen
consistsofthebufferplusthebackgroundinSizeXandSizeY.YoucansetaRotationwhereyoucanchoose
between‘Syncwithlabel’,‘Offsetoflabel’and‘Fixed’. Using‘Offsetoflabel’and‘Fixed’,youcanrotatethe
background. DefineanOffsetX,YwithXandYvalues, , andthebackgroundwillbeshifted. . Whenapplying
RadiusX,Y,thebackgroundgetsroundedcorners.Again,itispossibletomixthebackgroundwiththeunderlying
layersinthemapcanvasusingtheBlendmode(seeblend_modes).
UsetheShadowmenuforauser-definedDropshadow.Thedrawingofthebackgroundisveryvariable.Choose
between‘Lowestlabelcomponent’,‘Text’,‘Buffer’and‘Background’.TheOffsetangledependsontheorienta-
tionofthelabel. Ifyouchoosethe
Useglobalshadowcheckbox,thenthezeropointoftheangleisalways
orientedtothenorthanddoesn’tdependontheorientationofthelabel. Youcaninfluencetheappearanceofthe
shadowwiththeBlurradius.Thehigherthenumber,thesoftertheshadows.Theappearanceofthedropshadow
canalsobealteredbychoosingablendmode(seeblend_modes).
ChoosethePlacementmenuforthelabelplacementandthelabelingpriority. Usingthe
Offsetfrompoint
setting,younowhavetheoptiontouseQuadrantstoplaceyourlabel. Additionally,youcanaltertheangleof
thelabelplacementwiththeRotationsetting. Thus,aplacementinacertainquadrantwithacertainrotationis
possible.
IntheRenderingmenu,youcandefinelabelandfeatureoptions. UnderLabeloptions,youfindthescale-based
visibilitysettingnow.YoucanpreventQGISfromrenderingonlyselectedlabelswiththe
Showalllabelsfor
thislayer(includingcollidinglabels)checkbox. UnderFeatureoptions,youcandefinewhethereverypartofa
multipartfeatureistobelabeled. It’spossibletodefinewhetherthenumberoffeaturestobelabeledislimited
andto
Discouragelabelsfromcoveringfeatures.
Labelinglinelayers
Thefirststepistoactivatethe
LabelthislayercheckboxintheLabelsettingstabandselectanattributecolumn
touseforlabeling.Click
ifyouwanttodefinelabelsbasedonexpressions-Seelabeling_with_expressions.
12.2. TheVectorPropertiesDialog
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
Figure12.15:Smartlabelingofvectorpointlayers
Afterthat,youcandefinethetextstyleintheTextmenu.Here,youcanusethesamesettingsasforpointlayers.
Also,intheFormattingmenu,thesamesettingsasforpointlayersarepossible.
TheBuffermenuhasthesamefunctionsasdescribedinsectionlabeling_point_layers.
TheBackgroundmenuhasthesameentriesasdescribedinsectionlabeling_point_layers.
Also,theShadowmenuhasthesameentriesasdescribedinsectionlabeling_point_layers.
InthePlacementmenu,youfindspecialsettingsforlinelayers.Thelabelcanbeplaced
Parallel,
Curved
or
Horizontal. Withthe
Paralleland
Curvedoption,youcandefinetheposition
Aboveline,
Onlineand
Belowline. It’spossibletoselectseveraloptionsatonce. Inthatcase,QGISwilllookforthe
optimalpositionofthelabel.Rememberthathereyoucanalsousethelineorientationforthepositionofthelabel.
Additionally,youcandefineaMaximumanglebetweencurvedcharacterswhenselectingthe
Curvedoption
(seeFigure_labels_2).
TheRenderingmenuhasnearlythesameentriesasforpointlayers.IntheFeatureoptions,youcannowSuppress
labelingoffeaturessmallerthan.
Labelingpolygonlayers
Thefirststepistoactivatethe
Labelthislayercheckboxandselectanattributecolumntouseforlabeling.
