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85
AppendixB InvokingR
UsersofRonWindowsorOSXshouldreadtheOS-specificsectionfirst,butcommand-lineuse
isalsosupported.
B.1 InvokingRfromthecommandline
WhenworkingatacommandlineonUNIXorWindows,thecommand‘R’canbeusedbothfor
startingthemainRprogramintheform
R[options][<infile][>outfile],
or, via the RCMD D interface, , as s a a wrapper to o various s R tools (e.g., for processing g files in n R
documentationformat ormanipulatingadd-onpackages)whicharenot intendedtobecalled
“directly”.
AttheWindowscommand-line,Rterm.exeispreferredtoR.
Youneedto ensurethateither the environmentvariableTMPDIR is unsetorit points toa
validplacetocreatetemporaryfilesanddirectories.
Most optionscontrolwhathappensatthebeginningandattheendof anRsession. . The
startupmechanismisasfollows(seealsotheon-linehelpfortopic‘Startup’formoreinforma-
tion,andthesectionbelowforsomeWindows-specificdetails).
 Unless s --no-environ was given,R searches for user and d site files s to process forsetting
environment variables. . The e name e of the e site e file e is s the one pointed d to o by the e environ-
mentvariableR_ENVIRON;ifthisisunset,R_HOME/etc/Renviron.siteisused(ifitexists).
The user file is the one pointedto by the environment variable e R_ENVIRON_USER R if this
is set;otherwise, , files s .Renviron inthe currentorin n the user’s s home directory (inthat
order) aresearchedfor. . Thesefiles s shouldcontain n lines s of theform‘name=value’. . (See
help("Startup")for aprecise description.) ) Variables s youmight wanttoset includeR_
PAPERSIZE(thedefaultpapersize),R_PRINTCMD(thedefaultprintcommand)andR_LIBS
(specifiesthelistofRlibrarytreessearchedforadd-onpackages).
 ThenR R searches for the site-widestartupprofile unless thecommand d line option --no-
site-file was given. . The e name of this file is taken from the value of the e R_PROFILE
environmentvariable. Ifthatvariableisunset,thedefaultR_HOME/etc/Rprofile.siteis
usedifthisexists.
 Then,unless--no-init-filewasgiven,Rsearchesforauserprofileandsourcesit. . The
name ofthisfile istakenfromtheenvironment variableR_PROFILE_USER; ifunset,afile
called.Rprofileinthecurrentdirectoryorintheuser’shomedirectory(inthatorder)is
searchedfor.
 It t also loads a savedworkspacefromfile .RData in n the current t directory if there is one
(unless--no-restoreor--no-restore-datawasspecified).
 Finally, , ifa function.First()exists,it t is executed. . This s function(as wellas .Last()
whichis executedat the endof the Rsession) canbedefinedinthe appropriatestartup
profiles,orresidein.RData.
Inaddition,thereareoptionsforcontrollingthememoryavailabletotheRprocess(seethe
on-linehelpfortopic‘Memory’formoreinformation).Userswillnotnormallyneedtousethese
unlesstheyaretryingtolimittheamountofmemoryusedbyR.
Racceptsthefollowingcommand-lineoptions.
--help
-h
Printshorthelpmessagetostandardoutputandexitsuccessfully.
--version
Printversioninformationtostandardoutputandexitsuccessfully.
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AppendixB:InvokingR
86
--encoding=enc
Specifytheencodingtobeassumedforinputfromtheconsoleorstdin.Thisneeds
to be an encoding knownto iconv: : see e its help page. . (--encodingenc c is also
accepted.) Theinput t isre-encodedtothelocaleR isrunninginandneeds tobe
representableinthelatter’sencoding(soe.g.youcannotre-encodeGreektextina
FrenchlocaleunlessthatlocaleusestheUTF-8encoding).
RHOME
Print the path h to the R R “home directory” to standardoutput and d exit success-
fully. Apartfromthefront-endshellscriptandthemanpage,Rinstallationputs
everything(executables,packages,etc.) intothisdirectory.
--save
--no-save
Controlwhetherdata sets shouldbesavedor not atthe endof the Rsession. . If
neitherisgiveninaninteractivesession,theuserisaskedforthedesiredbehavior
when ending the e session n with h q(); ; in n non-interactive use e one of these must be
specifiedorimpliedbysomeotheroption(seebelow).
