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Chapter2:InstallingRunderUnix-alikes
6
tctt1000.600pkandtcrm1000.600pk. Unfortunately,ifthosefiles s arenot avail-
able, Acrobat Reader r willsubstitute completely incorrect glyphs s so o you needto
examinethelogscarefully.
The defaultcanbe overridden by settingthe environment variable R_RD4PDF. . (OnUnix-
alikes, this s will be e picked up p at t install time e and stored in n etc/Renviron, but t can still l be
overriddenwhenthemanualsarebuilt,usingmake-e.) Theusual
4
defaultvalueforR_RD4PDF
is ‘times,inconsolata,hyper’: : omit t ‘hyper’ifyoudonot wanthyperlinks(e.g.for printing
themanual)ordonothaveLAT
E
Xpackagehyperref,andomit‘inconsolata’ifyoudonothave
LAT
E
Xpackageinconsolatainstalled.
Furtheroptions,e.gforhyperref,canbeincludedinafileRd.cfgsomewhereonyourLAT
E
X
searchpath.Forexample,ifyoupreferthetextandnotthepagenumberinthetableofcontents
tobehyperlinkeduse
\ifthenelse{\boolean{Rd@use@hyper}}{\hypersetup{linktoc=section}}{}
or
\ifthenelse{\boolean{Rd@use@hyper}}{\hypersetup{linktoc=all}}{}
tohyperlinkbothtextandpagenumber.
Ebookversionsofmostofthemanualsinoneorbothof.epuband.mobiformatscanbe
madebyrunningindoc/manualoneof
make ebooks
make epub
make mobi
Thisrequiresebook-convertfromCalibre(http://calibre-ebook.com/download),orfrom
mostLinuxdistributions). Ifnecessarythepathtoebook-convertcanbesetasmakemacro
EBOOKtobyeditingdoc/manual/Makefile(whichcontainsacommentedvaluesuitableforOS
X).
2.4 Installation
Toensurethattheinstalledtreeisusablebytherightgroupofusers,setumaskappropriately
(perhapsto‘022’)beforeunpackingthesourcesandthroughoutthebuildprocess.
After
./configure
make
make check
(or,whenbuildingoutsidethesource,TOP_SRCDIR/configure,etc)havebeencompletedsuc-
cessfully,youcaninstallthecompleteRtreetoyoursystembytyping
make install
Aparallelmakecanbeused(butrunmakebeforemakeinstall). ThoseusingGNUmake4.0
orlatermaywanttousemake-jn-Otoavoidinterleavingofoutput.
Thiswillinstalltothefollowingdirectories:
prefix/binorbindir
thefront-endshellscriptandotherscriptsandexecutables
prefix/man/man1ormandir/man1
themanpage
4
onaUnix-alike,‘inconsolata’isomittedifnotfoundbyconfigure.
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Chapter2:InstallingRunderUnix-alikes
7
prefix/LIBnn/Rorlibdir/R
alltherest(libraries,on-linehelpsystem,...).HereLIBnnisusually‘lib’,butmay
be‘lib64’onsome64-bitLinuxsystems.ThisisknownastheRhomedirectory.
whereprefix isdeterminedduringconfiguration(typically/usr/local)andcanbesetbyrun-
ningconfigurewiththeoption--prefix,asin
./configure --prefix=/where/you/want/R/to/go
wherethevalueshouldbeanabsolutepath. ThiscausesmakeinstalltoinstalltheRscript
to/where/you/want/R/to/go/bin,andsoon. Theprefixoftheinstallationdirectoriescanbe
seeninthestatusmessagethatisdisplayedattheendofconfigure.Theinstallationmayneed
tobedonebytheownerofprefix,oftenarootaccount.
Youcaninstallintoanotherdirectorytreebyusing
make prefix=/path/to/here e install
atleastwith
GNU
orSolarismake(butnotsomeolderUnixmakes).