Click
ifyouwanttodefinelabelsbasedonexpressions-Seelabeling_with_expressions.
IntheTextmenu,definethetextstyle.Theentriesarethesameasforpointandlinelayers.
TheFormattingmenuallowsyoutoformatmultiplelines,alsosimilartothecasesofpointandlinelayers.
Aswithpointandlinelayers,youcancreateatextbufferintheBuffermenu.
UsetheBackgroundmenutocreateacomplexuser-definedbackgroundforthepolygonlayer. Youcanusethe
menualsoaswiththepointandlinelayers.
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Chapter12. WorkingwithVectorData
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
Figure12.16:Smartlabelingofvectorlinelayers
TheentriesintheShadowmenuarethesameasforpointandlinelayers.
InthePlacementmenu,youfindspecialsettingsforpolygonlayers(seeFigure_labels_3).
Offsetfromcentroid,
Horizontal(slow),
Aroundcentroid,
Freeand
Usingperimeterarepossible.
Inthe
Offsetfromcentroidsettings,youcanspecifyifthecentroidisofthe
visiblepolygonor
whole
polygon. Thatmeansthateitherthecentroidisusedforthepolygonyoucanseeonthemaporthecentroidis
determinedforthewholepolygon,nomatterifyoucanseethewholefeatureonthemap. Youcanplaceyour
labelwiththequadrantshere,anddefineoffsetandrotation.The
Aroundcentroidsettingmakesitpossibleto
placethelabelaroundthecentroidwithacertaindistance.Again,youcandefine
visiblepolygonor
whole
polygonforthecentroid. Withthe
Usingperimetersettings,youcandefineapositionandadistanceforthe
label. Fortheposition,
Aboveline,
Online,
Belowlineand
Lineorientationdependentposition
arepossible.
TheentriesintheRenderingmenuarethesameasforlinelayers.YoucanalsouseSuppresslabelingoffeatures
smallerthanintheFeatureoptions. Definelabelsbasedonexpressions
QGISallowstouseexpressionstolabelfeatures. Justclickthe
iconinthe
Labels
menuoftheproperties
dialog.Infigure_labels_4youseeasampleexpressiontolabelthealaskaregionswithnameandareasize,based
onthefield‘NAME_2’,somedescriptivetextandthefunction‘$area()’incombinationwith‘format_number()’
tomakeitlooknicer.
Expressionbasedlabelingiseasytoworkwith. Allyouhavetotakecareofis, , thatyouneedtocombineall
elements(strings,fieldsandfunctions)withastringconcatenationsign‘||’andthatfieldsawrittenin“double
quotes”andstringsin‘singlequotes’.Let’shavealookatsomeexamples:
# label based on n two o fields s ’name’ and ’place’ with a
"name" || ’, ’ ’ || | "place"
12.2. TheVectorPropertiesDialog
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
Figure12.17:Smartlabelingofvectorpolygonlayers
Figure12.18:Usingexpressionsforlabeling
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Chapter12. WorkingwithVectorData
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
-> John Smith, Paris
# label based on n two o fields s ’name’ and ’place’ with a a descriptive text
’My name e is s ’ ’ || | "name" || ’and d I I live in ’ ’ || | "place"
-> My y name is s John n Smith h and d I I live e in Paris
# label based on n two o fields s ’name’ and ’place’ with a a descriptive text
# and d a a line e break (\n)
’My name e is s ’ ’ || | "name" || ’\nI I live in n ’ || "place"
-> My y name is s John n Smith
I live in Paris
# create a a multi-line label based on n a a field and d the e $area function
# to o show the e place name and d its area a size based on n unit meter.
’The area of ’ ’ || | "place" " || | ’has a size of f ’ ’ || | $area || | ’m²’
-> The e area of f Paris has a a size e of f 105000000 m²
# create a a CASE ELSE E condition. If f the population n value e in field
# population n is <= 50000 0 it t is s a a town, otherwise e a a city.
’This place is s a a ’ || CASE WHEN N "population <= = 50000" " THEN N ’town’ ’ ELSE E ’city’ ’ END
-> This s place is a town
Asyoucanseeintheexpressionbuilder, youhavehundredsiffunctionsavailabletocreatesimpleandvery
complexexpressionstolabelyourdatainQGIS.