--no-environ
Donotreadanyuserfiletosetenvironmentvariables.
--no-site-file
Donotreadthesite-wideprofileatstartup.
--no-init-file
Donotreadtheuser’sprofileatstartup.
--restore
--no-restore
--no-restore-data
Controlwhether savedimages (file .RData inthe directory where Rwasstarted)
should be restoredat t startupor not. . The e default is to restore. . (--no-restore
impliesallthespecific--no-restore-*options.)
--no-restore-history
Controlwhether the e history file(normally file .Rhistory inthe directory where
Rwasstarted,butcanbesetbytheenvironmentvariableR_HISTFILE)shouldbe
restoredatstartupornot. Thedefaultistorestore.
--no-Rconsole
(Windowsonly)PreventloadingtheRconsolefileatstartup.
--vanilla
Combine--no-save,--no-environ,--no-site-file,--no-init-fileand--no-
restore. UnderWindows,thisalsoincludes--no-Rconsole.
-ffile
--file=file
(notRgui.exe)Takeinputfromfile: ‘-’meansstdin. . Implies--no-save e unless
--savehasbeenset. OnaUnix-alike,shellmetacharacters s shouldbeavoidedin
file(butspacesareallowed).
-eexpression
(not Rgui.exe)Useexpressionas aninput line. . One e or more-e options canbe
used,but not togetherwith-f or--file. . Implies--no-save e unless --save has
beenset. (Thereis s alimitof10,000bytesonthetotallengthofexpressionsused
inthisway. Expressionscontainingspacesorshellmetacharacterswillneedtobe
quoted.)
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AppendixB:InvokingR
87
--no-readline
(UNIXonly)Turnoffcommand-lineeditingviareadline. Thisisusefulwhenrun-
ningRfromwithinEmacsusingthe
ESS
(“EmacsSpeaksStatistics”)package.See
AppendixC[Thecommand-lineeditor],page92,formoreinformation.Command-
lineeditingisenabledfordefaultinteractiveuse(see--interactive).Thisoption
alsoaffectstilde-expansion:seethehelpforpath.expand.
--min-vsize=N
--min-nsize=N
Forexpertuseonly:settheinitialtriggersizesforgarbagecollectionofvectorheap
(in bytes) ) and d cons cells s (number) ) respectively. . Suffix x ‘M’specifies megabytes or
millionsofcellsrespectively. Thedefaultsare6Mband350krespectivelyandcan
alsobesetbyenvironmentvariablesR_NSIZEandR_VSIZE.
--max-ppsize=N
Specify the maximum m size e of f the pointer protection stack k as N N locations. . This
defaultsto10000,butcanbeincreasedtoallowlargeandcomplicatedcalculations
tobedone. Currentlythemaximumvalueacceptedis100000.
--max-mem-size=N
(Windowsonly) Specifyalimit for the amountofmemorytobeusedbothfor R
objectsandworkingareas. Thisis s setbydefault tothesmaller oftheamount of
physicalRAMinthemachineandfor32-bitR,1.5Gb
1
,andmustbebetween32Mb
andthemaximumallowedonthatversionofWindows.
--quiet
--silent
-q
Donotprintouttheinitialcopyrightandwelcomemessages.
--slave
MakeR runas quietly as possible. . This s option n is s intendedtosupport programs
whichuseRtocomputeresultsforthem. Itimplies--quietand--no-save.
--interactive
(UNIXonly)AssertthatRreallyisbeingruninteractivelyevenifinputhasbeen
redirected:useifinputisfromaFIFOorpipeandfedfromaninteractiveprogram.
(Thedefault istodeducethatRis beingruninteractivelyifandonly ifstdinis
connectedtoaterminalorpty.) Using-e,-for--fileassertsnon-interactiveuse
evenif--interactiveisgiven.
Notethatthisdoesnotturnoncommand-lineediting.
--ess
(Windowsonly)SetRtermupforusebyR-inferior-modein
ESS
,includingassert-
inginteractiveuse(withoutthecommand-lineeditor)andnobufferingofstdout.