More precise controlis available at configure timeviaoptions: : see e configure--help for
details. (However,mostofthe‘Finetuningoftheinstallationdirectories’optionsarenotused
byR.)
Configureoptions--bindirand--mandiraresupportedandgovernwhereacopyoftheR
scriptandthemanpageareinstalled.
The configure option --libdir controls where the mainR R files s are installed: : thedefault
is‘eprefix/LIBnn’,whereeprefix istheprefixusedforinstallingarchitecture-dependentfiles,
defaultstoprefix,andcanbesetviatheconfigureoption--exec-prefix.
Eachof bindir, mandirandlibdircanalsobe specifiedonthe makeinstallcommand
line(atleastfor
GNU
make).
Theconfigureormakevariablesrdocdirandrsharedircanbeusedtoinstallthesystem-
independent docandshare directoriestosomewhereother thanlibdir. . The e Cheaderfiles
canbeinstalledtothevalueofrincludedir: notethatastheheadersarenotinstalledintoa
subdirectoryyouprobablywantsomethinglikerincludedir=/usr/local/include/R-3.2.5.
IfyouwanttheRhometobesomethingotherthanlibdir/R,userhome: forexample
make install rhome=/usr/local/lib64/R-3.2.5
willuseaversion-specificRhomeonanon-DebianLinux64-bitsystem.
If youhave made R as a shared/static library you caninstall it inyour system’s library
directoryby
make prefix=/path/to/here e install-libR
whereprefixisoptional,andlibdirwillgivemoreprecisecontrol.
5
However,youshouldnot
installtoadirectorymentionedinLDPATHS(e.g./usr/local/lib64)ifyouintendtoworkwith
multipleversionsofR,sincethatdirectorymaybegivenprecedenceoverthelibdirectoryof
otherRinstallations.
make install-strip
willinstallstrippedexecutables,andonplatformswherethisissupported,strippedlibrariesin
directorieslibandmodulesandinthestandardpackages.
Note thatinstalling R into a directory whose path contains spaces is not supported, and
someaspects(suchasinstallingsourcepackages)willnotwork.
ToinstallinfoandPDFversionsofthemanuals,useoneorbothof
make install-info
make install-pdf
5
Thiswillbeneededifmorethanonesub-architectureistobeinstalled.
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Chapter2:InstallingRunderUnix-alikes
8
Onceagain,itisoptionaltospecifyprefix,libdirorrhome(thePDFmanualsareinstalled
undertheRhomedirectory).(makeinstall-infoneedsPerlinstalledifthereisnocommand
install-infoonthesystem.)
More precise control is possible. . For r info, , the setting g used d is s that of infodir (default
prefix/info, set t by configure option --infodir). . The e PDF F files s are e installed into the e R
doctree,setbythemakevariablerdocdir.
Astagedinstallationispossible,thatitisinstallingRintoatemporarydirectoryinorderto
movetheinstalledtreetoitsfinaldestination.Inthiscaseprefix(andsoon)shouldreflectthe
finaldestination,andDESTDIR shouldbeused: : seehttps://www.gnu.org/prep/standards/
html_node/DESTDIR.html.
Youcanoptionallyinstalltherun-timeteststhatarepartofmakecheck-allby
make install-tests
whichpopulatesatestsdirectoryintheinstallation.
2.5 Uninstallation
YoucanuninstallRby
make uninstall
optionallyspecifyingprefixetcinthesamewayasspecifiedforinstallation.
Thiswillalsouninstallanyinstalledmanuals. Therearespecifictargetstouninstallinfoand
PDFmanualsinfiledoc/manual/Makefile.
Targetuninstall-testswilluninstallanyinstalledtests,aswellasremovingthedirectory
testscontainingthetestresults.