Usingdata-definedoverrideforlabeling
Withthedata-definedoverridefunctions, thesettingsforthelabelingareoverriddenbyentriesintheattribute
table. Youcanactivateanddeactivatethefunctionwiththeright-mousebutton.Hoveroverthesymbolandyou
seetheinformationaboutthedata-definedoverride,includingthecurrentdefinitionfield. Wenowdescribean
exampleusingthedata-definedoverridefunctionforthe
Movelabel
function(seefigure_labels_5).
1. Importlakes.shpfromtheQGISsampledataset.
2. Double-clickthelayertoopentheLayerProperties.ClickonLabelsandPlacement.Select
Offsetfrom
centroid.
3. LookfortheDatadefinedentries. . Clickthe
icontodefinethefieldtypefortheCoordinate. Choose
‘xlabel’forXand‘ylabel’forY.Theiconsarenowhighlightedinyellow.
4. Zoomintoalake.
5. GototheLabeltoolbarandclickthe
icon. Nowyoucanshiftthelabelmanuallytoanotherposition
(seefigure_labels_6). Thenewpositionofthelabelissavedinthe‘xlabel’and‘ylabel’columnsofthe
attributetable.
12.2.3 FieldsMenu
WithintheFieldsmenu,thefieldattributesoftheselecteddatasetcanbemanipulated. Thebuttons
NewColumn
and
DeleteColumn
canbeusedwhenthedatasetisin
Editingmode
.
EditWidget
WithintheFieldsmenu,youalsofindaneditwidgetcolumn.Thiscolumncanbeusedtodefinevaluesorarange
ofvaluesthatareallowedtobeaddedtothespecificattributetablecolumn. Ifyouclickonthe[editwidget]
button,adialogopens,whereyoucandefinedifferentwidgets.Thesewidgetsare:
12.2. TheVectorPropertiesDialog
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
Figure12.19:Labelingofvectorpolygonlayerswithdata-definedoverride
Figure12.20:Movelabels
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Chapter12. WorkingwithVectorData
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
Figure12.21:Dialogtoselectaneditwidgetforanattributecolumn
12.2. TheVectorPropertiesDialog
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
• Lineedit:Aneditfieldthatallowsyoutoentersimpletext(orrestricttonumbersfornumericattributes).
• Classification: Displaysacomboboxwiththevaluesusedforclassification,ifyouhavechosen‘unique
value’aslegendtypeintheStylemenuofthepropertiesdialog.
• Range:Allowsyoutosetnumericvaluesfromaspecificrange. . Theeditwidgetcanbeeitherasliderora
spinbox.
• Uniquevalues:Youcanselectoneofthevaluesalreadyusedintheattributetable.If‘Editable’isactivated,
alineeditisshownwithautocompletionsupport,otherwiseacomboboxisused.
• Filename:Simplifiestheselectionbyaddingafilechooserdialog.
• Valuemap: Acomboboxwithpredefineditems. . Thevalueisstoredintheattribute, , thedescriptionis
showninthecombobox.YoucandefinevaluesmanuallyorloadthemfromalayeroraCSVfile.
• Enumeration:Opensacomboboxwithvaluesthatcanbeusedwithinthecolumnstype.Thisiscurrently
onlysupportedbythePostgreSQLprovider.
• Immutable:Theimmutableattributecolumnisread-only.Theuserisnotabletomodifythecontent.
• Hidden:Ahiddenattributecolumnisinvisible.Theuserisnotabletoseeitscontents.
• Checkbox:Displaysacheckbox,andyoucandefinewhatattributeisaddedtothecolumnwhenthecheck-
boxisactivatedornot.