--verbose
Printmoreinformationaboutprogress,andinparticularsetR’soptionverboseto
TRUE. Rcodeusesthisoptiontocontroltheprintingofdiagnosticmessages.
--debugger=name
-dname
(UNIXonly)RunRthroughdebuggername.Formostdebuggers(theexceptionsare
valgrindandrecentversionsofgdb),furthercommandlineoptionsaredisregarded,
andshouldinsteadbegivenwhenstartingtheRexecutablefrominsidethedebugger.
--gui=type
-gtype
(UNIXonly)Usetype asgraphicaluserinterface(notethatthisalsoincludesin-
teractivegraphics). Currently,possiblevaluesfortype are‘X11’(thedefault)and,
1
2.5Gb onversionsofWindowsthatsupport3Gbperprocessandhavethesupportenabled: : seetherw-FAQ
Q2.9;3.5Gbonmost64-bitversionsofWindows.
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AppendixB:InvokingR
88
providedthat‘Tcl/Tk’supportisavailable,‘Tk’. (Forback-compatibility,‘x11’and
‘tk’areaccepted.)
--arch=name
(UNIXonly)Runthespecifiedsub-architecture.
--args
This flagdoes nothing exceptcause the restofthecommandline to be skipped:
thiscanbeusefultoretrievevaluesfromitwithcommandArgs(TRUE).
Notethatinputandoutputcanberedirectedintheusualway(using‘<’and‘>’),butthe
linelengthlimitof4095bytes stillapplies. . Warninganderrormessages s aresenttotheerror
channel(stderr).
The commandRCMD allows theinvocationofvarioustoolswhichareusefulinconjunction
withR,butnotintendedtobecalled“directly”.Thegeneralformis
R CMD D command args
wherecommandisthenameofthetoolandargstheargumentspassedontoit.
Currently,thefollowingtoolsareavailable.
BATCH
RunRinbatchmode.RunsR--restore--savewithpossiblyfurtheroptions(see
?BATCH).
COMPILE
(UNIXonly)CompileC,C++,Fortran... filesforusewithR.
SHLIB
Buildsharedlibraryfordynamicloading.
INSTALL
Installadd-onpackages.
REMOVE
Removeadd-onpackages.
build
Build(thatis,package)add-onpackages.
check
Checkadd-onpackages.
LINK
(UNIXonly)Front-endforcreatingexecutableprograms.
Rprof
Post-processRprofilingfiles.
Rdconv
Rd2txt
ConvertRdformat tovarious other formats, , including
HTML
, LAT
E
X, plaintext,
andextractingtheexamples.Rd2txtcanbeusedasshorthandforRd2conv-ttxt.
Rd2pdf
ConvertRdformattoPDF.
Stangle
ExtractS/RcodefromSweaveorothervignettedocumentation
Sweave
ProcessSweaveorothervignettedocumentation
Rdiff
DiffRoutputignoringheadersetc
config
Obtainconfigurationinformation
javareconf
(Unixonly)UpdatetheJavaconfigurationvariables
rtags
(Unixonly)CreateEmacs-styletagfilesfromC,R,andRdfiles
open
(Windowsonly)OpenafileviaWindows’fileassociations
texify
(Windowsonly)Process(La)TeXfileswithR’sstylefiles
Use
R CMD D command --help
toobtainusageinformationforeachofthetoolsaccessibleviatheRCMDinterface.
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AppendixB:InvokingR
89
In addition, you can use options --arch=, --no-environ, --no-init-file, --no-site-
fileand--vanillabetweenRandCMD: theseaffectanyRprocessesrunbythetools. (Here
--vanilla isequivalentto--no-environ--no-site-file--no-init-file.) ) However,note
thatRCMDdoesnotofitselfuseanyRstartupfiles(inparticular,neitherusernorsiteRenviron
files),andallofthe Rprocesses runbythesetools (except BATCH)use--no-restore. . Most
use--vanillaandsoinvokenoRstartupfiles: thecurrentexceptionsare e INSTALL,REMOVE,
SweaveandSHLIB(whichuses--no-site-file--no-init-file).
R CMD D cmd d args
foranyotherexecutablecmdonthepathorgivenbyanabsolutefilepath:thisisusefultohave
the sameenvironment as R or the specific commands rununder,for example to run ldd or
pdflatex. UnderWindowscmdcanbeanexecutableorabatchfile,orifithasextension.sh
or.pltheappropriateinterpreter(ifavailable)iscalledtorunit.