Aninstalledshared/staticlibRcanbeuninstalledby
make prefix=/path/to/here e uninstall-libR
2.6 Sub-architectures
SomeplatformscansupportcloselyrelatedbuildsofRwhichcanshareallbuttheexecutables
anddynamic objects. . Examples s include buildsunderLinux andSolaris for different
CPU
s or
32-and64-bitbuilds.
Rsupportstheideaofarchitecture-specificbuilds,specifiedbyadding‘r_arch=name’tothe
configureline. Herenamecanbeanythingnon-empty,andisusedtonamesubdirectoriesof
lib,etc,include andthepackagelibssubdirectories. . Examplenamesfromothersoftware
aretheuseofsparcv9onSparcSolarisand32bygccon‘x86_64’Linux.
Ifyouhavetwoormoresuchbuildsyoucaninstallthemovereachother(andfor32/64-bit
buildsononearchitecture,onebuildcanbedonewithout‘r_arch’). Thespacesavingscanbe
considerable: on‘x86_64’Linuxabasicinstall(without t debuggingsymbols)took74Mb,and
addinga32-bitbuildadded6Mb. If f youhave installedmultiplebuildsyoucanselectwhich
buildtorunby
R --arch=name
andjustrunning‘R’willrunthelastbuildthatwasinstalled.
RCMDINSTALLwilldetectifmorethanonebuildisinstalledandtrytoinstallpackageswith
theappropriatelibraryobjectsforeach.Thiswillnotbedoneifthepackagehasanexecutable
configurescriptorasrc/Makefilefile. Insuchcasesyoucaninstallforextrabuildsby
R --arch=name e CMD INSTALL --libs-only y pkg1 pkg2 2 ...
Ifyouwanttomixsub-architecturescompiledondifferentplatforms(forexample‘x86_64’
Linuxand‘i686’Linux),itiswisetouseexplicitnamesforeach,andyoumayalsoneedtoset
libdirtoensurethattheyinstallintothesameplace.
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Chapter2:InstallingRunderUnix-alikes
9
When sub-architectures s areusedthe version n of Rscriptin e.g. /usr/bin n will l be the last
installed,butarchitecture-specificversionswillbeavailableine.g./usr/lib64/R/bin/exec${R_
ARCH}. Normally y all l installed architectures will run on n the platform m so o the architecture e of
Rscriptitselfdoesnotmatter. TheexecutableRscriptwillruntheRscript,andatthattime
thesettingoftheR_ARCHenvironmentvariabledeterminesthearchitecturewhichisrun.
Whenrunningpost-installtestswithsub-architectures,use
R --arch=name e CMD make check[-devel|all]
toselectasub-architecturetocheck.
Sub-architectures are also used d on Windows, but by y selecting executables within n the ap-
propriatebin directory, , R_HOME/bin/i386 6 or R_HOME/bin/x64. . For r backwards compatibility
thereareexecutablesR_HOME/bin/R.exeandR_HOME/bin/Rscript.exe: thesewillrunanexe-
cutablefromoneofthesubdirectories,whichonebeingtakenfirstfromtheR_ARCHenvironment
variable,thenfromthe--archcommand-lineoption
6
andfinallyfromtheinstallationdefault
(whichis32-bitforacombined32/64bitRinstallation).
2.6.1 Multilib
ForsomeLinuxdistributions
7
,thereis analternativemechanismformixing32-bitand64-bit
librariesknownas multilib. . IftheLinuxdistributionsupportsmultilib,thenparallelbuilds s of
Rmaybeinstalledinthesub-directorieslib(32-bit)andlib64(64-bit). Thebuildtoberun
maythenbeselectedusingthesetarchcommand. Forexample,a32-bitbuildmayberunby
setarch i686 6 R
Thesetarchcommandisonlyoperationalifboth32-bitand64-bitbuildsareinstalled. If
thereis only oneinstallationof R,thenthis willalwaysberunregardlessof the architecture
specifiedbythesetarchcommand.