• Textedit:Thisopensatexteditfieldthatallowsmultiplelinestobeused.
• Calendar:Opensacalendarwidgettoenteradate.Columntypemustbetext.
• ValueRelation:Offersvaluesfromarelatedtableinacombobox. . Youcanselectlayer,keycolumnand
valuecolumn.
• UUIDGenerator:Generatesaread-onlyUUID(UniversallyUniqueIdentifiers)field,ifempty.
• Photo:Fieldcontainsafilenameforapicture.Thewidthandheightofthefieldcanbedefined.
• Webview:FieldcontainsaURL.Thewidthandheightofthefieldisvariable.
• Color:Afieldthatallowsyoutoentercolorcodes. . Duringdataentry,thecolorisvisiblethroughacolor
barincludedinthefield.
• RelationReference:Thiswidgedletsyouembedthefeatureformofthereferencedlayeronthefeature
formoftheactuallayer.SeeCreatingonetomanyrelations.
WiththeAttributeeditorlayout,youcannowdefinebuilt-informsfordataentryjobs(seefigure_fields_2).
Choose‘Draganddropdesigner’andanattributecolumn.Usethe
icontocreateacategorythatwillthenbe
shownduringthedigitizingsession(seefigure_fields_3).Thenextstepwillbetoassigntherelevantfieldstothe
categorywiththe
icon. Youcancreatemorecategoriesandusethesamefieldsagain.Whencreatinganew
category,QGISwillinsertanewtabforthecategoryinthebuilt-inform.
Otheroptionsinthedialogare‘Autogenerate’and‘Provideui-file’. ‘Autogenerate’justcreateseditorsforall
fieldsandtabulatesthem. The‘Provideui-file’optionallowsyoutousecomplexdialogs s madewiththeQt-
Designer. UsingaUI-fileallows s agreatdealoffreedom increatingadialog. . Fordetailedinformation, , see
http://nathanw.net/2011/09/05/qgis-tips-custom-feature-forms-with-python-logic/.
QGISdialogscanhaveaPythonfunctionthatiscalledwhenthedialogisopened.Usethisfunctiontoaddextra
logictoyourdialogs.Anexampleis(inmoduleMyForms.py):
def open(dialog,layer,feature):
geom = feature.geometry()
control = = dialog.findChild(QWidged,"My line edit")
ReferenceinPythonInitFunctionlikeso:MyForms.open
MyForms.pymustliveonPYTHONPATH,in.qgis2/python,orinsidetheprojectfolder.
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Chapter12. WorkingwithVectorData
QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
Figure12.22:DialogtocreatecategorieswiththeAttributeeditorlayout
Figure12.23:Resultingbuilt-informinadataentrysession
12.2. TheVectorPropertiesDialog
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QGISUserGuide,Release2.2
12.2.4 GeneralMenu
Usethismenutomakegeneralsettingsforthevectorlayer.Thereareseveraloptionsavailable:
LayerInfo
• Changethedisplaynameofthelayerindisplayedas
• DefinetheLayersourceofthevectorlayer
• DefinetheDatasourceencodingtodefineprovider-specificoptionsandtobeabletoreadthefile
CoordinateReferenceSystem
• Specifythecoordinatereferencesystem.Here,youcanvieworchangetheprojectionofthespecificvector
layer.
• CreateaSpatialIndex(onlyforOGR-supportedformats)
• UpdateExtentsinformationforalayer
• Vieworchangetheprojectionofthespecificvectorlayer,clickingonSpecify...
Scaledependentvisibility
• YoucansettheMaximum(inclusive)andMinimum(exclusive)scale. . Thescalecanalsobesetbythe
[Current]buttons.
Featuresubset
• Withthe[QueryBuilder]button,youcancreateasubsetofthefeaturesinthelayerthatwillbevisualized
(alsorefertosectionSaveselectedfeaturesasnewlayer).
Figure12.24:Generalmenuinvectorlayerspropertiesdialog
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Chapter12. WorkingwithVectorData
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