B.2 InvokingRunderWindows
TherearetwowaystorunRunderWindows.Withinaterminalwindow(e.g.cmd.exeoramore
capableshell),themethodsdescribedintheprevioussectionmaybeused,invokingby R.exe
ormoredirectlybyRterm.exe. Forinteractiveuse,thereisaconsole-basedGUI(Rgui.exe).
The startupprocedureunderWindows isverysimilar tothatunderUNIX,butreferences
tothe‘homedirectory’needtobe clarified,asthisis notalways definedonWindows. . Ifthe
environmentvariableR_USERisdefined,thatgivesthehomedirectory.Next,iftheenvironment
variableHOMEisdefined,thatgivesthehomedirectory.Afterthosetwouser-controllablesettings,
R tries tofindsystem m definedhome directories. . It t first triestouse the Windows "personal"
directory(typicallyC:\DocumentsandSettings\username\MyDocumentsinWindowsXP).If
thatfails,andenvironmentvariablesHOMEDRIVEandHOMEPATHaredefined(andtheynormally
are) thesedefinethehome directory. . Failing g allthose,thehome directoryis takentobethe
startingdirectory.
Youneedtoensurethat eithertheenvironmentvariables TMPDIR,TMPandTEMPareeither
unsetoroneofthempointstoavalidplacetocreatetemporaryfilesanddirectories.
Environmentvariablescanbesuppliedas‘name=value’pairsonthecommandline.
If there is s an argument t ending .RData a (in any y case) it t is s interpreted d as s the path h to the
workspacetoberestored: itimplies--restoreandsetstheworkingdirectorytotheparentof
thenamedfile. (Thismechanismisusedfordrag-and-dropandfileassociationwithRGui.exe,
butalsoworksforRterm.exe. Ifthenamedfiledoesnotexistitsets s theworkingdirectoryif
theparentdirectoryexists.)
Thefollowingadditionalcommand-lineoptionsareavailablewheninvokingRGui.exe.
--mdi
--sdi
--no-mdi ControlwhetherRguiwilloperateasanMDIprogram(withmultiplechildwindows
withinonemainwindow)oranSDIapplication(withmultipletop-levelwindowsfor
theconsole,graphicsandpager).Thecommand-linesettingoverridesthesettingin
theuser’sRconsolefile.
--debug
Enable the “Break todebugger”menuitem in Rgui, andtrigger r abreak k tothe
debuggerduringcommandlineprocessing.
Under WindowswithRCMDyoumayalsospecifyyourown.bat,.exe,.shor.plfile. . It
willberunundertheappropriateinterpreter(Perlfor.pl)withseveralenvironmentvariables
setappropriately,includingR_HOME,R_OSTYPE,PATH,BSTINPUTSandTEXINPUTS. Forexample,
ifyoualreadyhavelatex.exeonyourpath,then
R CMD D latex.exe e mydoc
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AppendixB:InvokingR
90
willrunLAT
E
Xonmydoc.tex,withthepathtoR’sshare/texmfmacrosappendedtoTEXINPUTS.
(Unfortunately,this doesnot helpwiththeMiKTeXbuildofL
A
T
E
X,but RCMDtexifymydoc
willworkinthatcase.)
B.3 InvokingRunderOSX
TherearetwowaystorunRunderOSX.WithinaTerminal.appwindowbyinvokingR,the
methodsdescribedinthefirstsubsectionapply.Thereisalsoconsole-basedGUI(R.app)thatby
defaultisinstalledintheApplicationsfolderonyoursystem.Itisastandarddouble-clickable
OSXapplication.
ThestartupprocedureunderOSXisverysimilartothatunderUNIX,butR.appdoesnot
makeuseofcommand-linearguments.The‘homedirectory’istheoneinsidetheR.framework,
but the startup p andcurrent t working directory are set as the user’s home directory unless a
differentstartupdirectoryisgiveninthePreferenceswindowaccessiblefromwithintheGUI.