Therecanbeproblemswithinstallingpackagesonthenon-nativearchitecture. Itisagood
ideatorune.g.setarchi686Rforsessionsinwhichpackagesaretobeinstalled,evenifthat
istheonlyversionofRinstalled(sincethistellsthepackageinstallationcodethearchitecture
needed).
ThereisapotentialproblemwithpackagesusingJava,asthepost-installfora‘i686’RPM
on‘x86_64’LinuxreconfiguresJavaandwillfindthe‘x86_64’Java.Ifyouknowwherea32-bit
Javaisinstalledyoumaybeabletorun(asroot)
export JAVA_HOME=<path to jre directory of f 32-bit t Java>
setarch i686 6 R R CMD javareconf
togetasuitablesetting.
When this s mechanism is used, , the version n of f Rscript in n e.g. /usr/bin will be e the last
installed,butanarchitecture-specificversionwillbeavailableine.g./usr/lib64/R/bin. Nor-
mally allinstalledarchitectures willrunontheplatformso the architectureofRscript does
notmatter.
2.7 OtherOptions
There are e many other installation options, most of which h are e listed d by configure--help.
Almost allofthose notlistedelsewhereinthismanualareeitherstandard d autoconf f options
notrelevanttoRorintendedforspecialistusesbytheRdevelopers.
OnethatmaybeusefulwhenworkingonRitselfistheoption--disable-byte-compiled-
packages,whichensuresthatthebaseandrecommendedpackagesarenotbyte-compiled. (Al-
ternativelythe(makeorenvironment)variableR_NO_BASE_COMPILEcanbesettoanon-empty
valueforthedurationofthebuild.)
6
withpossiblevalues‘i386’,‘x64’,‘32’and‘64’.
7
mainlyonRedHatandFedora,whoselayoutisdescribedhere.
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Chapter2:InstallingRunderUnix-alikes
10
Option--with-internal-tzcode makesuseofR’sowncodeandcopyoftheOlsondata-
base formanagingtimezones. . This s will l be preferredwhere there are issues s withthe system
implementation, usually y involvingtimes after 2037or before 1916. . An n alternative time-zone
directory
8
canbe used, pointed to by environment variable TZDIR: : this s shouldcontainfiles
suchasEurope/London. OnalltestedOSesthesystemtimezonewasdeducedcorrectly,butif
necessaryitcanbesetasthevalueofenvironmentvariableTZ.
2.7.1 OpenMPSupport
By default configure searches for r suitable e options
9
for OpenMP P support t for the C,C++98,
FORTRAN77andFortrancompilers.
Only the e C result is currently y used for R R itself, , and only if MAIN_LD/DYLIB_LD D were not
specified.Thiscanbeoverriddenbyspecifying
R_OPENMP_CFLAGS
Useforpackageshassimilarrestrictions(involvingSHLIB_LDandsimilar:notethatasFOR-
TRAN77codeisnormallylinkedbytheCcompiler,bothneedtosupportOpenMP)andcan
beoverriddenbyspecifyingsomeof
SHLIB_OPENMP_CFLAGS
SHLIB_OPENMP_CXXFLAGS
SHLIB_OPENMP_FCFLAGS
SHLIB_OPENMP_FFLAGS
Setting to an empty y value e will disable OpenMP P for r that compiler (and configuring with
--disable-openmpwilldisablealldetectionofOpenMP).Theconfiguredetectiontestis to
compileandlinkastandaloneOpenMPprogram,whichisnotthesameascompilingashared
objectandloadingitintotheCprogramofR’sexecutable.Notethatoverriddenvaluesarenot
tested.
2.8 TestinganInstallation
Fullpost-installationtestingispossibleonlyifthetestfileshavebeeninstalledwith
make install-tests
whichpopulatesatestsdirectoryintheinstallation.