B.4 ScriptingwithR
Ifyoujustwanttorunafilefoo.RofRcommands,therecommendedwayistouseRCMDBATCH
foo.R. IfyouwanttorunthisinthebackgroundorasabatchjobuseOS-specificfacilitiesto
doso: forexampleinmostshellsonUnix-alikeOSesRCMDBATCHfoo.R&runsabackground
job.
You can pass parameters s to scripts s via a additional arguments s on the command line: : for
example(wheretheexactquotingneededwilldependontheshellinuse)
R CMD D BATCH "--args arg1 arg2" foo.R &
willpassargumentstoascriptwhichcanberetrievedasacharactervectorby
args <- - commandArgs(TRUE)
Thisismadesimplerbythealternativefront-endRscript,whichcanbeinvokedby
Rscript foo.R arg1 arg2
andthis canalsobe usedtowriteexecutable scriptfileslike(at least onUnix-alikes, , andin
someWindowsshells)
#! /path/to/Rscript
args <- - commandArgs(TRUE)
...
q(status=<exit status code>)
Ifthisisenteredintoatextfilerunfooandthisismadeexecutable(bychmod755runfoo),it
canbeinvokedfordifferentargumentsby
runfoo arg1 arg2
Forfurther options see help("Rscript"). . This s writes R outputtostdout andstderr,and
thiscanberedirectedintheusualwayfortheshellrunningthecommand.
If youdonot wish to hardcode the pathto Rscript but have it in your path (which is
normallythecaseforaninstalledRexceptonWindows,bute.g.OSXusersmayneedtoadd
/usr/local/bintotheirpath),use
#! /usr/bin/env v Rscript
...
AtleastinBourneandbashshells,the#!mechanismdoesnotallowextraargumentslike#!
/usr/bin/envRscript--vanilla.
Onethingtoconsideriswhatstdin()refersto. ItiscommonplacetowriteRscriptswith
segmentslike
chem <- - scan(n=24)
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2.90 3.10 3.40 0 3.40 3.70 3.70 2.80 0 2.50 0 2.40 2.40 2.70 2.20
5.28 3.37 3.03 3 3.03 28.95 3.77 3.40 2.20 3.50 0 3.60 0 3.70 3.70
andstdin()referstothescriptfiletoallowsuchtraditionalusage. Ifyouwanttorefertothe
process’sstdin,use"stdin"asafileconnection,e.g.scan("stdin",...).
Anotherwaytowriteexecutablescriptfiles(suggestedbyFran¸coisPinard)istouseahere
document like
#!/bin/sh
[environment variables s can n be e set here]
R --slave [other r options] <<EOF
R program goes s here...
EOF
butherestdin()referstotheprogramsourceand"stdin"willnotbeusable.
ShortscriptscanbepassedtoRscriptonthecommand-lineviathe-eflag.(Emptyscripts
arenotaccepted.)
NotethatonaUnix-aliketheinputfilename(suchasfoo.R)shouldnotcontainspacesnor
shellmetacharacters.
92
AppendixC Thecommand-lineeditor
C.1 Preliminaries
When the
GNU
readline library is s available e at t the e time R is s configured for compilationun-
derUNIX,aninbuiltcommandlineeditorallowingrecall, editingandre-submissionofprior
commands isused. . Notethatother r versionsofreadline existandmaybeusedbytheinbuilt
commandlineeditor:thisusedtohappenonOSX.
Itcanbedisabled(usefulforusagewith
ESS
1
)usingthestartupoption--no-readline.
WindowsversionsofRhavesomewhatsimplercommand-lineediting:see‘Console’underthe
‘Help’menuofthe
GUI
,andthefileREADME.Rtermforcommand-lineeditingunderRterm.exe.
WhenusingRwithreadlinecapabilities,thefunctionsdescribedbelowareavailable,aswell
asothers(probably)documentedinmanreadlineorinforeadlineonyoursystem.
ManyoftheseuseeitherControlorMetacharacters. Controlcharacters,suchasControl-m,
areobtainedbyholdingtheCTRLdownwhileyoupressthemkey,andarewrittenasC-mbelow.