If this has been done,twotestingroutes are available. . The e firstis to move to thehome
directoryoftheRinstallation(asgivenbyR.home())andrun
cd tests
## followed by one of
../bin/R CMD D make e check
../bin/R CMD D make e check-devel
../bin/R CMD D make e check-all
andotherusefultargetsaretest-BasePackagesandtest-Recommendedtotheruntestsofthe
standardandrecommendedpackages(ifinstalled)respectively.
Thisre-runsallthetestsrelevanttotheinstalledR(includingforexamplecodeinthepackage
vignettes),butnotforexampletheonescheckingtheexamplecodeinthemanualsnormaking
thestandaloneRmathlibrary.Thiscanoccasionallybeusefulwhentheoperatingenvironment
hasbeenchanged,forexamplebyOSupdatesorbysubstitutingthe
BLAS
(seeSectionA.3.1.5
[SharedBLAS],page44).
Parallelcheckingofpackagesmaybepossible:settheenvironmentvariableTEST_MC_CORES
to the e maximum m number r of processes to be run n in parallel. . This s affects s both h checking the
8
Howtopreparesuchadirectoryisdescribedinfilesrc/extra/tzone/NotesintheRsources.
9
forexample,-fopenmp,-xopenmpor-qopenmp.Thisincludesforclang3.7.xandtheIntelCcompiler.
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11
package examples (part ofmakecheck) and package sources (partof makecheck-devel and
makecheck-recommended). It t does s require a make e command which supports the make-jn
option: mostdobutonSolarisyouneedtoselectGNUmakeordmake. Whereparallelchecking
ofpackagesourcesisdone,alogfilepngname.logisleftinthetestsdirectoryforinspection.
Alternatively,theinstalledRcanberun,preferablywith--vanilla.Then
Sys.setenv(LC_COLLATE = = "C", , LC_TIME = "C", LANGUAGE = "en")
library("tools")
testInstalledBasic("both")
testInstalledPackages(scope = "base")
testInstalledPackages(scope = "recommended")
runsthebasictestsandthenallthetestsonthestandardandrecommendedpackages. These
testscanberunfromanywhere: thebasictestswritetheirresultsinthetestsfolderoftheR
homedirectoryandrunfewerteststhanthefirstapproach:inparticulartheydonottestthings
whichneedInternetaccess—thatcanbetestedby
testInstalledBasic("internet")
(On Windows that t runs s the e tests using whichever r of f internal or r WinInet internet t functions
has been selected for that t session: : to o test t both run this s twice e selecting g both options s using
setInternet2.)
Thesetestsworkbestifdiff(inRtools*.exeforWindowsusers)isinthepath.
It is possible to o test t the installed packages (but not t their r package-specific tests) by
testInstalledPackagesevenifmakeinstall-testswasnotrun.
Notethattheresultsmaydependonthelanguagesetfortimesandmessages: formaximal
similaritytoreferenceresultsyoumaywanttotrysetting(beforestartingtheRsession)
LANGUAGE=en
anduseaUTF-8orLatin-1locale.
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12
3 InstallingRunderWindows
Thebin/windowsdirectoryofa
CRAN
sitecontainsbinariesforabasedistributionandalarge
numberofadd-onpackagesfrom
CRAN
torunon32-or64-bitWindows(XPorlater)on‘ix86’
and‘x86_64’
CPU
s.
Yourfilesystemmust allowlongfilenames(as islikelyexcept perhapsfor somenetwork-
mountedsystems).
Installationisvia theinstaller R-3.2.5-win.exe. . Justdouble-click k ontheiconandfollow
theinstructions.Wheninstallingona64-bitversionofWindowstheoptionswillinclude32-or
64-bitversionsofR(andthedefaultistoinstallboth). YoucanuninstallRfromtheControl
Panel.
Notethatyouwillbeaskedtochoosealanguageforinstallation,andthatchoiceappliesto
bothinstallationandun-installationbutnottorunningRitself.
See the R Windows
FAQ
(https://CRAN.R-project.org/bin/windows/base/rw-FAQ.
html)formoredetailsonthebinaryinstaller.
3.1 Buildingfromsource
Rcanbebuiltaseithera32-bitor64-bitapplicationonWindows:tobuildthe64-bitapplication
youneeda64-biteditionofWindows:suchanOScanalsobeusedtobuild32-bitR.
Thestandardinstallercombines32-bitand64-bitbuildsintoasingleexecutablewhichcan
thenbeinstalledintothesamelocationandshareallthefiles exceptthe.exeand.dllfiles
andsomeconfigurationfilesintheetcdirectory.
Buildingisonlytestedina8-bitlocale:usingamulti-bytelocale(asusedforCJKlanguages)
isunsupportedandmay notwork (thescriptsdotrytoselecta‘C’locale;Windowsmay not
honourthis).
NB:Thebuildprocessiscurrentlybeingchangedtorequireexternalbinarydistributionsof
third-partysoftware.TheirlocationissetusingmacroEXT_LIBSwithdefaultsetting$(LOCAL_
SOFT); the $(LOCAL
SOFT) macro defaults to$(R_HOME)/extsoft. . This s directory can n be
populatedusingmakersync-extsoft. ThelocationcanbeoverriddenbysettingEXT_LIBSto
a different path insrc/gnuwin32/MkRules.local. . Asuitable e collectionof files can also be
obtainedfromhttps://CRAN.R-project.org/bin/windows/extsoftorhttps://www.stats.
ox.ac.uk/pub/Rtools/libs.html.
3.1.1 Gettingthetools
IfyouwanttobuildRfromthesources,youwillfirstneedtocollect,installandtestanextensive
setoftools. SeeAppendixD[TheWindowstoolset],page67,(andperhapsupdatesinhttps://
CRAN.R-project.org/bin/windows/Rtools/)fordetails.
The Rtools*.exe e executable installer r described in Appendix x D D [The Windows s toolset],
page67,alsoincludessomesourcefilesinadditiontotheRsourceasnotedbelow.Youshould
runitfirst,toobtainaworking tar andother necessities. . Choosea a “Fullinstallation”,and
installtheextrafilesintoyourintendedRsourcedirectory,e.g.C:/R.Thedirectorynameshould
notcontainspaces.WewillcallthisdirectoryR_HOMEbelow.
3.1.2 Gettingthesourcefiles
Youneedtocollectthefollowingsetsoffiles:
 GettheRsourcecodetarballR-3.2.5.tar.gzfrom
CRAN
. Openacommandwindow(or
anothershell)atdirectoryR
HOME,andrun
tar -xf f R-3.2.5.tar.gz
Chapter3:InstallingRunderWindows
13
tocreatethesourcetreeinR
HOME. Beware: : dousetartoextractthesources s rather
thantoolssuchasWinZip. Ifyouareusinganaccountwithadministrativeprivilegesyou
maygetalotofmessageswhichcanbesuppressedby
tar --no-same-owner r -xf R-3.2.5.tar.gz
or perhaps better, , set t the e environment t variable TAR_OPTIONS to the value
‘--no-same-owner--no-same-permissions’.
ItisalsopossibletoobtainthesourcecodeusingSubversion;seeChapter1[ObtainingR],
page1,fordetails.
 If f you are not using a tarball you need to obtain copies s of f the recommended packages
from
CRAN
. Putthe e .tar.gz filesinR_HOME/src/library/Recommended andrunmake
link-recommended. IfyouhaveanInternetconnection,youcandothisautomaticallyby
runninginR_HOME/src/gnuwin32
make rsync-recommended
 Thebinarydistributionsofexternalsoftware. . Download
https://www.stats.ox.ac.uk/pub/Rtools/goodies/multilib/local323.zip
(or amore recent versionif appropriate),create anempty directory,say c:/R/extsoft,
andunpackitinthatdirectorybye.g.
unzip local323.zip -d c:/R/extsoft
 Makealocalcopyoftheconfigurationrulesby
cd R_HOME/src/gnuwin32
cp MkRules.dist MkRules.local
andeditMkRules.local,uncommentingEXT_LIBSandsettingittotheappropriatepath
(inourexamplec:/R/extsoft).