Metacharacters,suchasMeta-b,aretypedbyholdingdownMETA
2
andpressingb,andwritten
asM-binthefollowing. IfyourterminaldoesnothaveaMETAkeyenabled,youcanstilltype
Metacharactersusingtwo-charactersequencesstartingwithESC. Thus,toenterM-b,youcould
typeESCb. TheESCcharactersequencesarealsoallowedonterminalswithrealMetakeys.Note
thatcaseissignificantforMetacharacters.
C.2 Editingactions
TheRprogramkeepsahistoryofthecommandlinesyoutype,includingtheerroneouslines,
andcommandsinyourhistorymayberecalled,changedifnecessary,andre-submittedasnew
commands. In n Emacs-style e command-line editing any straight typing you u do while in n this
editingphasecausesthecharacters tobeinsertedinthecommandyouareediting,displacing
anycharacterstotherightofthecursor.InvimodecharacterinsertionmodeisstartedbyM-i
orM-a,charactersaretypedandinsertionmodeisfinishedbytypingafurtherESC.(Thedefault
isEmacs-style,andonlythatisdescribedhere: forvi modeseethereadlinedocumentation.)
PressingtheRETcommandatanytimecausesthecommandtobere-submitted.
Othereditingactionsaresummarizedinthefollowingtable.
C.3 Command-lineeditorsummary
Commandrecallandverticalmotion
C-p
Gotothepreviouscommand(backwardsinthehistory).
C-n
Gotothenextcommand(forwardsinthehistory).
C-rtext
Findthelastcommandwiththetextstringinit.
Onmostterminals,youcanalsouse theupanddownarrowkeys insteadofC-p andC-n,
respectively.
1
The‘EmacsSpeaksStatistics’package;seethe
URL
http://ESS.R-project.org
2
OnaPCkeyboardthisisusuallytheAltkey,occasionallythe‘Windows’key. OnaMackeyboardnormally
nometakeyisavailable.
AppendixC:Thecommand-lineeditor
93
Horizontalmotionofthecursor
C-a
Gotothebeginningofthecommand.
C-e
Gototheendoftheline.
M-b
Gobackoneword.
M-f
Goforwardoneword.
C-b
Gobackonecharacter.
C-f
Goforwardonecharacter.
Onmostterminals,youcanalsousetheleftandright arrowkeysinsteadofC-bandC-f,
respectively.
Editingandre-submission
text
Inserttextatthecursor.
C-ftext
Appendtextafterthecursor.
DEL
Deletethepreviouscharacter(leftofthecursor).
C-d
Deletethecharacterunderthecursor.
M-d
Deletetherestofthewordunderthecursor,and“save”it.
C-k
Deletefromcursortoendofcommand,and“save”it.
C-y
Insert(yank)thelast“saved”texthere.
C-t
Transposethecharacterunderthecursorwiththenext.
M-l
Changetherestofthewordtolowercase.
M-c
Changetherestofthewordtouppercase.
RET
Re-submitthecommandtoR.
ThefinalRETterminatesthecommandlineeditingsequence.
Thereadlinekeybindingscanbecustomizedintheusualwayviaa~/.inputrcfile.These
customizationscanbeconditionedonapplicationR,thatisbyincludingasectionlike
$if R
"\C-xd": "q(’no’)\n"
$endif
94
AppendixD Functionandvariableindex
!
!::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::9
!=:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::9
%
%*%:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 22
%o%:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 21
&
&::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::9
&&::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::40
*
*::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::8
+
+::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::8
-::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::8
.
.:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::55
.First::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 48
.Last:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 48
/
/::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::8
:
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::8
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::78
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 78
<
<::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::9
<<-:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 47
<=:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::9
=
==:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::9
>
>::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::9
>=:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::9
?
?::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::4
??:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::4
^
^::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::8
j
|::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::9
||::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::40
~
~:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::52
A
abline:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::66
ace:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 61
add1::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 56
anova:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::54,55
aov:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 55
aperm::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::21
array::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::20
as.data.frame:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::27
as.vector::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::24
attach:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::28
attr::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 14
attributes:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 14
avas::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 61
axis::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 67
B
boxplot::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::37
break::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::41
bruto::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::61
C
c:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::7,10,24,27
cbind::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::24
coef::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 54
coefficients::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::54
contour::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::65
contrasts::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::53
coplot:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::64
cos::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::8
crossprod::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::19,22
cut:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 25
C:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::53
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