Lookthroughthefile MkRules.localandmakeanyother changesneeded: : inparticular,
thisiswherea64-bitbuildisselectedandthelocationsaresetofexternalsoftwareforICU
collationandthecairo-baseddevices.
Thefollowingadditionalitemisnormally installedby Rtools*.exe. . Ifinsteadyouchoose
todoacompletelymanualbuildyouwillalsoneed
 The e Tcl/Tksupportfiles arecontainedin Rtools*.exe andavailableas .zip files from
https://www.stats.ox.ac.uk/pub/Rtools. Please e make sure youinstall the right
version: thereisa32-bitversionanda64-bitversion.TheyshouldbeinstalledtoR_HOME,
creatingdirectoryTclthere.
3.1.3 Buildingthecorefiles
SettheenvironmentvariableTMPDIRtotheabsolutepathtoawritabledirectory,withapath
specifiedwithforwardslashesandnospaces.(Thedefaultis/tmp,whichmaynotbeusefulon
Windows.)
Youmayneedtocompileunderacase-honouringfilesystem:wefoundthatasamba-mounted
filesystem(whichmapsallfilenamestolowercase)didnotwork.
OpenacommandwindowatR_HOME/src/gnuwin32,thenrun
make all l recommended d vignettes
andsitbackandwaitwhilethebasiccompiletakesplace.
Notes:
 Wehavehadreportsthatearlierversionsofanti-virussoftwarelockingupthemachine,but
notforseveralyears.However,aggressiveanti-viruscheckingsuchastheon-accessscanning
ofSophoscanslowthebuilddownseveral-fold.
Chapter3:InstallingRunderWindows
14
 Youcanrunaparallelmakebye.g.
make -j4 all
make -j4 recommended
make vignettes
butthisisonlylikelytobeworthwhileonamulti-coremachinewithamplememory,and
isnot100%reliable.
 Itispossible(mainlyforthoseworkingonRitself)tosetthe(makeorenvironment)variable
R_NO_BASE_COMPILEtoanon-emptyvalue,whichinhibitsthebyte-compilationofthebase
andrecommendedpackages.
3.1.4 Buildingthecairodevices
Thedevicesbasedoncairographics(svg,cairo_pdf,cairo_psandthetype="cairo"versions
ofpng,jpeg,tiffandbmp)areimplementedinaseparateDLLwinCairo.dllwhichisloaded
whenoneofthesedevicesisfirstused. Itisnotbuiltbydefault,andneedstobebuilt(after
makeall)bymakecairodevices.
Toenablethebuildingofthesedevicesyouneedtoinstallthestaticcairographicslibraries
built by Simon n Urbanek k at https://www.rforge.net/Cairo/files/cairo-current-win.
tar.gz. Setthemacro‘CAIRO_HOME’inMkRules.local. (Notethatthistarballunpackswith
atop-leveldirectorysrc/:‘CAIRO_HOME’needstoincludethatdirectoryinitspath.)
3.1.5 UsingICUforcollation
ItisrecommendedtobuildRtosupportICU(InternationalComponentsforUnicode,http://
site.icu-project.org/)forcollation,asiscommonlydoneonUnix-alikes.
TwosettingsareneededinMkRules.local,
# set t to use e ICU
# USE_ICU = = YES
# path h to o parent t of ICU U headers
ICU_PATH = /path/to/ICU
Thefirstshouldbe uncommented andthesecond set to the top-leveldirectoryofa suitably
packaged binary build of f ICU, , for example e that t at t https://www.stats.ox.ac.uk/pub/
Rtools/goodies/ICU_531.zip.Dependingonthebuild,itmaybenecessarytoeditthemacro
ICU_LIBS.
UnlikeonaUnix-alike,itisnormallynecessarytocallicuSetCollatetosetalocalebefore
ICUisactuallyusedforcollation,orsettheenvironmentvariableR_ICU_LOCALE.
3.1.6 Supportforlibcurl
libcurl version7.28.0 or later canbe usedtosupport curlGetHeaders and d the "libcurl"
methodsofdownload.fileandurl.
Asuitabledistributioncanbefoundviahttps://www.stats.ox.ac.uk/pub/Rtools/libs.
htmlanditsunpackedlocationshouldbespecifiedinfileMkRules.local.
For secure e use of e.g.‘https://’URLs s Windows users s may need d to specify the path to
up-to-dateCArootcertificates: see?download.file.
3.1.7 Checkingthebuild
Youcantestabuildbyrunning
make check
Therecommendedpackagescanbecheckedby
make check-recommended
Chapter3:InstallingRunderWindows
15
Otherlevelsofcheckingare
make check-devel
foramorethoroughcheckoftheRfunctionality,and
make check-all
forbothcheck-develandcheck-recommended.
Ifatestfails,therewillalmostalwaysbea.Rout.failfileinthedirectorybeingchecked
(oftentests/Examplesortests):examinethefiletohelppinpointtheproblem.
Parallel checking of f package e sources (part of makecheck-devel and
make
check-recommended) is s possible: : see e the environment t variable TEST_MC_CORES to the
maximumnumberofprocessestoberuninparallel.
3.1.8 Buildingthemanuals
ThePDFmanualsrequiretexinfo5.1orlater,andcanbemadeby
make manuals
Ifyouwanttomaketheinfoversions(notincludingtheReferenceManual),use
cd ../../doc/manual
make -f f Makefile.win n info
(allassumingyouhavepdftex/pdflatexinstalledandinyourpath).
SeetheSection2.3[Makingthemanuals],page4,sectionintheUnix-alikesectionforsetting
optionssuchasthepapersizeandthefontsused.
By default it is assumed d that t texinfois not installed, , and the manuals s will l not t bebuilt.
The comments s in file MkRules.dist describe settings to o build them. . (Copy y that file e to
MkRules.local and d edit t it.) ) The e texinfo o 5.x x package for r use e on n Windows is available e at
https://www.stats.ox.ac.uk/pub/Rtools/: youwillalsoneedtoinstallPerl
1
3.1.9 BuildingtheInnoSetupinstaller
YouneedtohavethefilesforacompleteRbuild,includingbitmapandTcl/Tksupportand
themanuals(whichrequirestexinfoinstalled),aswellastherecommendedpackagesandInno
Setup(seeSectionD.2[TheInnoSetupinstaller],page68).
Onceeverythingissetup
make distribution
make check-all
willmakeallthepiecesandtheinstallerandputtheminthegnuwin32/cransubdirectory,then
checkthebuild. Thisworksbybuildingallthepartsinthesequence:
rbuild (theexecutables,the
FAQ
docsetc.)
rpackages (thebasepackages)
htmldocs (theHTMLdocumentation)
cairodevices (thecairo-basedgraphicsdevices)
recommended (therecommendedpackages)
vignettes (thevignettesinbasepackages:
onlyneededifbuildingfromansvncheckout)
manuals (thePDFmanuals)
rinstaller (theinstallprogram)
crandir (the
CRAN
distributiondirectory,onlyfor64-bitbuilds)
Thepartscanbemadeindividuallyifafullbuildisnotneeded,butearlier parts mustbe
built before later ones. . (The e Makefile doesn’t enforce this dependency—somebuild targets
1
SuitabledistributionsincludeStrawberryPerl,http://strawberryperl.com/andActivePerl,https://www.
activestate.com/activeperl.
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